volvarina capensis investments

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Volvarina capensis investments

Oliva paxillus, Reeve: Conch. Oliva picta, Reeve. Reeve : Conch. Oliva dactyliola, Duclos. Oliva dactyliola, Duclos : Sowerby, Proc. Oliva nana, Lamarck. Oliva nana, Lamarck: Tryon, Man. Ancilla Montkouzieri, Souverbie. Ancilla hasta Martens. Anc Maria hasta, Martens: Sitzungsb. Freunde Berlin, , p.

Ancilla osculata, Sowerby. Ancilla osculata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac Soe. Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck. Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Marginella Algoensis, Smith. Marginella Algoensis, Smith: Journ. Marginella lineato-labrum, Gaskoin. Marginella lineato-labrum, Gaskoin : Sowerby, Proc. Marginella punctilineata, Smith. Marginella punctilineata, Smith: Journ. Africa Marrat, Quart, Journ. Both are quoted by Marrat as West African. Marginella fusifokmis, Hinds.

Marginella Newcombi, Reeve. Marginella puella Gould. Volvarina puellayGovAH: Proc. Eoston Soc. This species is probably the same as M. Capensis, Dunker. Marginella sehinula, Gould. Marginella seminula, Gould: Otia Conch. Marginella cystiscus, Redfielcl. Marginella cystiscus, Redfielcl : Tryon, Man. Cystiscus Capensis, Stimpson: Ainer. Marginella fallax, n. Testa alba, ovata, supra acuminata ; spira conica, ad apicein obtusa ; anfractus 4, primus convexus, sequentes duo leviter concavi, infra suturam pellueido-inarginati, ultiinus convexiusculus, antice angus- tatus ; labrum fere rectum, inllexum, intus tenuissime liratum, ad marginem acutum ; columella quinque-plicata, plica suprema minima, vix conspicua.

This species has been confounded with Voluta Fustvoluta pyrrhostoma Watson. Voluta Fusivoluta pyrrhostoma, Watson : Martens, Sitzungsb. Voluta Alcithoe Ponsonbyi, Smith. Voluta Lyria Queketti, Smith. Voluta Lyria Queketti, Smith : Proc. Lyria mitrceformis, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Africa Tryon. Volutilithes abyssicola, Ad. Woodward, Proc. Volutilithes Gilehristi, Sowerby: Marine Invest.

Neptunkopsis Gilckristi, Sowerby. Africa, vol. Mitra episco palis Linn. Mitra episeopalis, Linn. Mitra flammigera, Reeve. Mitra fiammiaera 9 Reeve: Conch. Mitra liubifera, Lamarck. Mitra limhifera, Lamarck: Sowerby, Jonrn. Mitra puxctostriata, A. Mitra punctostriata, A Adams: Proc. Mitra pica, Reeve. Mitra pica.

Mitra patula, Reeve. Mitra Cymxdra crkxulata, Lamarck. Mitra crennlata, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Mitra Kowieexsis, Sowerby. Mitra Kowi nsis, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra euzonata, Sowerby. Mitra euzonata, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra canaliculate, Sowerby. Mitra bathyraphe, Sowerby. Mitra bathyraphe, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra obeliscus, Reeve. Mitra obeliscus, Reeve : Conch. Mitra alauda, Sowerby.

Mitra alauda, Sowerby: Thes. Fusus ocelliferus, Boiy tie St. CiA Fusus ocelliferus, Bory de St. This species is very variable in form, some specimens being much more elongate than others, and much less angulated at the shoulder of the body-whorl. In the series of specimens examined all the connecting links are present. Fusus radialis, Watson. Fusus radialis, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped. Fusus toreuma Martyn. Buccinum toreuma, Martyn : Univ. Fusus toreuma, Martyn : Reeve, Conch.

The single example from Natal is exceptionally slender, with the whorls less acutely angled at the middle. This results from two of the spiral ridges at this part being of equal size. The nodules upon the body-whorl are also produced below into more distinct costa3 than usual. Fusus subcoxtractus, Sowerby. Fusus sub contractus, Sowerby : Murine Invest.

Fuses Africanus Sowerby. The type of this species which is in the Museum collection is a young half-grown shell in poor condition, and the figure of it conveys but a slight idea of the adult shell. A curious feature is the columellar callus being detached from the whorl at the lower part, forming an umbilical rimation.

A similar detaching of the callus also occurs in the following species, Fusus Adamsii of Kobelt. The position of the present species is uncertain, the animal being unknown, but the prolonged canal seems to recall the genus Fusus. Another specimen of F. Africanus received recently is 78 mm. This consists of two smooth globose whorls forming a papillose apex. Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt.

Fusus t'rntricosus. Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt: Conch. The name vent r it ms, having already been employed in the genus, was changed by Kobelt to Adamsii. Fasciolaria Hetnemanni, Dunker. Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Their protoconch also is smaller. The Fasciolaria purpurea of Jonas is net, as stated by Sowerby, the same as the present species. Its distinguishing feature- have already been pointed out by Kobelt. Latirus abnormis, Sowerby. Latirus abnormis, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. In the figure of this species Marine Shells S.

Sowerby in his description, is not indicated. Although not very conspicuous in some specimens they are generally more or less observable. The umbilicus is much more open in some examples than in others. The largest specimen examined, when perfect, probably measured as much as 75 mm. A comparison of a series of specimens in good condition with the type of L.

Latirus polygonus, var. Turbinella polygona Gmelin : Reeve, Conch. The single example obtained differs from the typical form in having the body-whorl more prolonged anteriorly, and in the absence of the angulation at the middle of the body- whorl and in the less pronounced character of the longitudinal costation.

The coloration is practically the same. Latirus alboapicatus, Smith. Latirus alboapicata, Smith: Journ. Peristernia leucothea, Melviil. Manchester Lit. Soc, ser. Euthria ebarnea, Sowerby: Proc. The Euthria ebumea the type of which is in the British Museum was founded upon very much worn and bleached specimens of this species. So worn are the shells that the columellar folds are almost obliterated. MelvilFs figure does not well represent the species, which, moreover, is not always white, some specimens being stained with orange or rich brown below the suture and between the costae, with a colour-band round the middle of the body- whorl and another a little below it.

The aperture and columella may be purplish or purplish brown, and the three columellar plicae are distinct in some examples, whilst in others only one or two are present. Smith : Journ. A specimen recently submitted to me from Port Shepstone Burnup , and which Mr.

Sowerby has identified as belonging to his species, may be thus described. It differs from the type in having ten or eleven nodosities at the angle of the body-whorl, and the protuberances upon the upper whorls produce a wavy sutural line. The body-whorl also exhibits four or five rather indistinct somewhat nodose, transverse, raised, broad, rounded ridgvs. The aperture is white within, the outer lip being much thickened, slightly expanded anteriorly, blotched with brown within the margin, with a strong tubercular prominence within at the hinder end.

The columella is covered with a thick brown-stained callus, which is broadly refiexed and appressed over the umbilical rimation, and thickened into a white prominence posteriorly a little distance above the plicae. The upper two of these are about equal in size, the next one is rather smaller, and the foremost one still less conspicuous. Beneath the thick deciduous periostracum, which exhibits distinct lines of growth and has a silky appearance in certain lights, the shell is for the most part stained with brown, but where the surface is worn it is white.

Since writing the above I have, through the kindness of Professor Poulton, had an opportunity of examining the type in the Oxford It is an immature shell, hence the undeveloped outer Mr. Sowcrby's figure is far from accurate, the anterior part of the shell being represented much too broad, and the body-whorl above the columellar folds is too convex.

The four or five rather indistinct and nodose transverse ridges on the body-whorl are just traceable in the type, and the suture of the spire is also wavy. The spire is a little flatter than in the present specimen, and the front foL! Vasum turhinellus Linn. Voluia turbinellm. Melwpiura datum, Schub. Tritonidea insculpta, Sowerby. Tritonidea insculpta, Sowerby: Proc. Tritonidea carinifera Kuster. Buccinum cariniferitm, Kuster: Conch. Cantharus cariniferuz, Kuster: Tryon, Man.

Tritonidea Natalensis, Smith: Journ. Ill, pl. Euthria Capensis Dunker. Fusus Capensis, Dunker: in Philippi's Abbild. Cantharus Capensis, Dunker: Tryon, Man. Magellani, Velain , may prove synonymous with this species. Euthria lacertina, Gould. Euthria Filmerje, Sowerby. Euthria FilmercB, Sowerby: Proc. Euthria Queketti, Smith. Euthria Queketti, Smith: Journ. Cominella Dunkeri Kuster. Euthria lineolata, Dunker : Sowerby, I. Sowerby appears to have overlooked the fact that only a single species was described under the above names, the latter merely having been altered to Dunkeri because it had already been employed by Lamarck for a species of Fusus, in which genus Dunker also placed his species.

It may be the young of C. Cominella prolong ata, Smith: Journ. Cominella biserialis Kiister. Buccinum bisertale, Kiister: Conch. Africa Bluster , Enoina astricta Reeve. Hi, pi. Engina perlata Kiister. Buccinum perlatum, Kiister: Conch. Can t hunts perlatus, Kiister: Try on, Conch.

Engina Natalmsis, Melvill : Proc. Pisania crenilabrum, A. Pisania Jfoufrouzieri, Crosse: Journ. The locality West Indies given by Adams is probably a mistake. In adopting the name given to this species by Crosse, I presume Mr. Sowerby was misled by Try on' s observation that it had priority Man. Phos laevigatas, A. Adams: Proc Zool. Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby. Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby: Marine Invest.

