Copyright Elsevier Ltd. Shuttle swimming test in young water polo players: reliability , responsiveness and age-related value. This study investigated the applicability of a sport-specific test, the Shuttle Swim Test, in young water polo players to measure RSA.
The aims were: to assess the reliability and to measure the responsiveness of the SST in young water polo athletes, and to provide age-related values of SST. Three hundred thirty-three elite athletes Of these, 99 were young people under 13 Two performance measures were performed on dry land: push up and chin up.
Reliability and responsiveness were measured by comparing the average speed of two trials: SST1 was 1. The Minimal Detectable Change is 0. Coaches and researchers can use this value in the interpretation of the SST test results: changes below these values could be related to a measurement error.
The various age-related values reported may help technicians to better interpret the performance of their athletes during competition. Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy CRT significantly decreases local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer. Various biomarkers in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT have been proposed as predictors of response.
However, reliable biomarkers remain to be established. We evaluated histologic findings on hematoxylin and eosin H and E staining and immunohistochemical expressions of Ki67, p53, p21, and apoptosis in biopsy specimens obtained before CRT and 7 days after starting CRT.
Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis.
Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis.
The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered. Published by Mosby, Inc. For all Unlike a substantial part of reliability literature in the past, this article is concerned with weighted combinations of a given set of congeneric measures with uncorrelated errors. The relationship between maximal coefficient alpha and maximal reliability for such composites is initially dealt with, and it is shown that the former is a lower….
A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a the project constitutes one of a kind or two-of-a-kind national asset type of project, b very large cost, and c a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer.
We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries. Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry HHD is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries.
Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline within 5 days of hamstring injury and follow-up 5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit.
We recorded the time needed to return to play RTP up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury.
Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ;46 8 Epub 12 May A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental bromine to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to bromine's relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid.
Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior Design of preventive maintenance system using the reliability engineering and maintenance value stream mapping methods in PT.
The results show that the cost decreases from Rp ,, to Rp ,, obtained from corrective maintenance to preventive maintenance. While maintenance efficiency increases with the application of preventive maintenance i. Flexural strength and reliability of monolithic and trilayer ceramic structures obtained by the CAD-on technique. To evaluate the flexural strength, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and failure behavior of ceramic structures obtained by the CAD-on technique, testing the null hypothesis that trilayer structures show similar properties to monolithic structures.
Bar-shaped 1. Failure loads were recorded, and the flexural strength values were calculated. Fractography principles were used to examine the fracture surfaces under optical and scanning electron microscopy. Monolithic and trilayer specimens showed similar mean flexural strengths, characteristic strengths, and Weibull moduli. Trilayer structures showed greater mean critical flaw and fracture toughness values than monolithic specimens p Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method.
Introduction Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion. Materials and method The study included 30 examinees, years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity PBI.
Results In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Conclusion This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.
Computer nuclear morphometry and stereology are attractive methods because its objectivity and cheapness allowing histologic diagnosis when identifying minimal variations respectively the normality and also detect negligible disparities between anormal cells which could escape to the assessment of the pathologist.
We present the data gained from several morphogenic and stereologic parameters resulting of measurements of tumoral cells procured from 40 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomata. Middle values have been: nuclear area Our series is the largest studied till now of all found in the literature. Comparison our data with those of previous publications.
Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation.
However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes.
We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes.
Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context.
However, too strong adaptation would result. Failure to obtain value enhancement by within-trial contrast in simultaneous and successive discriminations. The present research tested the generality of the "work ethic" effect described by Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall In Experiment 1, we trained 10 pigeons on a pair of either simultaneous or successive discriminations.
One discrimination followed a high-effort requirement 20 pecks to the center key and the other followed a low-effort requirement 1 peck. Contrary to Clement et al. Preferences were similar but less extreme in the successive condition. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether test preferences depended on the amount of training. A total of 12 pigeons were trained on a pair of simultaneous discriminations, except that test sessions were scheduled after every three baseline sessions.
Preferences increased across test sessions but were similar to those in Experiment 1. Together with Vasconcelos, Urcuioli, and Lionello-DeNolf a , our study represents a second failure to replicate Clement et al. The finding that preference depends on the event that initiates the test trial suggests that choice probes may not provide unambiguous assessments of stimulus value.
Several organizations have developed frameworks to systematically assess the value of new drugs. To evaluate the convergent validity and interrater reliability of 4 value frameworks to understand the extent to which these tools can facilitate value -based treatment decisions in oncology. Panelists received instructions and published clinical data required to complete the assessments, assigning each drug a numeric or letter score. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance for Ranks Kendall's W was used to measure convergent validity by cancer type among the 4 frameworks.
Intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs were used to measure interrater reliability for each framework across cancers. Panelists were surveyed on their experiences. Kendall's W across all 4 frameworks for breast, lung, and prostate cancer drugs was 0. This report updates the meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States U.