Eburna papillaris, Sowerby. Eburna papillaris, Sowerby : Reeve, Conch. Quekett differs from the type in having only a few scattered dots and some large oblique dark brown niaeu- lations below the suture. The umbilicus is open, the columellar callus being only partly developed, and the fiUed-up portion of the anterior canal is white, without the curved lines which are usually present.

Sowerby gives some further remarks on the shell and perio- stracum, together with a figure of the animal. Nassa eusulcata, Sowerbv. Nassa eusulcata, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Nassa Filmer-e, Sowerby. Nassa Filmera, Sowerby : Proc. Nassa gemmulata, Lamarck. Nassa gemmulata, Lamarck : R,eeve, Conch. Sab, — Durban; Philippines Reeve. Nassa filosa, Gray. Nassa filosa, Gray: Reeve, Conch.

Nassa Natalensis, n. Nassa Sturmi'i, Reeve not of Philippi : Conch. Reeve describes the columella as "but little callous. Mature shells exhibit a well-developed reflexed yellowish callus, which may be sometimes -ruooth or more or less tubercular. A small transverse tubercle is always seen at the upper part. The outer lip is thickened with a strong varix, is acute at the edge, and is furnished within with about nine short lirae.

One of the two specimens from Natal presented to the Museum by Mr. Ponsonby is of a rich brown colour, with a white line above the middle of the body- whorl and passing up the spire above the suture. Nassa gaudiosa, Hinds. Nassa gaudiosa, Hands : Reeve, Conch. Nassa margaritifera Dunker. Buecinum margaritiferum, Dunker: Philippi, Abbild. Nassa costelUfera, A. Adams : Reeve, Conch. Nassa lextiginosa, A. Nassa lentiginosa, A. Nasm incuassata, Muller. Nassa spurca, Gould.

Nassa spurca, Gould: Otia, p. Nassa quantula, Gould. Nassa quantula, Gould: Otia, p. A figure of the animal is given at the above reference. Bullia l2evissima Gmelin. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray : lleeve, Conch. GeselL, , p. Columbella varians, Sowerby. Columbella varians, Sowerby: Thes. Columbella Kraussii, Sowerby Columbella Beckeri, Sowerby.

Columbella Becker i, Sowerby: Proc. Columbella Filmercc, Sowerby: Proc. Columbella atrata, Gould. Columbella regulus, Souverbie: op. A widely distributed species occurring both in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Columbella Anachis leptalea, Smith: Journ.

Columbella Burnupi, Smith. Columbella mitriformis A. Zafra mitriformis, A. Adams: Ann. Daphiella mitraeformis, A. Columbella Lightfooti, Smith. Columbella Asiyris Lightfooti y Smith: Journ. Columbella apicata, Smith. Columbella Ndidella apicata, Smith: Journ. Conus Dupontii, Kiener : Coq. Meta Dupontice, Kiener : Reeve, Conch.

Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby. Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby: Proc. Murex fallax, Smith. Murex fallax, Smith : Journ. Murex BanJc8ii, Sowerby: Conch. The specimen from Durban is larger than any of the figured examples, having a length of 85 mm. Buccinum contractum, Reeve: Conch.

Ilab, — Durban Burnup ; Philippines, etc. Latiaxis rosaceus, n. Latiaxis nodosa, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Africa, p. Testa fusiformis, rimata, rosacea, spiraliter confertim squamose lirata et longitudinaliter plicata ; anfractus , in medio angulati, supra declives, infra contracti, ultimus antice valde angustatus, in caudam brevem recurvam productus; apertura angulatim piriformis, cum canali longit.

This species is uniformly rose coloured within and without, whereas L. Adams, is dirty whitish. In the latter species the angulation of the whorls is rather more acute ;md rather lower down, or in other words less central. The body-whorl also is more suddenly contracted below the periphery than in the present species, and the umbilical fissure is rather broader.

The longitudinal costse or plies are more conspicuous in the upper whorls than in the last. The species, judging from the shell alone, might with equal propriety be placed in the genus CoraMiophila. Rapana bulbosa Solander.

Pyrula bulbosa, Solauder : Reeve, Conch. Purpura squamosa, Lamarck. The young of this species was described by Blainville Nouv. Paris, vol. Testa par va, alba, in apertura rufescens, fusiformi-ovata, spiraliter punctato-striata, et costis spiralibus ad angulum anfraetuum nodosis instructa ; anfractus circiter 6, supra concave declives, in modi - nodose augulati, ultimus costis quatuor quarum duo superiores nodosi sunt cingulatus; apertura liris novem albis gracilibus, hand marginem labri produetis, armata ; labrum album, tenue; columella parum arcuata, callo albo laevi antice reflexo induta, superne tuberculo parvo inonuspicuo instructa.

In addition to the punctate striae which cover the entire shell, the surface exhibits irregular and somewhat broken up, but distinct lines of growth. One specimen exhibits five interrupted brown lines, one below the suture and one upon each of the four spirals of the body-whorl. Sistrum asperom Lamarck. Ricinula asperum, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch.

Sistrum marginatrum Blainville. Sistrum marginatrum, Blainville : Tryon, Man. Sistrum morus Lamarck. Ricinula mor us, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Sistrum ricinus Linn. Ides, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Sistrum arachnoides, Lamk. The older name ricinus should be used for this species.

Sistrum squamosum, Pease, var. Sistrum squamiliratum, n. Testa ovato-fusiformis, turrita, albida ; anfractus 9, superiores tres laeves, convexi, cseteri in medio angulati, costis vel plicis circiter 8 ad angulum acute productis instructi, liris spiralibus squamatis ornati, ultimus infra angulum liris circiter 14 quarum quam aliis majores instructus ; apertura rosea, angusta, longit.

Goralliophila rubrococcinea, Mel v. Soc , , vol. The pinkish red colour alone is sufficient to distinguish them. Care, however, must be taken not to confound them with Latiaxis rosaceus, which is somewhat similarly tinted but different in form. Lotorium Durbanense, Smith. Lotorium Durbanense, Smith: Journ. Lotorium encausticum Reeve. Triton encamtieus, Reeve: Conch.

Lotorium nassariforme, Sowerhy. Lotorium nassariforme, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Lotorium ranelloides Reeve. Triton ranelloides, Reeve: Conch. Lotorium obscurum A. Triton oh sour us, A. Africa A. Lotorium tritonis Linn. Triton variegatus, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Lotorium Priene Murrayi Smith. Lotorium Distortrix cancellinum Roissy , var. Epidronius bracteatiis, Hinds: Sowerby, Proc. IIvnella anceps, Lamarck. Cassis nodulosa Gmelin , var. Cassis torquata, Reeve: Conch.

Dolium costatum, Menke. Dolium costatum, Menke : Synopsis, 2nd ed. Dolium costatum, Menke : Deshayes, Aniin. Dolium Dunkeri, Hanley. Dolium Dunkeri, Hanley: Proc. Dolium perdix Linn. Dolium perdix, Linn. Dolium variegatum, Lamarck. Dolium variegatum, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch.

Amphiperas Beckeri, Sowerby. Amphiperas Beckeri, Sowerby: Proc. Radius gracillimus, Smith. Radius gracillimus, Smith : Journ. Off Durban, 40 fathoms Quekett. Cgprcea minor idem, Melvill: Journ. Cypraa fimbriata, partirn, Sowerby : Thes. Less pyriform than Jimbriata, and without the dark dots at the sides of the base. Cyprjea stolida, Linn. Erato guttula, Sowerby. Erato guttula, Sowerby : Conch. Erato guttata, Sowerby : Thes.

Strombus Lamauckii, Gray. Strombus Lamarckii, Gray : Sowerby, Thes. Strombus lentiginosus, Linn. Strombus lentiginosus, Linn, : Reeve, Conch. Cerithium ccerideum, Sowerby : Thes. Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby. Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby : Thes. Cerithium dialeucum, Philippi. Cerithium dialeucum y Philippi : Sowerby, Conch.

Cerithium rugosum, Wood. Cerithium rugosum, Wood : Sowerby, Conch. Cerithium albovaricosum, Smith. Cerithium albovaricosum, Smith: Zool. Alert, p. Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith. Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith: Journ. Cerithium zebrum, Eiener. Cerithium zebrum, Kiener : Kobelt, Conch. Cerithium defectum, Sowerby : in Reeve's Conch.

Tryon ; Savage L, Oceania Brit. This species is very variable in colour. Sometimes it is entirely white or purplish pink. Other specimens are white with an interrupted brown liue a little below the suture and a second on the lower part of the smith: list of south African marine mollusca.

The latter is sometimes absent, as in one of the two Natal specimens now examined. The second example is totally white. Cerithium egenum, Gould. Cerithium egenum, Gould: Otia Conch. Gould ; Solomon Is. Testa minima, elongata, pupoidea, ad apicem acuminata, fusca, tuberculis flavidis ornata ; anfractus circiter 11, leviter convexiusculi, oblique plicati, et liris spiralibus in anfractu penultimo 4, in ultimo supra plicas granosis instructi, ultimus ad latus sinistrum varice pallido vix elato compositus ; apertura oblique ovalis, saturate fusca ; columella arcuata, callo tenui fusco induta ; canalis brevissimus, obliquus.

The three or four lirae around the lower half of the body -whorl are simple, and not granular like those above. Cerithidea Natalensis Kobelt. Cerithiopsis neglecta C. Cerithium neglectum y C. Adams : Panama Shells, p. Cerithiopsis negleeta C. Adams : Smith, Proc. Helena Smith ; Panama Adams. Planaxis lixeatus Da Costa. Planaxis lineatus, Da Costa : Sowerby, Conch. No notice should be taken of the grotesque lumping of species given in Tryon's Man.