The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between and This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes.
Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance.
In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate ICE Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in A simple reliable procedure for obtaining metaphases from human leukemic bone-marrow aspirates suitable for Giemsa banding.
Short incubation of heparinized human leukemic bone-marrow cells in phosphate buffered saline containing colcemid and overnight chilling of fixed cells yields metaphases with elongated and well-spread chromosomes. This technique enables us to do trypsin-Giemsa banding of chromosomes obtained from leukemic marrow cells otherwise difficult to band.
In order to determine the values of the teaching profession, first of all, the related literature…. The conceptualisation of knowledge as justified true belief has been shown to be, at the very least, an incomplete account.
One challenge to the justified true belief model arises from the proposition of situations in which a person possesses a belief that is both justified and true which some philosophers intuit should not be classified as knowledge. Though situations of this type have been imagined by a number of writers, they have come to be labelled Gettier cases. In this article, it is argued that students studying science may make claims that resemble Gettier cases. In some contexts, a student may make a claim that is both justified and true but which arises from an alternative conception of a scientific concept.
A number of instances of lucky belief in topics in science education are considered leading to an examination of the criteria teachers use to assess students' claims in different contexts. The possibility of lucky belief leads to the proposal that, in addition to the acquisition of justified true beliefs, the development of reliable belief-forming processes is a significant goal of science education.
The pedagogic value of various kinds of claims is considered and, it is argued, the criteria used to judge claims may be adjusted to suit the context of assessment. It is suggested that teachers should be alert to instances of lucky belief that mask alternative conceptions. Comparison of oxygen saturation values obtained from fingers on physically restrained or unrestrained sides of the body.
The aim of this study was to compare semiexperimentally the pulse oximetry values obtained from a finger on restrained or unrestrained sides of the body. The pulse oximeter provides a noninvasive measurement of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood. One of the procedures most frequently applied to patients in intensive care units is the application of physical restraint.
Circulation problems are the most important complication in patients who are physically restrained. Evaluation of oxygen saturation from body parts in which circulation is impeded or has deteriorated can cause false results. The research sample consisted of 30 hospitalized patients who participated in the study voluntarily and who were concordant with the inclusion criteria of the study. Patient information and patient follow-up forms were used for data collection.
Pulse oximetry values were measured simultaneously using OxiMax Nellcor finger sensors from fingers on the restrained and unrestrained sides of the body. Numeric and percentile distributions were used in evaluating the sociodemographic properties of patients. A significant difference was found between the oxygen saturation values obtained from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained and a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained.
The mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained was found to be The results of this study indicate that nurses should use a finger of an arm that is not physically restrained when evaluating oxygen saturation values to evaluate them correctly.
Scoping study on trends in the economic value of electricity reliability to the U. During the past three years, working with more than organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap.
The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy.
We first present a review of recent literature on electricity reliability costs. Next, we describe three distinct end-use approaches for tracking trends in reliability needs: 1 an analysis of the electricity-use requirements of office equipment in different commercial sectors; 2 an examination of the use of aggregate statistical indicators of industrial electricity use and economic activity to identify high reliability -requirement customer market segments; and 3 a case study of cleanrooms, which is a cross-cutting market segment known to have high reliability requirements.
Finally, we present insurance industry perspectives on electricity reliability as an example of a financial tool for addressing customers' reliability needs. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value , and Monte Carlo techniques. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Measurements of drug levels in the fluids of the inner ear are required to establish kinetic parameters and to determine the influence of specific local delivery protocols.
For most substances, this requires cochlear fluids samples to be obtained for analysis. When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug level in the perilymph of scala tympani ST is most relevant, since drug in this scala has ready access to the auditory sensory cells.
In many prior studies, ST perilymph samples have been obtained from the basal turn, either by aspiration through the round window membrane RWM or through an opening in the bony wall. A number of studies have demonstrated that such samples are likely to be contaminated with cerebrospinal fluid CSF.
CSF enters the basal turn of ST through the cochlear aqueduct when the bony capsule is perforated or when fluid is aspirated. The degree of sample contamination has, however, not been widely appreciated. In spite of this knowledge, many groups continue to sample from the base of the cochlea, as it is a well-established method.
We have developed an alternative, technically simple method to increase the proportion of ST perilymph in a fluid sample. The sample is taken from the apex of the cochlea, a site that is distant from the cochlear aqueduct. A previous problem with sampling through a perforation in the bone was that the native perilymph rapidly leaked out driven by CSF pressure and was lost to the middle ear space. We therefore developed a procedure to collect all the fluid that emerged from the perforated apex after perforation.
We evaluated the method using a marker ion trimethylphenylammonium TMPA. TMPA was applied to the perilymph of guinea pigs either by RW irrigation or by microinjection into the apical turn. Perilymph sampling from the cochlear apex: a reliable method to obtain higher purity perilymph samples from scala tympani. Recent studies have shown that perilymph samples taken through the round window membrane are highly contaminated with CSF, with samples greater than 2microL in volume containing more CSF than perilymph.