Thylacodes Natalexsis, Morch. Manual, , p. Conch , vol. LirrisTES cornu Gnielin. Argonauta cornu, Gmelin : Syst Nat. Separatist a Grain, A. Turritella Ivowiensis, Sowerby. Tarritella Kowiensis, Sowerby: Proc. Turkitella puncticulata, Sowerby. Turrit clla puncticulata, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Tarritella punctulata, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Francis Bay, fathoms Sowerby. Littorina pintado, AVood. Zittor in a pintado, Wood: Reeve, Conch. The shells quoted by Mr. Sowerby as L.

Littorina LiEvis, Philippi. Fossarus pusillus, Gould. Fossariix ptmllus, Gould : Tryon, Man. Hi, fig. Hab — Umkomaas Burnup ; Liberia Gould. Fossarus Capensis, Pilsbry. Fossarus Cajx'tisis, Pilshry: Proc. Hah — In ballast from South Africa.

Solakium CJ catum, Hinds. Solarium c latum, Hinds: Sowerby, Proc. Solarium trochoides, Deshayes. Solarium trochoides, Deshayes: Hanley in Sowerby's Thes. Rjssoia Crawfordi, Smith. Rissoia Craivfordi, Smith : Journ. Rissoina Irivadia annulata Dunker. Rissoina annulata, Dunker: Moll. Rissoina trochlearis, Gould: Otia, p. Rissoina crassa, Angas. Some of the South African specimens are more distinctly spirally striated than others and also than the types from Port Jackson.

The groove or excavation around the base of the body-whorl is also deeper and more evident than in the Australian shell. Rissoina ambigua Gould. JPyramidella ambigua, Gould: Proc. Rissoa ambigua, Gould: U. Rissoina ambigua, Gould : Weinkauff, Conch. Gould ; China seas Mus. I do not consider the shell figured by Schwartz von Mohrenstern Rissoiden, pi. The spiral striae are most conspicuous around the base of the body- whorl, as shown in Gould's figure. Adams Schwartz, I.

Assiminea Umlaasiana, Smith. Assiminea Umlaasiana, Smith: Journ. Fenella cerithina Philippi. Rissoa cerithina, Philippi: Zeitsch. Fenella fulgida, A. Adams : MS. Adams: Trans. Adams: [ubi? It is quite uncertain at present which author's name is to be given to the name fulgida as representing the Natal shell.

Fenella Natalensis, Smith. Fenella Natalensis, Smith : Joum. Astrolabe, vol. Trochita solida, Reeve : Conch. Hipponyx barbatus, Sowerby. Vanikoro striata D'Orbigny. Narica striata, D'Orbigny : Recluz, Mag. Vanikoro ligata Recluz. Vanikoro ligata, Recluz: Sowerby, Proc. Vanikoro Gueriniana Recluz. Vanikoro Gueriniana, Recluz : Sowerby, Proc. Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh. Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh : Smith, Journ. Natica Krattssi, Smith. Natica Sraussi, Smith: Journ.

Natica psila, Watson. Natica psila, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped. Natica Polinicks Burnupi, n. Testa parva, ovata, obtecte perforata, crassiuscula, fusco-cinerea vel rufescens ; anfractus 5, convexi, superiores parvi, nltimus magnus, antice oblique descendens, oblique striatus ; apertura parva, serui- circularis, intus fuscescens ; columella obliqua, recta, callo crasso albo reflexo instructa.

Larger specimens are 17 mm. Ianthina nitens, Menke. Ianthina nitens, Menke: Reeve, Conch. Ianthina balteata, Reeve. Ianthina balteata, Reeve : Conch. Scala Robillardi Sowerby. Scalaria Robillardi, Sowerby: Proc. Scala aculeata Sowerby. Scalaria aculeata, Sowerby : Thes. Scala millecostata Pease. Scalaria millecostata, Pease: Smith, Journ. Eulima translucida, Smith. Eulima translucida, Smith: Journ. Eulima Algoensis, Smith. Eulima Algoensis, Smith: Journ. Eulima dileeta, Smith: Journ.

Eulima munda, Smith. JEulima munda, Smith: Journ. Sab, — Uinkomaas Burn up. The specimens referred by Mr. Sowerby to E. Atlaniica do not belong to that species. Eulima Natalensis, Smith. Eulima Natalemis, Smith : Journ. Niso balteata, Sowerby. Niso balteata, Sowerby: Proc. Odostomia chitonicola, Smith. Odostomia chit oni cola, Smith: Journ. Odostomia Lavertince, Smith: Journ. Odostomia Pyrgulina robusta, Sowerby. Odostomia Pyrgulina robusta, Sowerby : Proc. Turbonilla Candida A.

Chemnitzia Candida, A. Adams : Proc. TarlmUla Kraimi, Clcssin: Conch. Turbonilla Candida, A. Adams: Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Turbonilla similans, n. XV, Pig. Testa T. Turbonilla tincta, Sowerby. Turbonilla tincta, Sowerby : Proc. Turbonilla bathtraphe, Sowerby. Turbonilla bathyraphe, Sowerby: Proc. Turbonilla disculus, Velain? Turbonilla dis cuius, Velain: Tryon, Man. Paul I. Nerita aterrima Gmelin. Nerita nigerrima, Chemnitz: Reeve, Conch.

Neritina Natalensis, Reeve. Neritina Natalemis, Reeve : Conch. Natal Reeve ; Durban Burnup and others. Neritina crepidularia, Lamarck. Neritina crepidularia, Lamarck : Martens, Conch. For distribution and synonymy see Martens. Turbo chrysostomus, Linn. Hab — Durban Burnup. Astralium Andersoni, Smith.

Astralium Bolma Andersoni, Smith : Journ. This species attains fully three times the size of the shell figured. Lkptothyra bicarinata Martens. You are in www. Find phone numbers, addresses, maps, driving directions and reviews for Retail in Johannesburg North, Gauteng. Use YellowPages. Find phone numbers, addresses, maps, driving directions and reviews for Retailers in Alexandra, Sandton, Gauteng.

Capensis Investments Pty BECK, E. Hichange Investments An early modern entrepreneur: hendrik oostwald eksteen and the creation of wealth in dutch colonial cape town, Their portrayal of Capensis 2 : O'Keefe ? Psychotria capensis - A rounded evergreen shrub or small tree, m, with a slender stem, horizontal Cape ash can be grown from seed. Soak stored seeds in water for a day and then scrub with a brush to remove the fleshy part. Sow in trays filled with river sand or Rothmannia capensis is one of the loveliest indigenous trees for the home garden.

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Conus vexillum, Gmelin. Conus vexillum, Martini : Reeve, Conch. Icon,, vol. Conus consors, Sowerby. Adams : Sowerby, fig. Adams: Proc. Adams for innexus. Conus aplustre, Reeve. Conus aplustre, Reeve: Conch. Conus lin eatus, Chemnitz. Conus pauperculus, Sowerby. Conw pauperculus, Sowerby: Thes. Conus simplex, Sowerby. Conus simplex, Sowerby: Tbes. Africa Weinkauff.

Conus scitulus, Reeve. Conus seitulus, Reeve: Conch. Synonyms of this species are C jaspideus, Kiener nee nnelin, C. Daniv-li of Crosse. Conus nimbosus, Hwass. Conus glans, Bruguiere. Conus glans, Bruguiere : Sowerby, Proc.

Clavatula pautlis, Smith. ClavatuJa parilis, Smith: Journ. Pleurotoma marmorata, Lamarck. Pleurotoma marmorata, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Africa, , p. Pleurotoma Gilciiuisti, Sowerby. Pleurotoma Oilchristi, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Very closely allied to P. Pleurotoma bijubata, Reeve. Pleurotoma bijubata, Reeve: Condi. J fab. Pleurotoma vertebrata, Smith. Pleurotoma vertebrata. Smith : Ann. Pleurotoma Stjrcula anteridion, Watson. Drillia inclinata, Sowerby. Pleurotoma inclinata, Sowerby : Proc Zool.

Drillia plattstoma, Smith. Pleurotoma Clionella platy stoma, Smith: Ann. Pleurotoma Wilkw, Sowerby : Journ. I can see no reasons for separating these two species. See Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Drillia rugisculpta, Sowerby. Drillia rugtsculpta, Sowerby : Proc. Drillia cantharis Reeve. Oliva elegans, Lamarck. Oliva elegans, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Oliva paxillus, Reeve. Oliva paxillus, Reeve: Conch. Oliva picta, Reeve. Reeve : Conch. Oliva dactyliola, Duclos. Oliva dactyliola, Duclos : Sowerby, Proc.

Oliva nana, Lamarck. Oliva nana, Lamarck: Tryon, Man. Ancilla Montkouzieri, Souverbie. Ancilla hasta Martens. Anc Maria hasta, Martens: Sitzungsb. Freunde Berlin, , p. Ancilla osculata, Sowerby. Ancilla osculata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac Soe. Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck. Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Marginella Algoensis, Smith. Marginella Algoensis, Smith: Journ. Marginella lineato-labrum, Gaskoin. Marginella lineato-labrum, Gaskoin : Sowerby, Proc.

Marginella punctilineata, Smith. Marginella punctilineata, Smith: Journ. Africa Marrat, Quart, Journ. Both are quoted by Marrat as West African. Marginella fusifokmis, Hinds. Marginella Newcombi, Reeve. Marginella puella Gould. Volvarina puellayGovAH: Proc. Eoston Soc. This species is probably the same as M.

Capensis, Dunker. Marginella sehinula, Gould. Marginella seminula, Gould: Otia Conch. Marginella cystiscus, Redfielcl. Marginella cystiscus, Redfielcl : Tryon, Man. Cystiscus Capensis, Stimpson: Ainer. Marginella fallax, n. Testa alba, ovata, supra acuminata ; spira conica, ad apicein obtusa ; anfractus 4, primus convexus, sequentes duo leviter concavi, infra suturam pellueido-inarginati, ultiinus convexiusculus, antice angus- tatus ; labrum fere rectum, inllexum, intus tenuissime liratum, ad marginem acutum ; columella quinque-plicata, plica suprema minima, vix conspicua.

This species has been confounded with Voluta Fustvoluta pyrrhostoma Watson. Voluta Fusivoluta pyrrhostoma, Watson : Martens, Sitzungsb. Voluta Alcithoe Ponsonbyi, Smith. Voluta Lyria Queketti, Smith. Voluta Lyria Queketti, Smith : Proc. Lyria mitrceformis, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch.

Africa Tryon. Volutilithes abyssicola, Ad. Woodward, Proc. Volutilithes Gilehristi, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Neptunkopsis Gilckristi, Sowerby. Africa, vol. Mitra episco palis Linn. Mitra episeopalis, Linn. Mitra flammigera, Reeve.

Mitra fiammiaera 9 Reeve: Conch. Mitra liubifera, Lamarck. Mitra limhifera, Lamarck: Sowerby, Jonrn. Mitra puxctostriata, A. Mitra punctostriata, A Adams: Proc. Mitra pica, Reeve. Mitra pica. Mitra patula, Reeve. Mitra Cymxdra crkxulata, Lamarck. Mitra crennlata, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Mitra Kowieexsis, Sowerby. Mitra Kowi nsis, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra euzonata, Sowerby.

Mitra euzonata, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra canaliculate, Sowerby. Mitra bathyraphe, Sowerby. Mitra bathyraphe, Sowerby: Proc. Mitra obeliscus, Reeve. Mitra obeliscus, Reeve : Conch. Mitra alauda, Sowerby. Mitra alauda, Sowerby: Thes. Fusus ocelliferus, Boiy tie St. CiA Fusus ocelliferus, Bory de St. This species is very variable in form, some specimens being much more elongate than others, and much less angulated at the shoulder of the body-whorl. In the series of specimens examined all the connecting links are present.

Fusus radialis, Watson. Fusus radialis, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped. Fusus toreuma Martyn. Buccinum toreuma, Martyn : Univ. Fusus toreuma, Martyn : Reeve, Conch. The single example from Natal is exceptionally slender, with the whorls less acutely angled at the middle. This results from two of the spiral ridges at this part being of equal size.

The nodules upon the body-whorl are also produced below into more distinct costa3 than usual. Fusus subcoxtractus, Sowerby. Fusus sub contractus, Sowerby : Murine Invest. Fuses Africanus Sowerby. The type of this species which is in the Museum collection is a young half-grown shell in poor condition, and the figure of it conveys but a slight idea of the adult shell.

A curious feature is the columellar callus being detached from the whorl at the lower part, forming an umbilical rimation. A similar detaching of the callus also occurs in the following species, Fusus Adamsii of Kobelt. The position of the present species is uncertain, the animal being unknown, but the prolonged canal seems to recall the genus Fusus.

Another specimen of F. Africanus received recently is 78 mm. This consists of two smooth globose whorls forming a papillose apex. Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt. Fusus t'rntricosus. Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt: Conch. The name vent r it ms, having already been employed in the genus, was changed by Kobelt to Adamsii. Fasciolaria Hetnemanni, Dunker. Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Their protoconch also is smaller. The Fasciolaria purpurea of Jonas is net, as stated by Sowerby, the same as the present species.

Its distinguishing feature- have already been pointed out by Kobelt. Latirus abnormis, Sowerby. Latirus abnormis, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. In the figure of this species Marine Shells S. Sowerby in his description, is not indicated. Although not very conspicuous in some specimens they are generally more or less observable.

The umbilicus is much more open in some examples than in others. The largest specimen examined, when perfect, probably measured as much as 75 mm. A comparison of a series of specimens in good condition with the type of L. Latirus polygonus, var. Turbinella polygona Gmelin : Reeve, Conch. The single example obtained differs from the typical form in having the body-whorl more prolonged anteriorly, and in the absence of the angulation at the middle of the body- whorl and in the less pronounced character of the longitudinal costation.

The coloration is practically the same. Latirus alboapicatus, Smith. Latirus alboapicata, Smith: Journ. Peristernia leucothea, Melviil. Manchester Lit. Soc, ser. Euthria ebarnea, Sowerby: Proc. The Euthria ebumea the type of which is in the British Museum was founded upon very much worn and bleached specimens of this species.

So worn are the shells that the columellar folds are almost obliterated. MelvilFs figure does not well represent the species, which, moreover, is not always white, some specimens being stained with orange or rich brown below the suture and between the costae, with a colour-band round the middle of the body- whorl and another a little below it.

The aperture and columella may be purplish or purplish brown, and the three columellar plicae are distinct in some examples, whilst in others only one or two are present. Smith : Journ. A specimen recently submitted to me from Port Shepstone Burnup , and which Mr. Sowerby has identified as belonging to his species, may be thus described.

It differs from the type in having ten or eleven nodosities at the angle of the body-whorl, and the protuberances upon the upper whorls produce a wavy sutural line. The body-whorl also exhibits four or five rather indistinct somewhat nodose, transverse, raised, broad, rounded ridgvs. The aperture is white within, the outer lip being much thickened, slightly expanded anteriorly, blotched with brown within the margin, with a strong tubercular prominence within at the hinder end.

The columella is covered with a thick brown-stained callus, which is broadly refiexed and appressed over the umbilical rimation, and thickened into a white prominence posteriorly a little distance above the plicae. The upper two of these are about equal in size, the next one is rather smaller, and the foremost one still less conspicuous. Beneath the thick deciduous periostracum, which exhibits distinct lines of growth and has a silky appearance in certain lights, the shell is for the most part stained with brown, but where the surface is worn it is white.

Since writing the above I have, through the kindness of Professor Poulton, had an opportunity of examining the type in the Oxford It is an immature shell, hence the undeveloped outer Mr. Sowcrby's figure is far from accurate, the anterior part of the shell being represented much too broad, and the body-whorl above the columellar folds is too convex.

The four or five rather indistinct and nodose transverse ridges on the body-whorl are just traceable in the type, and the suture of the spire is also wavy. The spire is a little flatter than in the present specimen, and the front foL! Vasum turhinellus Linn. Voluia turbinellm. Melwpiura datum, Schub. Tritonidea insculpta, Sowerby. Tritonidea insculpta, Sowerby: Proc.

Tritonidea carinifera Kuster. Buccinum cariniferitm, Kuster: Conch. Cantharus cariniferuz, Kuster: Tryon, Man. Tritonidea Natalensis, Smith: Journ. Ill, pl. Euthria Capensis Dunker. Fusus Capensis, Dunker: in Philippi's Abbild. Cantharus Capensis, Dunker: Tryon, Man. Magellani, Velain , may prove synonymous with this species. Euthria lacertina, Gould.

Euthria Filmerje, Sowerby. Euthria FilmercB, Sowerby: Proc. Euthria Queketti, Smith. Euthria Queketti, Smith: Journ. Cominella Dunkeri Kuster. Euthria lineolata, Dunker : Sowerby, I. Sowerby appears to have overlooked the fact that only a single species was described under the above names, the latter merely having been altered to Dunkeri because it had already been employed by Lamarck for a species of Fusus, in which genus Dunker also placed his species.

It may be the young of C. Cominella prolong ata, Smith: Journ. Cominella biserialis Kiister. Buccinum bisertale, Kiister: Conch. Africa Bluster , Enoina astricta Reeve. Hi, pi. Engina perlata Kiister. Buccinum perlatum, Kiister: Conch. Can t hunts perlatus, Kiister: Try on, Conch. Engina Natalmsis, Melvill : Proc. Pisania crenilabrum, A.

Pisania Jfoufrouzieri, Crosse: Journ. The locality West Indies given by Adams is probably a mistake. In adopting the name given to this species by Crosse, I presume Mr. Sowerby was misled by Try on' s observation that it had priority Man. Phos laevigatas, A. Adams: Proc Zool. Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby. Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Eburna papillaris, Sowerby. Eburna papillaris, Sowerby : Reeve, Conch. Quekett differs from the type in having only a few scattered dots and some large oblique dark brown niaeu- lations below the suture.

The umbilicus is open, the columellar callus being only partly developed, and the fiUed-up portion of the anterior canal is white, without the curved lines which are usually present. Sowerby gives some further remarks on the shell and perio- stracum, together with a figure of the animal.

Nassa eusulcata, Sowerbv. Nassa eusulcata, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Nassa Filmer-e, Sowerby. Nassa Filmera, Sowerby : Proc. Nassa gemmulata, Lamarck. Nassa gemmulata, Lamarck : R,eeve, Conch. Sab, — Durban; Philippines Reeve. Nassa filosa, Gray. Nassa filosa, Gray: Reeve, Conch.

Nassa Natalensis, n. Nassa Sturmi'i, Reeve not of Philippi : Conch. Reeve describes the columella as "but little callous. Mature shells exhibit a well-developed reflexed yellowish callus, which may be sometimes -ruooth or more or less tubercular. A small transverse tubercle is always seen at the upper part. The outer lip is thickened with a strong varix, is acute at the edge, and is furnished within with about nine short lirae.

One of the two specimens from Natal presented to the Museum by Mr. Ponsonby is of a rich brown colour, with a white line above the middle of the body- whorl and passing up the spire above the suture. Nassa gaudiosa, Hinds. Nassa gaudiosa, Hands : Reeve, Conch. Nassa margaritifera Dunker. Buecinum margaritiferum, Dunker: Philippi, Abbild. Nassa costelUfera, A. Adams : Reeve, Conch. Nassa lextiginosa, A. Nassa lentiginosa, A. Nasm incuassata, Muller. Nassa spurca, Gould.