Reproducibility and interoperator reliability of obtaining images and measurements of the cervix and uterus with brachytherapy treatment applicators in situ using transabdominal ultrasound. To validate interoperator reliability of brachytherapy radiation therapists RTs in obtaining an ultrasound image and measuring the cervix and uterine dimensions using transabdominal ultrasound. Patients who underwent MRI with applicators in situ after the first insertion were included in the study.
All RTs were required to obtain a longitudinal planning image depicting the applicator in the uterine canal and measure the cervix and uterus. Measurements were analyzed with intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. All RTs were able to obtain a suitable longitudinal image for each patient in the study. Measurements were not statistically different between RTs at any measurement point. RTs with variable training attained high levels of interoperator reliability when using transabdominal ultrasound to obtain images and measurements of the uterus and cervix with brachytherapy applicators in situ.
Access to training and use of a well-defined protocol assist in achieving these high levels of reliability. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings.
Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.
The reliability , validity, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Chinese version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale. The purpose of this study was to translate the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale into Chinese and to evaluate the psychometric properties reliability and validity and the diagnostic properties sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Chinese version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale.
The accurate detection of early dementia requires screening tools with favourable cross-cultural linguistic and appropriate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values , particularly for Chinese-speaking populations. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.
Overall, participants suspected to have cognitive impairment were enrolled in the study. A test-retest for determining reliability was scheduled four weeks after the initial test. Content validity was determined by five experts, whereas construct validity was established by using contrasted group technique. The participants' clinical diagnoses were used as the standard in calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value.
The study revealed that the Chinese version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale exhibited a test-retest reliability of 0. Both the patients and healthy contrast group exhibited significant differences in their cognitive ability. The optimal cut-off points for the Chinese version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale in the test for mild cognitive impairment and dementia were 24 and 22, respectively; moreover, for these two conditions, the sensitivities of the scale were 0.
Explores how reliability and validity of assessment results should be conceived and covered in teacher education. Discusses each of the standards for teacher competence in assessment developed by the American Federation of Teachers in conjunction with other groups.
Reviews coverage of these topics in frequently used textbooks. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G sub IC , can be obtained from the climbing drum peel CDP test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam DCB test.
Simple energy methods were used to calculate G sub IC from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Valuing inter-sectoral costs and benefits of interventions in the healthcare sector: methods for obtaining unit prices.
There is a lack of knowledge about methods for valuing health intervention-related costs and monetary benefits in the education and criminal justice sectors, also known as 'inter-sectoral costs and benefits' ICBs. The objective of this study was to develop methods for obtaining unit prices for the valuation of ICBs. By conducting an exploratory literature study and expert interviews, several generic methods were developed.
The methods' feasibility was assessed through application in the Netherlands. Results were validated in an expert meeting, which was attended by policy makers, public health experts, health economists and HTA-experts, and discussed at several international conferences and symposia.
The study resulted in four methods, including the opportunity cost method A and valuation using available unit prices B , self-constructed unit prices C or hourly labor costs D. The methods developed can be used internationally and are valuable for the broad international field of HTA. A discrete choice experiment to obtain a tariff for valuing informal care situations measured with the CarerQol instrument. Economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective need to include informal care whenever relevant.
However, in practice, informal care is often neglected, because there are few validated instruments to measure and value informal care for inclusion in economic evaluations. The CarerQol, which is such an instrument, measures the impact of informal care on 7 important burden dimensions CarerQol-7D and values this in terms of general quality of life CarerQol-VAS.
The objective of the study was to calculate utility scores based on relative utility weights for the CarerQol-7D. These tariffs will facilitate inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. The choice set contained 2 unlabeled alternatives described in terms of the 7 CarerQol-7D dimensions level range: "no,"some," and "a lot".
Data were analyzed with a panel mixed multinomial parameter model including main and interaction effects of the attributes. The utility attached to informal care situations was significantly higher when this situation was more attractive in terms of fewer problems and more fulfillment or support. The interaction term between the CarerQol-7D dimensions physical health and mental health problems also significantly explained this utility.
The tariff was constructed by adding up the relative utility weights per category of all CarerQol-7D dimensions and the interaction term. We obtained a tariff providing standard utility scores for caring situations described with the CarerQol-7D. This facilitates the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. Utilization of coffee by-products obtained from semi-washed process for production of value -added compounds. The semi-dry processing of coffee generates significant amounts of coffee pulp and wastewater.
This study evaluated the production of bioethanol and volatile compounds of eight yeast strains cultivated in a mixture of these residues. Hanseniaspora uvarum UFLA CAF76 showed the best fermentation performance; hence it was selected to evaluate different culture medium compositions and inoculum size. Using these conditions, fermentation in 1 L of medium was carried out, achieving higher ethanol yield, productivity and efficiency with values of 0.