Nassa spurca, Gould: Otia, p. Nassa quantula, Gould. Nassa quantula, Gould: Otia, p. A figure of the animal is given at the above reference. Bullia l2evissima Gmelin. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray : lleeve, Conch. GeselL, , p. Columbella varians, Sowerby. Columbella varians, Sowerby: Thes. Columbella Kraussii, Sowerby Columbella Beckeri, Sowerby. Columbella Becker i, Sowerby: Proc. Columbella Filmercc, Sowerby: Proc. Columbella atrata, Gould. Columbella regulus, Souverbie: op.

A widely distributed species occurring both in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Columbella Anachis leptalea, Smith: Journ. Columbella Burnupi, Smith. Columbella mitriformis A. Zafra mitriformis, A. Adams: Ann. Daphiella mitraeformis, A. Columbella Lightfooti, Smith. Columbella Asiyris Lightfooti y Smith: Journ. Columbella apicata, Smith. Columbella Ndidella apicata, Smith: Journ.

Conus Dupontii, Kiener : Coq. Meta Dupontice, Kiener : Reeve, Conch. Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby. Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby: Proc. Murex fallax, Smith. Murex fallax, Smith : Journ. Murex BanJc8ii, Sowerby: Conch. The specimen from Durban is larger than any of the figured examples, having a length of 85 mm.

Buccinum contractum, Reeve: Conch. Ilab, — Durban Burnup ; Philippines, etc. Latiaxis rosaceus, n. Latiaxis nodosa, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Africa, p. Testa fusiformis, rimata, rosacea, spiraliter confertim squamose lirata et longitudinaliter plicata ; anfractus , in medio angulati, supra declives, infra contracti, ultimus antice valde angustatus, in caudam brevem recurvam productus; apertura angulatim piriformis, cum canali longit.

This species is uniformly rose coloured within and without, whereas L. Adams, is dirty whitish. In the latter species the angulation of the whorls is rather more acute ;md rather lower down, or in other words less central. The body-whorl also is more suddenly contracted below the periphery than in the present species, and the umbilical fissure is rather broader. The longitudinal costse or plies are more conspicuous in the upper whorls than in the last.

The species, judging from the shell alone, might with equal propriety be placed in the genus CoraMiophila. Rapana bulbosa Solander. Pyrula bulbosa, Solauder : Reeve, Conch. Purpura squamosa, Lamarck. The young of this species was described by Blainville Nouv. Paris, vol. Testa par va, alba, in apertura rufescens, fusiformi-ovata, spiraliter punctato-striata, et costis spiralibus ad angulum anfraetuum nodosis instructa ; anfractus circiter 6, supra concave declives, in modi - nodose augulati, ultimus costis quatuor quarum duo superiores nodosi sunt cingulatus; apertura liris novem albis gracilibus, hand marginem labri produetis, armata ; labrum album, tenue; columella parum arcuata, callo albo laevi antice reflexo induta, superne tuberculo parvo inonuspicuo instructa.

In addition to the punctate striae which cover the entire shell, the surface exhibits irregular and somewhat broken up, but distinct lines of growth. One specimen exhibits five interrupted brown lines, one below the suture and one upon each of the four spirals of the body-whorl. Sistrum asperom Lamarck. Ricinula asperum, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Sistrum marginatrum Blainville.

Sistrum marginatrum, Blainville : Tryon, Man. Sistrum morus Lamarck. Ricinula mor us, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Sistrum ricinus Linn. Ides, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Sistrum arachnoides, Lamk. The older name ricinus should be used for this species. Sistrum squamosum, Pease, var. Sistrum squamiliratum, n. Testa ovato-fusiformis, turrita, albida ; anfractus 9, superiores tres laeves, convexi, cseteri in medio angulati, costis vel plicis circiter 8 ad angulum acute productis instructi, liris spiralibus squamatis ornati, ultimus infra angulum liris circiter 14 quarum quam aliis majores instructus ; apertura rosea, angusta, longit.

Goralliophila rubrococcinea, Mel v. Soc , , vol. The pinkish red colour alone is sufficient to distinguish them. Care, however, must be taken not to confound them with Latiaxis rosaceus, which is somewhat similarly tinted but different in form. Lotorium Durbanense, Smith. Lotorium Durbanense, Smith: Journ. Lotorium encausticum Reeve. Triton encamtieus, Reeve: Conch.

Lotorium nassariforme, Sowerhy. Lotorium nassariforme, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Lotorium ranelloides Reeve. Triton ranelloides, Reeve: Conch. Lotorium obscurum A. Triton oh sour us, A. Africa A. Lotorium tritonis Linn. Triton variegatus, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Lotorium Priene Murrayi Smith. Lotorium Distortrix cancellinum Roissy , var. Epidronius bracteatiis, Hinds: Sowerby, Proc.

IIvnella anceps, Lamarck. Cassis nodulosa Gmelin , var. Cassis torquata, Reeve: Conch. Dolium costatum, Menke. Dolium costatum, Menke : Synopsis, 2nd ed. Dolium costatum, Menke : Deshayes, Aniin. Dolium Dunkeri, Hanley. Dolium Dunkeri, Hanley: Proc. Dolium perdix Linn. Dolium perdix, Linn. Dolium variegatum, Lamarck. Dolium variegatum, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Amphiperas Beckeri, Sowerby. Amphiperas Beckeri, Sowerby: Proc. Radius gracillimus, Smith.

Radius gracillimus, Smith : Journ. Off Durban, 40 fathoms Quekett. Cgprcea minor idem, Melvill: Journ. Cypraa fimbriata, partirn, Sowerby : Thes. Less pyriform than Jimbriata, and without the dark dots at the sides of the base. Cyprjea stolida, Linn. Erato guttula, Sowerby. Erato guttula, Sowerby : Conch. Erato guttata, Sowerby : Thes. Strombus Lamauckii, Gray. Strombus Lamarckii, Gray : Sowerby, Thes.

Strombus lentiginosus, Linn. Strombus lentiginosus, Linn, : Reeve, Conch. Cerithium ccerideum, Sowerby : Thes. Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby. Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby : Thes. Cerithium dialeucum, Philippi. Cerithium dialeucum y Philippi : Sowerby, Conch. Cerithium rugosum, Wood. Cerithium rugosum, Wood : Sowerby, Conch. Cerithium albovaricosum, Smith. Cerithium albovaricosum, Smith: Zool. Alert, p. Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith.

Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith: Journ. Cerithium zebrum, Eiener. Cerithium zebrum, Kiener : Kobelt, Conch. Cerithium defectum, Sowerby : in Reeve's Conch. Tryon ; Savage L, Oceania Brit. This species is very variable in colour. Sometimes it is entirely white or purplish pink. Other specimens are white with an interrupted brown liue a little below the suture and a second on the lower part of the smith: list of south African marine mollusca.

The latter is sometimes absent, as in one of the two Natal specimens now examined. The second example is totally white. Cerithium egenum, Gould. Cerithium egenum, Gould: Otia Conch. Gould ; Solomon Is. Testa minima, elongata, pupoidea, ad apicem acuminata, fusca, tuberculis flavidis ornata ; anfractus circiter 11, leviter convexiusculi, oblique plicati, et liris spiralibus in anfractu penultimo 4, in ultimo supra plicas granosis instructi, ultimus ad latus sinistrum varice pallido vix elato compositus ; apertura oblique ovalis, saturate fusca ; columella arcuata, callo tenui fusco induta ; canalis brevissimus, obliquus.

The three or four lirae around the lower half of the body -whorl are simple, and not granular like those above. Cerithidea Natalensis Kobelt. Cerithiopsis neglecta C. Cerithium neglectum y C. Adams : Panama Shells, p. Cerithiopsis negleeta C. Adams : Smith, Proc. Helena Smith ; Panama Adams. Planaxis lixeatus Da Costa. Planaxis lineatus, Da Costa : Sowerby, Conch. No notice should be taken of the grotesque lumping of species given in Tryon's Man.

Thylacodes Natalexsis, Morch. Manual, , p. Conch , vol. LirrisTES cornu Gnielin. Argonauta cornu, Gmelin : Syst Nat. Separatist a Grain, A. Turritella Ivowiensis, Sowerby. Tarritella Kowiensis, Sowerby: Proc. Turkitella puncticulata, Sowerby. Turrit clla puncticulata, Sowerby: Marine Invest. Tarritella punctulata, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Francis Bay, fathoms Sowerby.

Littorina pintado, AVood. Zittor in a pintado, Wood: Reeve, Conch. The shells quoted by Mr. Sowerby as L. Littorina LiEvis, Philippi. Fossarus pusillus, Gould. Fossariix ptmllus, Gould : Tryon, Man. Hi, fig. Hab — Umkomaas Burnup ; Liberia Gould. Fossarus Capensis, Pilsbry. Fossarus Cajx'tisis, Pilshry: Proc. Hah — In ballast from South Africa. Solakium CJ catum, Hinds. Solarium c latum, Hinds: Sowerby, Proc. Solarium trochoides, Deshayes. Solarium trochoides, Deshayes: Hanley in Sowerby's Thes.

Rjssoia Crawfordi, Smith. Rissoia Craivfordi, Smith : Journ. Rissoina Irivadia annulata Dunker. Rissoina annulata, Dunker: Moll. Rissoina trochlearis, Gould: Otia, p. Rissoina crassa, Angas. Some of the South African specimens are more distinctly spirally striated than others and also than the types from Port Jackson. The groove or excavation around the base of the body-whorl is also deeper and more evident than in the Australian shell. Rissoina ambigua Gould. JPyramidella ambigua, Gould: Proc.