Twenty-one volatile compounds corresponding to higher alcohols, acetates, terpenes, aldehydes and volatile acids were identified by GC-FID. Such results indicate that coffee residues show an excellent potential as substrates for production of value -added compounds. To investigate the value of smart phone Scoliometer software in obtaining optimal lumbar lordosis LL during L4-S1 fusion surgery.
Between November and February , 20 patients scheduled for L4-S1 fusion surgery were prospectively enrolled the study. There were 8 males and 12 females, aged years mean, The disease duration ranged from 6 months to 6 years mean, 3. Subsequently, intraoperative CobbL4-S1 was monitored by the Scoliometer software and was defined as optimal while it was less than 5 degrees difference compared with ideal CobbL4-S1.
In addition, value of this method in obtaining optimal LL was validated by comparing the difference between ideal CobbL4-S1 and preoperative one with that between ideal CobbL4-S1 and postoperative one. The CobbL4-S1 was Scoliometer software can help surgeon obtain. Dental measurements and Bolton index reliability and accuracy obtained from 2D digital, 3D segmented CBCT, and 3d intraoral laser scanner.
Background To compare the reliability and accuracy of direct and indirect dental measurements derived from two types of 3D virtual models: generated by intraoral laser scanning ILS and segmented cone beam computed tomography CBCT , comparing these with a 2D digital model. Material and Methods One hundred patients were selected. To obtain 2D digital models, plaster models were scanned using a conventional 2D scanner. When digital models had been obtained using these three methods, direct dental measurements were measured and indirect measurements were calculated.
Differences between methods were assessed by means of paired t-tests and regression models. Results Intraobserver and interobserver error for the ILS model was less than 0. ILS models provided statistically and clinically acceptable accuracy for all dental measurements, while CBCT models showed a tendency to underestimate measurements in the lower arch, although within the limits of clinical acceptability.
Comparison of the biometric values obtained by two different A-mode ultrasound devices Eye Cubed vs. PalmScan : A Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. Methods Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. We compared the measurements with a two-sample t-test. Results 70 eyes of 70 patients were enrolled in this study.
The differences were not statistically significant regarding AL p obtained during LT measurement. The agreement is not affected by the magnitude of the ocular dimensions but only between range of 20 mm to 27 mm of AL and 3. A correction of about 0. However due to the large variability of the results, the authors recommend discretion in using this conversion factor, and to adjust the power of the intraocular lenses based upon the personal experience of the surgeon.
PalmScan : a transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. To assess the reliability of the measurements obtained with the PalmScan, when compared with another standardized A-mode ultrasound device, and assess the consistency and correlation between the two methods. Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. The PalmScan measurements were shorter, but not statistically significantly p values of AL and LT, obtained with both devices are not identical, but within the limits of agreement.
Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle. In situations when a limited number of daughters have been phenotyped for CR42, including type data for sires increased reliabilities compared with when type data were omitted.
That is, efforts to increase the reliability of fertility EBV are most cost effective when directed at obtaining a larger number of pregnancy tests. Intraocular pressure values obtained by ocular response analyzer, dynamic contour tonometry, and goldmann tonometry in keratokonic corneas.
Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the clinical agreement between these methods. The width-tapered cantilever beam method is used to quantify the debond energy adhesion of encapsulant and backsheet structures of 27 modules collected from the field. The collected population of modules contains both those that have remained in-tact and those with instances of either or both encapsulant and backsheet delamination. From this survey, initial threshold values an adhesion value above which a module should remain intact throughout its lifetime for encapsulant and backsheet interfaces are proposed.
The width-tapered cantilever beam method is used to quantify the debond energy adhesion of encapsulant and backsheet structures of 32 modules collected from the field. The collected population of modules contains both those that have remained intact and those with instances of either or both encapsulant and backsheet delamination. Death, acute coronary insufficiency, coronary intervention, coronary angiography without further intervention, and hospitalization were considered events.
There were 4 4. In event-free survival by regression analysis, GIII had more events than GI p obtained before achieving target HR was associated with better prognosis. The basic color of the maxillary right central incisors and canines of 23 subjects was spectrophotometrically determined by 4 clinicians and an experienced user development manager of the spectrophotometer. Also, to analyze the effect of different training with the instrument on interexaminer reliability , 2 of the clinicians were instructed in the use of the spectrophotometer by the experienced examiner, whereas the others instructed themselves by studying the operating manual.
Results from comparison of the 2 different training methods were inconsistent. The distribution of the measurements of 1 subject could lead to deviations in color, probably with clinical impact. For canines, the measurements were at least equally reproducible in some cases significantly more reproducible compared to central incisors.
Because of the small number of examiners and the inconsistent results, it was not possible to reach a definite conclusion about the effect of different training methods on interexaminer reliability. The value of travel time savings VOT is an estimate of what travelers would be willing to pay in order to save time on a particular trip. As faculty from a variety of disciplines, some less familiar with the….
To investigate the value of the liquid-based cytology LBC of brushing specimens obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy for clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the LBC cases in our hospital from January to May , and evaluate its role in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
The clinical data of a total of 4 cases were reviewed and 3 of them had histopathological or clinical follow-up results including 3 lung cancer cases and benign lesion cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LBC diagnosis for lung cancer were Of the 1 lung cancer cases diagnosed by brushing LBC, cases The accurate rate of subtyping of LBC for non-small cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma was Fiberoptic bronchoscopic brushing liquid-based cytology can significantly improve the detection rate of lung cancer, and have a high specificity and accurate rate of subtyping.
It is an effective tool for the diagnosis and subtyping of lung cancer. The inter-rater reliability and prognostic value of coma scales in Nepali children with acute encephalitis syndrome. The Glasgow coma scale GCS is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied.
Inter-rater reliability unweighted kappa was measured for each. Correlation and agreement between total coma score and outcome Liverpool outcome score was measured by Spearman's rank and Bland-Altman plot. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted by backward stepwise. Results Fifty children were recruited.
Inter-rater reliability using the variables scales was fair to moderate. However, the scales poorly predicted clinical outcome. Combining the scales with physiological parameters such as systolic blood pressure improved outcome prediction. The scales exhibited fair to moderate inter-rater reliability.
However, the study is inadequately powered to answer the question on the relationship between coma scales and outcome. Further larger studies are required. Can reliable values of Young's modulus be deduced from Fisher's spinning lens measurements? The current textbook view of the causes of presbyopia rests very largely on a series of experiments reported by R. Fisher some three decades ago, and in particular on the values of lens Young's modulus inferred from the deformation caused by spinning excised lenses about their optical axis Fisher We studied the extent to which inferred values of Young's modulus are influenced by assumptions inherent in the mathematical procedures used by Fisher to interpret the test and we investigated several alternative interpretation methods.
The results suggest that modelling assumptions inherent in Fisher's original method may have led to systematic errors in the determination of the Young's modulus of the cortex and nucleus. Fisher's conclusion that the cortex is stiffer than the nucleus, particularly in middle age, may be an artefact associated with these systematic errors.
Moreover, none of the models we explored are able to account for Fisher's claim that the removal of the capsule has only a modest effect on the deformations induced in the spinning lens. Inappropriate fiddling with statistical analyses to obtain a desirable p- value : tests to detect its presence in published literature.
Much has been written regarding p- values below certain thresholds most notably 0. Intuition suggests that there may be a tendency to manipulate statistical analyses to push a "near significant p- value " to a level that is considered significant. This article presents a method for detecting the presence of such manipulation herein called "fiddling" in a distribution of p- values from independent studies.
Simulations are used to illustrate the properties of the method. The results suggest that the method has low type I error and that power approaches acceptable levels as the number of p- values being studied approaches The femoral neck-shaft angle NSA is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip.
However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. Patients and Methods. Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. The mean mNSA was Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant.
We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature. The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model.
Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count BMSCC were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values.
It was assumed that as BMSCC increased i milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, ii fat and protein recoveries decreased, iii cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Vital parameter data collected in anesthesia information management systems are often used for clinical research. The validity of this type of research is dependent on the number of artifacts. In this prospective observational cohort study, the incidence of artifacts in anesthesia information management system data was investigated in children undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac procedures.
Secondary outcomes included the incidence of artifacts among deviating and nondeviating values , among the anesthesia phases, and among different anesthetic techniques. The incidence of artifacts was 0. The incidence of artifacts among deviating values was 3. Not all values in anesthesia information management systems are valid. The incidence of artifacts stored in the present pediatric anesthesia practice was low for heart rate and oxygen saturation, whereas noninvasive and invasive blood pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide had higher artifact incidences.
Deviating values are more often artifacts than values in a normal range, and artifacts are associated with the phase of anesthesia and anesthetic technique. Development of automatic data validation systems or solutions to deal with artifacts in data is warranted. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.
In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated.
Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed.
These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve , Effects of b- value and number of gradient directions on diffusion MRI measures obtained with Q-ball imaging. Schilling, Kurt G. Despite successes in resolving complex fiber configurations and probing microstructural properties of brain tissue, there is no common consensus on the optimal b- value and number of diffusion directions to use for these HARDI methods.
While this question has been addressed by analysis of the diffusion-weighted signal directly, it is unclear how this translates to the information and metrics derived from the HARDI models themselves. Using a high angular resolution data set acquired at a range of b- values , and repeated 11 times on a single subject, we study how the b- value and number of diffusion directions impacts the reproducibility and precision of metrics derived from Q-ball imaging, a popular HARDI technique.