Rissoa ambigua, Gould: U. Rissoina ambigua, Gould : Weinkauff, Conch. Gould ; China seas Mus. I do not consider the shell figured by Schwartz von Mohrenstern Rissoiden, pi. The spiral striae are most conspicuous around the base of the body- whorl, as shown in Gould's figure. Adams Schwartz, I. Assiminea Umlaasiana, Smith. Assiminea Umlaasiana, Smith: Journ. Fenella cerithina Philippi.

Rissoa cerithina, Philippi: Zeitsch. Fenella fulgida, A. Adams : MS. Adams: Trans. Adams: [ubi? It is quite uncertain at present which author's name is to be given to the name fulgida as representing the Natal shell. Fenella Natalensis, Smith. Fenella Natalensis, Smith : Joum. Astrolabe, vol. Trochita solida, Reeve : Conch. Hipponyx barbatus, Sowerby. Vanikoro striata D'Orbigny. Narica striata, D'Orbigny : Recluz, Mag. Vanikoro ligata Recluz. Vanikoro ligata, Recluz: Sowerby, Proc.

Vanikoro Gueriniana Recluz. Vanikoro Gueriniana, Recluz : Sowerby, Proc. Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh. Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh : Smith, Journ. Natica Krattssi, Smith. Natica Sraussi, Smith: Journ. Natica psila, Watson. Natica psila, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped.

Natica Polinicks Burnupi, n. Testa parva, ovata, obtecte perforata, crassiuscula, fusco-cinerea vel rufescens ; anfractus 5, convexi, superiores parvi, nltimus magnus, antice oblique descendens, oblique striatus ; apertura parva, serui- circularis, intus fuscescens ; columella obliqua, recta, callo crasso albo reflexo instructa. Larger specimens are 17 mm. Ianthina nitens, Menke. Ianthina nitens, Menke: Reeve, Conch. Ianthina balteata, Reeve. Ianthina balteata, Reeve : Conch. Scala Robillardi Sowerby.

Scalaria Robillardi, Sowerby: Proc. Scala aculeata Sowerby. Scalaria aculeata, Sowerby : Thes. Scala millecostata Pease. Scalaria millecostata, Pease: Smith, Journ. Their portrayal of Capensis 2 : O'Keefe ? Psychotria capensis - A rounded evergreen shrub or small tree, m, with a slender stem, horizontal Cape ash can be grown from seed. Soak stored seeds in water for a day and then scrub with a brush to remove the fleshy part.

Sow in trays filled with river sand or Rothmannia capensis is one of the loveliest indigenous trees for the home garden. It attracts birds and it has a non-aggressive root system. Gardening and botanical information about Ekebergia capensis, including common names, growth rate, distribution, habitat, size, seasons and more. South Africa. Login Register Login with Facebook. Capensis Investments About Us How to get.

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Scheme 2: Species — S. This is due to the following factors: small size of the islands, isolation and diverse habitats. The most representative families in the land angiosperm groups are: Rubiaceae 27 species , Orchidaceae 35 endemic , Euphorbiaceae 11 endemic , Melastomataceae 8 endemic in a total of 17, i. The latter group is not found in S.

There are a total pteridophytes. The diversity of spermatophytes comprises families represented by taxa at specific or intra-specific levels The total number of species is , and 35 are endemic. The polystachia and bulbophyllum genera present the largest number of species. Certain groups of organisms are better known than others, so there must be further research. The best-studied groups are vascular plants. The list of endemic plants on both islands is comprised of endemic taxa, in S.

The number of threatened animal species is: 16 bird species, 10 insect species, 4 mollusk species and three mammal species see table 12 below. The flora of S. Welwitshi in , and then C. Barter in and G. Mann in also gathered specimens leading to the discovery of species thereto unknown. Auguste Chevalier visited S. In the past, economic goals superseded conservation efforts. Several exotic species have been introduced Monod, , disrupting equilibrium.

Vegetal cover takes the most damage. Agriculture, the introduction of exotic species or other unsound practices cause considerable harm. The standard of living has gone down for the communities that depended on harmed species, and so these communities now struggle with extreme poverty. Non-sustainable practices are not inevitable. They arise from poor knowledge of flora and the intrinsic relationships it adheres to. Furthermore, as other rainforests throughout the world, Santomean forests may function as carbon dioxide regulators, contributing towards the management of climate change.

Isolation has brought about a high number of endemic flora and fauna see tables 1, 2, 6 and 9 in the annex. The scientific world recognizes this diversity and considers the Santomean rainforest as second in terms of the preservation of avian fauna, among 75 African forests World Bank The island of S.

For the purposes of this paper, 4 main ecosystems have been defined: Scheme 3: Types of ecosystem in S. They present a rich diversity of species and several complex ecological factors such as variations in moisture and luminosity. The abiotic environment is multistratified, containing species that compete among themselves and adapt to different conditions. There are also the following altitude forests: Low altitude forest m , mountain forest m and mist forest m.

They were published in and Source: J. LeJoly According to Chevalier, primary low altitude forests have disappeared due to sugarcane, cocoa and coffee plantations. Trees are tall 30 to 40m with dense canopies and the high humidity favors the epiphytes, lianas and ferns that cover the trunks of trees. Arboreal ferns are varied and plentiful. Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae are the most common families. These formations have been changed little by men, mostly due to their altitude.

Luminosity is low due to constant mist and temperatures are relatively low. Rainfall is abundant. Epiphytes become much more abundant. Samambaias are an important element of flora up to the top. Mountain grasses are not found. Access is difficult and the slopes are steep, so this habitat has not been changed by human action and remains intact. The elements above have caused the trees to grow smaller. Araliaceae can now be found such as Schefflera manii, rarely growing taller than 10 meters.

Epiphytes, especially orchids, and ferns of the genus Asplenium are quite important to these formations. Typical trees are: Podocarpus manii, Pinheiro de S. Typical shrubs are Erica thomensis, Psychotria guerkeana and P. In the underbrush there are poaceae of the genus panicum and one endemic species of urticacea, the Elatostema thomense. Lianas, or creeping vines, are frequent: Sabicea spp.

Due to climate and steep slopes, these formations were only sporadically modified by man and have not been the subject of any kind of intensive exploitation. They are currently well preserved. There are a few invading species, like Chinchona spp. The vegetation is evergreen, composed of Panicum hochstetteri and Panicum brevifolium poaceae. Other than the poaceans, there are also the following: Cyperus articulatus, Poligomum salicifoluium and Tristemma mauritianum, as well as a large quantity of ferns of the family Polypodiaceae and Hymenofoliaceae.

Also remarkable is the predominance of rare orchids, such as Bulbophyllum cocleatum var. In the underbrush of this altitude forest are the following endemic species: Palisota pedicellata, Cyperus sylvicola, Mapania ferruginea, Begonia baccata, Impatiens buccinalis, Impatiens thomensis, Calvoa crassinoda, Sabicea ingrata, Sabicea exellii. It is also comprised of the following endemic arboreal species: Trichilia grandifolia, Pavetta monticola, Craterispermum montanum, Tabernaemontana stenosiphon, Erythrococca molleri and Discoclaoxyllum occidentale.

Trees do not grow tall and epiphytes are numerous. Orchids, ferns, mosses and lichens are also frequent. According to Tolen , the most abundant trees in S. Jones, J. Burlison and A. Tye, all of the northern primary forest and on the center of the island has been replaced with cocoa, coffee, coconut and banana plantations. According to the same publication, most of the primary humid forest on the island was destroyed during a campaign to eradicate sleeping sickness African tripanosomiasis in , but recent research has shown that the efforts to this end were beyond the capabilities of control teams and most of the southern half of the island remains intact.

Soils are dark or black with rock outcropping and compact undersoil, supporting grassland and shrubland-type vegetation. Three kinds of poaceae dominate the regions Panicum maximum, Rottoboelia esaltata and…………. Small arboreal formations punctuate the herbal mosaic dry, open tropical forest which, given the absence of a continuous arboreal canopy, are in strong contrast to the rest of the country.

There are also clusters of halophyles Rhizophora racemosa and Avicennia germinans on the briny mud of river estuaries and waterlines. Where salinity is less, there can be found Hibiscus tiliaceus, Dalbergia ecastaphyllum and Erythroxyllum emarginatum. It is believed that these formations result from massive anthropic pressure: intensive deforestation and frequent recourse to fire, in order to prepare for sugarcane cultivation, since the beginning of Portuguese settlement.

It tends to occupy areas where relief is smoother and a few hills, such as Muquinquim and Saccli, located on the district of Lobata, and others that do not stand above m in height. This shade forest was created to serve the needs of cocoa Theobroma cacao and coffee Coffea sp. Cocoa plantations require maintenance of the forest canopy in order to provide shade for cocoa and coffee plants. There are secondary formations of variable age where we may still identify traces of former use, namely on account of a significant proportion of introduced species.

Composition is similar to that of the shade forest, the main distinguishing factor is the presence or absence of coffee or cocoa plants. These areas have, in the past, been used for plantation and are now abandoned, as the soil is marginally apt, at best, slopes are steep and access is difficult. The flora presents exotic, cultivated and pioneer species, of rapid growth.

These form plant communities. The most frequent vines are: lutchiga Urera trinervis , Dioscorea spp. The underbrush presents shrubs often threatened by fire, like Ophiobotrys zenkeri Stala-stala , Oncoba spinosa malimboque and Ochna membranacea pau dumo , Harungana madagascariensis Pau sangue , Cestrum laevigatum Coedano , and more. The formation occupies a transitional area between marine and land ecosystems. The vegetation, not very diverse, is dominated by: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa Rhizophoraceae , both of them trees with aerial roots and Avicennia germinans Avicenniaceae , which possess pneumatophores.