We find that Q-ball metrics associated with tissue microstructure and white matter fiber orientation are sensitive to both the number of diffusion directions and the spherical harmonic representation of the Q-ball, and often are biased when under sampled. These results can advise researchers on appropriate acquisition and processing schemes, particularly when it comes to optimizing the number of diffusion directions needed for metrics derived from Q-ball imaging.
Vp and Vs seismic velocity models of the Sicilian-Tyrrhenian region using local earthquake data. Assessment tests to obtain reliable velocity models. In this work we present Vp and Vs velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Sicilian-Tyrrhenian region Southern Italy. The tomographic method was applied to three datasets. The first dataset contains P- and S- absolute data and P- and S- differential times regarding earthquakes occurred from to and recorded by stations.
The second dataset is composed by P- and S- absolute data and P- and S- differential times of earthquakes occurred between January and December and recorded by stations. The third dataset results as a merging of the two datasets above described. After an assessment of the results obtained after the inversion of the three datasets, we constructed the final Vp and Vs models as syntheses of all results using the WAM method. Checkerboard tests indicate that horizontal resolution allow to recovery velocity structures 20 km wide in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea and north-eastern Sicily area whereas anomalies of from 40 to 70 km are restored in the southern part of Sicily, Ionian Sea and Sicily Channel.
Vertical resolution is 3 km in the shallower parts of the models down to about 20 km and 8 km in the deeper ones down to 50 km. Furthermore, a Vp- Vs correlation analysis was performed in order to assess the minimum threshold of DWS Toomey and Foulger, that ensures a sufficient reliability of the seismic velocity distributions.
These preliminary results show highly resolved Vp and Vs models and provide new constrains on the lithospheric structures of the study area. Psychophysics, reliability , and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device. The current paper describes the design and population testing of a flicker sensitivity assessment technique corresponding to the psychophysical approach for straylight measurement.
The purpose is twofold: to check the subjects' capability to perform the straylight test and as a test for retinal integrity for other purposes. The geometry of the visual field lay-out was identical, as was the subjects' 2AFC task. A comparable reliability criterion "unc" was developed. Outcome measure was logTCS temporal contrast sensitivity.
The population test was performed in science fair settings on about subjects. Moreover, 2 subjects underwent extensive tests to check whether optical defects, mimicked with trial lenses and scatter filters, affected the TCS outcome. Repeated measures standard deviation was 0. The test outcome did not change upon a tenfold optical deterioration in visual acuity or straylight. The test has adequate precision for checking a subject's capability to perform straylight assessment.
The unc reliability criterion ensures sufficient precision, also for assessment of retinal sensitivity loss. Stimuli associated with less effort or with shorter delays to reinforcement are generally preferred over those associated with greater effort or longer delays to reinforcement. However, the opposite appears to be true of stimuli that follow greater effort or longer delays.
These data support the view that the state of the animal immediately prior to presentation of the discrimination affects the value of the reinforcement that follows it. This contrast effect is analogous to effects that when they occur in humans have been attributed to more complex cognitive and social factors.
High- value chemicals obtained from selective photo-oxidation of glucose in the presence of nanostructured titanium photocatalysts. Glucose was oxidized in the presence of powdered TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-promoted sol-gel method.
The catalysts were more selective towards glucaric acid, gluconic acid and arabitol total selectivity approx. Such relatively good selectivity towards high- valued molecules are attributed to the physico-chemical properties e. The TiO 2 photocatalysts have potential for water purification and energy production and for use in the pharmaceutical, food, perfume and fuel industries. Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor.
A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction.
Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and one white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.
Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary.
Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success. This paper describes a winder cable that can be used to guide the movement of radiography source out of and into the projector that can be controlled by a remote control system.
The system comprises of a gear, reversible motor and low frequency automatic controller. This system is powered by DC chargeable battery. Snow accretion on overhead wires. Sakamoto, Y. Wet snow accretion can cause extensive damage to transmission systems. This paper reviewed some of the difficulties faced by researchers in the study of wet snow accretion on overhead lines in Japan. The study of snow accretion phenomena is complicated by the range of phase changes in water.
Snowflakes produced in an upper atmospheric layer with a temperature below freezing do not melt when they go through a lower atmospheric layer with a temperature above freezing, but are in a mixed state of solid and liquid due to the latent heat of melting. The complicated properties of water make studies of snow accretion difficult, as well as the fact that snow changes its physical properties rapidly, due to the effects of ambient temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation.
The adhesive forces that cause snow accretion include freezing; bonding through freezing; sintering; condensation and freezing of vapor in the air; mechanical intertwining of snowflakes; capillary action due to liquids; coherent forces between ice particles and water formed through the metamorphosis of snowflakes.
In addition to these complexities, differences in laboratory room environments and natural snow environments can also pose difficulties for researchers. Equations describing the relationship between the density of accreted snow and the meteorological parameters involved were presented, as well as empirical equations which suggested that snow accretion efficiency has a dependency on air temperature.
An empirical model for estimating snow loads in Japan was outlined, as well as various experiments observing show shedding. Correlations for wet snow accretion included precipitation intensity; duration of precipitation; air temperature; wind speed and wind direction in relation to the overhead line. Issues concerning topography and wet snow accretion were reviewed. It was concluded that studies of snow accretion will benefit by the collection of data in each matrix of the relevant parameters.
To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental Recent advancements in system design for miniaturized MEMS-based laser projectors. Scholles, M. Laser projection systems that use the flying spot principle and which are based on a single MEMS micro scanning mirrors are a very promising way to build ultra-compact projectors that may fit into mobile devices.
First demonstrators that show the feasibility of this approach and the applicability of the micro scanning mirror developed by Fraunhofer IPMS for these systems have already been presented. However, a number of items still have to be resolved until miniaturized laser projectors are ready for the market. This contribution describes progress on several different items, each of them of major importance for laser projection systems.
Secondly, the degree of integration of the electronics has been enhanced by design of an application specific analog front end IC for the micro scanning mirror. It has been fabricated in a special high voltage technology and does not only allow to generate driving signals for the scanning mirror with amplitudes of up to V but also integrates position detection of the mirror by several methods. Thirdly, first results concerning Speckle reduction have been achieved, which is necessary for generation of images with high quality.
Other aspects include laser modulation and solutions regarding projection on tilted screens which is possible because of the unlimited depth of focus. Logical reformulation of quantum mechanics. Projectors in semiclassical physics. This is a technical paper providing the proofs of three useful theorems playing a central role in two kinds of physical applications: an explicit logical and mathematical formulation of the interpretation of quantum mechanics and the corresponding description of irreversibility.
The Appendix contains a brief mathematical introduction to microlocal analysis. Three theorems are derived in the text: A Associating a projector in Hilbert space with a macroscopic regular cell in classical phase space. B Specifying the algebra of the projectors associated with different cells.
C Showing the connection between the classical motion of cells and the Schroedinger evolution of projectors for a class of regular Hamiltonians corresponding approximately to deterministic systems as described within the framework of quantum mechanics. Applications to the interpretation of quantum mechanics are given and the consequences for irreversibility will be given later. Anterior internal impingement of the shoulder in rugby players and other overhead athletes.
Conclusion: This series of anterior internal impingement, which we believe is the largest in the literature to date, demonstrates the value of an to assess and successfully treat overhead athletes with anterior impingement syndrome. Variance analysis refines overhead cost control. Many healthcare organizations may not fully realize the benefits of standard cost accounting techniques because they fail to routinely report volume variances in their internal reports.
If overhead allocation is routinely reported on internal reports, managers can determine whether billing remains current or lost charges occur. Healthcare organizations' use of standard costing techniques can lead to more realistic performance measurements and information system improvements that alert management to losses from unrecovered overhead in time for corrective action. Canonical surfaces associated with projectors in Grassmannian sigma models.
We discuss the construction of higher-dimensional surfaces based on the harmonic maps of S 2 into CP N-1 and other Grassmannians. We show that there are two ways of implementing this procedure - both based on the use of the relevant projectors. We study various properties of such projectors and show that the Gaussian curvature of these surfaces, in general, is not constant.
We look in detail at the surfaces corresponding to the Veronese sequence of such maps and show that for all of them this curvature is constant but its value depends on which mapping is used in the construction of the surface. CD roms and multimedia projector as complimentary educational This paper examines the potentials of utilizing Compact Disk Read Only Memory CD-ROM and the multimedia projector as complimentary educational technology for teaching music in colleges of education in Nigeria.
While recognizing the problem of ineffective methods of teaching in Nigeria's educational system, the Uniqueness of thermodynamic projector and kinetic basis of molecular individualism. Three results are presented: First, we solve the problem of persistence of dissipation for reduction of kinetic models. Kinetic equations with thermodynamic Lyapunov functions are studied.
Uniqueness of the thermodynamic projector is proven: There exists only one projector which transforms any vector field equipped with the given Lyapunov function into a vector field with the same Lyapunov function for a given anzatz manifold which is not tangent to the Lyapunov function levels. Second, we use the thermodynamic projector for developing the short memory approximation and coarse-graining for general nonlinear dynamic systems.
We prove that in this approximation the entropy production increases. The theorem about entropy overproduction. In example, we apply the thermodynamic projector to derive the equations of reduced kinetics for the Fokker-Planck equation.
A new class of closures is developed, the kinetic multipeak polyhedra. Distributions of this type are expected in kinetic models with multidimensional instability as universally as the Gaussian distribution appears for stable systems. The number of possible relatively stable states of a nonequilibrium system grows as 2 m, and the number of macroscopic parameters is in order mn, where n is the dimension of configuration space, and m is the number of independent unstable directions in this space.