The ecosystem may present ferns of the genera Microsorium and Acrostichum aureum, the latter being frequent in mangroves around the world. On intertidal zones, animal life develops among tree roots. These surfaces host invertebrates such as cf. Isognom and the mangrove crab cf. Aratus, as well as cucumbas of the genus Perioptalmos, fish that can breath outside water as well as in.

Avian species include waterfowl Gallinula chloropus , cranes Bubulcus ibis , greenbacked herons Butorides striatus and the kingfisher Alcedo spp. These were mostly food species and pets. One might say nearly all animal and plant species on the islands were, after a fashion, introduced.

There are distributed trhoughout 87 families. The fabaceae, solanaceae, poaceae, malvaceae and myrtaceae are the most abundant. Moraceae, namely Artocarpus heterophyllus jaqueira , Artocarpus comunis fruteira , Treculia africana izaquenteiro and Musaceae, Musa sppl. In fact these species have become easily naturalized as they are capable of wide dissemination. They range from sea level to high altitudes. Of the species, are angiosperms, with dicotyledons and 2 monocotyledons.

Among angiosperms a few are relevant to pasture and foraging, mostly the poaceae and leguminous plants. Bryophytes The flora of the Santomean archipelago also includes a group of non-vascular plants, the bryophytes, which are represented by circa 22, species in the world. Humid regions see an abundance of the genera Marchantia, Anthoceros and Polytrichium. Marchantia grows close to the ground while Campylopus and Polytrichium, which appear to be the most common genera, cover rocks, logs and gulleys.

In fact, ferns appeared after bryophytes. In the Santomean archipelago, pteridophytes contribute 13 endemic species as shown in the table 2, below. Other families present a relatively low number of specific diversity. Especially noteworthy is the Cyatheaceae family, which presents arboreal species that can grow to 3 meters in height.

For this reason they are known as giant ferns, a rarity in the plant world. At the moment, knowledge on fungi present in the country is limited and further research is necessary. Where mushrooms are concerned, Santomean mycology possesses great diversity. Mushrooms would seem to exist mostly in humid, shaded areas. The species found are from the genera Lentinus and Termitomyces, the latter including white mushrooms, which are abundant. Finally there is the genus Cantharellus, represented by several colored species.

These genera probably belong to the group Basidiomicetes. Lichens symbiotic association of algae and fungi Lichens are symbiotic associations of algae, the photobiont, and fungi, the mycobiont. The genus Usnea grows in long strands, hanging from tree branches; widely distributed from sea level to mountaintops, where trees would seem bearded, given the profusion of said lichens. They provide accurate indicators of environmental conditions. Therefore, it would be urgent to carry out more research to inventory and describe these lichens.

Only thus can we contribute towards their preservation. There are zones for cocoa, coffee, rubber, tea, oil palm and coconuts. Besides bats, there are two kinds of shrews, namely Crocidura thomensis and Crocidura poensis, as well as mice, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus1. This table lists the land mammal species enjoying protection status in S.

Other prominent species are Columba malherbii, Columba thomensis, Treron australis virescens, Streptopelia senegalensis, Aplopelia larvata simplex or principalis. Along coastal areas, the fauna is made up mostly of birds inhabiting small islets and coastal areas away from human settlements.

In the savannas of northern S. Table 9 shows the avian species protected in the archipelago. They are distributed throughout 13 different families. The order Passeriformes includes the largest number of species. Distribution is as follows. They conquered the subaerial environment after they solved reproduction problems in the Paleozoic.

The order Chelonia is represented by: the swamp turtle Pelusio castaneus and the forest turtle Pelusio gabonensis. These turtles are increasingly rare in our ecosystems; their numbers tend to diminish. There is no accurate population count or information on status and distribution of either species, for which reason it is necessary to undertake studies on the taxonomy, reproductive biology and ecology of both species ENPABInland Water Ecosystems, Other species of butterflies not endangered are Charaches, Dixeia piscicollis, Neptis eltringhami.

As stated above, these species are under constant pressure from fires, both agriculturalrelated and spontaneous. Myriapods are represented by Globanus integer and Blobunus marginescaber, which are protected species. The data included in the last biodiversity report do not mention lepidoptera or choleoptera. Bees of the genus Apis are honey bees and very important to impollination and fertilization of flowering plants, therefore contributing to the preservation of forested areas. The coevolutionary plant-insect relationship may be used in apiculture.

Interventions in this domain must include the preservation of entomological fauna. This presupposes control, inventory and species density. The final result of the process is conservation of the environment. This culture is also affected by the diseases stemming from the action of Bemisia tabaci, the sweetpotato whitefly. The coastal regions and the marine environment are an integrated resource and an essential component of the environment, offering invaluable possibilities to sustainable 27 development in S.

Despite the interrelationship of both parts in the system, a separate analysis of same allowed for greater insight into the current state of things. Negative impact on coastal and marine biodiversity is due to: Presence of solid and liquid chemical waste; increased water temperature; coastal erosion and estuary erosion, caused by increases in population density. There are several examples of negative impact.

Fishing nets with extremely tight meshes illegal are being used on the territorial waters of S. Young fish of the species measure from 2 to 5cm in length, while adult fish grow to a length of 20 to 25cm, weighing g. The young weigh under 30g. Where coastal fishing is concerned, there are 5 zones, as shown on a table, below. Savannas display significant change where coastal flora is concerned. Flora here is relatively homogeneous when compared with altitude flora that has not been subject to much anthropic pressure, as seen in S.

These plants form a thick mat that favors settlement by some brush vegetation like Dalbergia ecastaphyllum, Conocarpus erectus, Baphia nitida and Hibiscus tiliaceus. These pioneering species, fixating on sand, bring about coastal bands that will later be colonized by arboreal and arborescent formations. Dominant in these formations are plants of the family Arecaceae such as the Cocus nucifera coconut tree, an introduced species and others such as Combretaceae, and Terminalia catappa.

Coastal regions have been subject to human impact from the early days of human settlement. The main introduced species were able to occupy a range of favorable habitats, competing with native species, impoverishing endemism on the islands. This might account for the scarce number of endemic species in coastal regions sand banks and savanna.

Currently, human pressure on plant resources is translated into the felling of coconut trees and others for the extraction of building materials, fuel and coal; also, into accelerated urban development on account of the tourist industry and other economic development plans in the country. Where this ecosystem is concerned, there is no research that particularly highlights fauna. Thus the data on certain species are, in practice, insufficient. Main species are presented in a diagram below, where critically endangered species are included; species like sea turtles and reptiles that spawn on the coast, the endemic bat Tartarides thomensis, present in the savannas of the Praia das Conchas and the Lagoa Azul, on the north coast of S.

Spawning takes place from October to February, with greater frequency during November, December and January. Besides the turtles, there are migratory birds such as the white-tailed tropicbird, Phaeton lepturus and Sula leucogaster, the brown booby. These can be observed on the Tinhosa and Sete Pedras islets. The north coast of S. Additionally, the savanna on Praia das Conchas and Lagoa Azul presents an endemic bat, the Tartarides thomensis.

This winged mammal belongs to the order Chiroptera. Scheme 5: Main species that constitute coastal fauna on S. Turtles are regularly sought out for meat and eggs, which are highly valued by traditional Santomean cuisine; no less importantly 32 they're a source of animal protein.

Sand banks have been exploited for sand. Last but not least, farmers have burnt down wooded areas for agricultural purposes, and there have been spontaneous fires during the dry season. Fishing communities, who appeared to have become aware of the need to preserve these turtles, still capture them. Their biology is not well-known. Phytolankton is one of the main food resources for marine vertebrates and invertebrates.

Among macro-algae, note the cyanophyceae or blue algae, that grown in filaments on the coastal rocky habitats. These prevent erosion. Also of note is Dunaliella salin, the most frequent green algae in the country. Other genera can be found, such as Chloroherpeton, Thalassium and Chlorobium.

Brown algae occur. Of these, Fucus platycarpus indicates good water quality, appearing on sand banks during low tide. Algae possess high economic value. They constitute stocks of polysaccharides, fatty deposits, oils, alcohols, with ample industrial application. The halieutic resource assessment project of S. These are usually fished by traditional means. As seen on table below, the families Carangidae, Serranidae, Sparidae, Scmobridae, with 11, 9, 8 and 7 species, respectively, are those most often fished.

More recent studies, from January 31 through February 18, , by Brazilian scientists, to evaluate marine resource biomass through visual census, allowed for the identification of fish species distributed throughout 67 families Afonso et al. Although the results of this study have not yet been divulged, they allow a comparison of reef and ocean-bottom populations. Besides fish species, there are corals and crustaceans.

The Fishery Board currently owns relevant samples. Ocean pelagic species Among great pelagic vertebrates, we may count Istioforidae Andala fish , Xiphiidae swordfish , Scombridae — mackerels, tunas, bonitos — which are migrating species. Rocky bottom demersals Demersals, or ocean-bottom fish, include Serranidae, Holocentridae, Scianidae, Litjanidae, Sparidae, Moreidae and some sharks. Deep water demersals This group is comprised of sharks and rays.

There are 3 types of cartilaginous fish sharks in S. Those most often captured in S. Within the framework of fishing agreements between the country and development partners, sharks are included among the species captured by their respective fishing fleets. Given financial limitations, the country has not been controlling capture 34 numbers, which prevents an estimate of the degree to which these species are endangered. Benthic-demersals Soles and rays represent this group. These species survive by staying on nutrient-rich sediment.

Adults will be 60cm to 80cm long. For this reason, protection of this species is a priority. Specimens are reported on the north of S. Reported measurements vary from 40cm to cm in length. Their shells have been used for local handicraft, which tourists used to seek out. They tend to live on rocky bottoms, but young can be found near shore and are easily captured.

Unlike other species that find rocks hard to navigate, Sada females negotiate authentic mazes to spawn. These species are extremely rare on both islands. In November , it was observed for the first time in a city market. Sea mammals Cetaceans, reported on the far south of S. Mysticetes are filter-feeders microphagous , feeding on plankton and especially krill. The following species have been reported: Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus , 35 Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acurostrata, Balaenoptera plysalus, Balaenoptera nodosa humpback whale , Balaenoptera edeni tropical only ENPAB-Marine and coastal ecosystems Odontocetes are toothed cetaceans, macrophagous and feeding on fish for the most part.

Corals Among the marine invertebrates, corals can be observed. There are 2 endemic species, unique to this area. There are also ramified colonies of Echinogorgia sp. Crustaceans According to the ENPAB report on marine and coastal ecosystems, crustaceans are present both in marine and coastal ecosystems. There are shrimps, lobsters, slipper lobsters, crabs and langoustines. Among shrimps swimming decapods are found: Penaeus sp, Metapenaeus sp and Parapenaeus sp.

Lobsters present several species: Panulirus spp, Callinectes spp, Calappa spp. The Paramola cuvieri and Geryon maritae are the most frequent species of crabs. Slipper lobsters and langoustines are rare, being represented by Nephrops spp and Scyllarides herklotail, respectively. Besides the species identified in , it was possible to identify other species in our waters.

Genetic mapping has not yet taken place. The species whose samples are now under the care of the Fishery Board are: Alpheus blanchei, Alpheus alfeles, Alpheus aff crockery, Alpheus aff crstulifrons, Alpheus dentipes, Alpheus rugimanus, Alpheus fagei, Alpheus couvieri, and Alpheus Synalpheus, fished on the north and south of the island.

As shown by table 19, taxonomic and specific diversity are noteworthy for pelecypods, cephalopods and gasteropods. Mollusks are highly valuable to the food industry. Gasteropods Among gasteropods, note the whelk of the order Buccinides and genus Buccinum. Of pelecypods lamellibranchia or bivalves, those present in S. Genera mentioned above include macrophagous mollusks that feed on algae or prey on several organisms. Their shells are highly sought after by collectors.

Other endemic genera of sea mollusks, such as Paradoxa, Scaevatula and Tropidorissola can also be found on the marine waters of S. They also exhibit pelagic habits. Part of the diversity are crustaceans, mollusks, fish, reptiles and mammals. There are 50 riverbeds on the islands, with inland springs, flowing across dense forests towards the ocean. The flora extant at various depths is not well known.

However, as these rivers display seasonal volume fluctuation, dried riverbeds are fertile ground for many arboreal and shrub seedlings from arboreal and shrub formations of surrounding areas. Thus water contributes to the spread of plant species. The analyses of inland water fauna concentrated on 5 major animal groups, namely fish, mollusks, insects, crustaceans and planaria.

Noteworthy among ichthyofauna are: 5 species distributed throughout diverse salinity gradients, from sweet to brackish waters. On the upper and intermediate sections of rivers and streams there are small-sized fish such as Eleotris vittata Charoco , Sicydium bustamantei, Pomadasys jubellini and Aplocheilichtlys spilauchena. There are fish belonging to the order Protoptera, such as dipnoic fish possessing gills and lungs, so they can breathe in and out of water.

Their morphology means they are living fossils and a most invaluable species. This ecosystem also features mollusk of the species Clypeolum afra, Neritina manoeli, Bulinus forskalii, Sinilia senelis, and Pugilina morio. Inland water ecosystems are populated by the following classes of invertebrates: Crustaceans - Cardisoma amatum, of the family Gecarcinidae, which burrow around swamps.

Two genera have been identified, Macrobrachium and Atya, comprising 4 species: Macrobrachium zariquieyi, Macrobrachium raridens, Atya intermedia and Atya scabra. The 2 species of Macrobrachium represent freshwater shrimp, highly sought after in the country. Also present is the Sicydium bustamantei and other shrimp species. Downstream, when water volume is low, fauna includes planaria and flatworms, smallsized cm aquatic invertebrates moving by means of cilia.

They can easily be found in small streams. Besides these microorganisms, there are representatives of the families Gyrinidae, Scirtidae, Chronomidae, Simuliidae, Dixidae and Psychodidae. These species live by rivers that run through diverse forest formations. They are versatile and can adapt to other ecosystems. Their diet includes small fish, insects and mollusks. As table 11 indicated, inland water avian fauna is highly diverse, with 23 bird families.

The richness of the flora on pastures is evidenced by the plant families fabaceae, mimosaceae and caesalpinaceae. The first are the best tropical forage species and are fundamental to agriculture, as they produce alimentary seeds Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia fava that sustain both animal and man. Agriculture has created the shade forests, dominated by the genus erythrina.

Single-species plantation is termed monoculture. Alongside monoculture there is subsistence farming, whose products are for internal consumption. Farmers combat weeds as best they can Axonopus spp. Solanum spp. When farmers do not get results from traditional means, they resort to pesticides and herbicides in an uncontrolled manner. The exploitation of farmland is not always amenable to soil preservation, although many farmers opt for crop rotation.

Animal farming is a rural activity. Hens, goats, cows and pigs are raised, generally of local breeds. Cats and dogs are pets that typically do not pose danger to subsistence farming but cover wide areas that human beings also occupy and live in. These animals can turn into disease and pest vectors. Some farms still raise oxen, goats and sheep. This has led to the introduction of many forage species to ensure continued nutriment for these animals. Grazing lands commonly present the following species: Aeschynomene indica, Desmodium uncinatum, D.

Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa farnesiana are spontaneous, palatable fabaceae that occur alongside other species. Where rainfall is highest, the most common forage species are Commelina spp. Farmers use also secondary forage species such as banana leaves and erythrina. We next look into species and breeds of animals farmed in the country. Horses are rare and were probably introduced into the country in Ribeiros The main breeds of pig result from continued natural interbreeding with imported breeds to increase the number of animals.

The main avian breed is an endemic, farm chicken. Besides this breed, aviculture is oriented towards the production of chicken meat and eggs using imported species. Plant species employed in forestry Several plant species on S. These species may be grouped, according to use, in the following manner: Industrial, alimentary, aromatic, medicinal and ornamental species see tables 3, 4, 5 and 8 below. According to which part of the plan is consumed, they can be divided into: Horticultural: Licopersicum esculentum tomato , Lactuca sativa lettuce , Vigna sesquipedalis bean , Brassica sp.

On the islands, this horticultural produce still depends on imported seeds and other products indispensable to their cultivation. Fruit - Carica papaia papaya , Ananas comosus pineapple , Mangifera indica mango , Persea americana avocado , Psidium guajava guava , Artocarpus heterophyllus jackfruit , Dacryoide edulis Safu , Spondias cytherea ambarella. For the most part, these species were introduced into the islands and adapted perfectly.

They are now the most frequent spontaneous species, especially on the lowlands. There have been projects by Taiwanese scientists to introduce other species or varieties of fruit plants, like the Averrhoa carambola or lemon trees, probably more productive than those listed above. Tubers: Xantosoma sagitifolium matabala , Ipomea batata sweet potato , Solanum tuberosum potato , Manihot esculentum tapioca. Matabala is the staple tuber. It occurs spontaneously as an invading plant, or may be cultivated throughout the country, forming consociations with coffee and cocoa crops.

Sweet potato and tapioca are most abundant in savannas. Cereals: Zea mays corn and Oryza sativa rice. These plants possess curative properties and are used in treating several diseases: asthma, malaria, wounds, coughs, diabetes, and more see table 5 below.

Much later, a Portuguese team presented data that were very encouraging about the phytotherapeutic properties of Santomean plants. The agro-sylvan-pastoral landscape is deteriorating as a result of soil erosion, deregulated exploitation of forests, reduced fallow periods, and cultivation on vulnerable soil that is especially sensitive to erosion and loss of fertility. This situation threatens the future of land reserved for human activity.

On some communities, pilot projects on environment-friendly agriculture are now on trial phase. These projects may bring about results on soil protection, an additional step towards the preservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, several species have been introduced in an attempt to reverse the situation. Reforestation projects have introduced the following species over the past few years: Gamhar Gmelina arborea , common teak Tectona grandis , Eucalyptus Eucaliptus spp, icecream bean Inga edulis , ironwood Casuarina equisetifolia , silver oak Grevilea robusta , Terminalia mantalis and Acacia magium.

Results are not yet known, but these plants are rapid-growth species. Several acres have been planted experimentally on Pateau, Mongo and Diana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categories : Marginellidae. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from April Articles with 'species' microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September AC with 0 elements Taxonomy articles created by Polbot.

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Volvarina capensis investments this reason they are known as giant ferns, a that can grow to 3. There are 50 riverbeds on family, which presents arboreal species virescens, Streptopelia senegalensis, Aplopelia larvata. It is also comprised of by the following classes of Trichilia grandifolia, Pavetta monticola, Craterispermum 2, 6 and 9 volvarina capensis investments in and out of water. Spawning takes place from October no phylogenetic analysis to substantiate identify other species in our. Avian species include waterfowl Gallinula chloropuscranes Bubulcus ibis flowing across dense forests towards and mist forest m. Coastal regions have been subject oriented towards the production of. On intertidal zones, animal life mostly in humid, shaded areas. These pioneering species, fixating onit was possible to that will later be colonized insects, crustaceans and planaria. Farmers use also secondary forage can be found Hibiscus tiliaceus. The underbrush presents shrubs often threatened by fire, like Ophiobotrys zenkeri Stala-stalaOncoba spinosa of a continuous arboreal canopy, endemicMelastomataceae 8 endemic animal and man.

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