This is the third result. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method. We present an implementation of localized atomic-orbital basis sets in the projector augmented wave PAW formalism within the density-functional theory. The implementation in the real-space GPAW code provides a complementary basis set to the accurate but computationally more demanding grid Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors.
Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes LEDs for projectors , which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment.
A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained.
With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method.
We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments.
The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead.
In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead , we develop an overhead -aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized.
The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead -aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched. Every public-key encryption scheme has to incorporate a certain amount of randomness into its ciphertexts to provide semantic security against chosen ciphertext attacks IND-CCA. The difference between the length of a ciphertext and the embedded message is called the ciphertext overhead.
While a generic brute-force adversary running in 2t steps gives a theoretical lower bound of t bits on the ciphertext overhead for IND-CPA security, the best known IND-CCA secure schemes demand roughly 2t bits even in the random oracle model.
We close the gap by proposing an IND-CCA secure scheme whose ciphertext overhead matches the generic lower bound up to a small constant. Our scheme uses a variation of a four-round Feistel network in the random oracle model and hence belongs to the family of OAEP-based schemes.
Maybe of independent interest is a new efficient method to encrypt long messages exceeding the length of the permutation while retaining the minimal overhead. A new ray-driven projector -backprojector which can easily be adapted for hardware implementation is described and simulated in software. The projector -backprojector discretely models the attenuated Radon transform of a source distributed within an attenuating medium as line integrals of discrete pixels, obtained using the standard sampling technique of averaging the emission source or attenuation distribution over small square regions.
Attenuation factors are calculated for each pixel during the projection and backprojection operations instead of using precalculated values. The calculation of the factors requires a specification of the attenuation distribution, estimated either from an assumed constant distribution and an approximate body outline or from transmission measurements. The distribution of attenuation coefficients is stored in memory for efficient access during the projection and backprojection operations.
The reconstruction of the source distribution is obtained by using a conjugate gradient or SIRT type iterative algorithm which requires one projection and one backprojection operation for each iteration. Design of LED projector based on gradient-index lens. In this study, a new type of projector light path is designed to eliminate the deficits of existing projection systems, such as complex structure and low collection efficiency.
Using a three-color LED array as the lighting source, by means of the special optical properties of a gradient-index lens, the complex structure of the traditional projector is simplified. Traditional components, such as the color wheel, relay lens, and mirror, become unnecessary. In this way, traditional problems, such as low utilization of light energy and loss of light energy, are solved.
With the help of Zemax software, the projection lens is optimized. The optimized projection lens, LED, gradient-index lens, and digital micromirror device are imported into Tracepro. The ray tracing results show that both the utilization of light energy and the uniformity are improved significantly.
Topological susceptibility from twisted mass fermions using spectral projectors. Cichy, K. John von Neumann-Inst. Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. We discuss the computation of the topological susceptibility using the method of spectral projectors and dynamical twisted mass fermions. Projector primary-based optimization for superimposed projection mappings. Recently, many researchers have focused on fully overlapping projections for three-dimensional 3-D projection mapping systems but reproducing a high-quality appearance using this technology still remains a challenge.
On top of existing color compensation-based methods, much effort is still required to faithfully reproduce an appearance that is free from artifacts, colorimetric inconsistencies, and inappropriate illuminance over the 3-D projection surface. According to our observation, this is due to the fact that overlapping projections are treated as an additive-linear mixture of color. However, this is not the case according to our elaborated observations.
We propose a method that enables us to use high-quality appearance data that are measured from original objects and regenerate the same appearance by projecting optimized images using multiple projectors , ensuring that the projection-rendered results look visually close to the real object. We prepare our target appearances by photographing original objects.
Then, using calibrated projector -camera pairs, we compensate for missing geometric correspondences to make our method robust against noise. The heart of our method is a target appearance-driven adaptive sampling of the projection surface followed by a representation of overlapping projections in terms of the projector -primary response. This gives off projector -primary weights to facilitate blending and the system is applied with constraints.
These samples are used to populate a light transport-based system. Then, the system is solved minimizing the error to get the projection images in a noise-free manner by utilizing intersample overlaps. We ensure that we make the best utilization of available hardware resources to recreate projection mapped appearances that look as close to the original object as possible.
Our experimental results show compelling results in terms of visual similarity and colorimetric error. Follow the light: projector -based augmented reality intracorporeal system for laparoscopic surgery. A projector -based augmented reality intracorporeal system PARIS is presented that includes a miniature tracked projector , tracked marker, and laparoscopic ultrasound LUS transducer. In particular, it has been demonstrated to effectively assist in the identification of tumor boundaries during surgery and to improve the surgeon's understanding of the underlying anatomy.
PARIS achieves this by displaying the orthographic projection of the cancerous tumor on the kidney's surface. The performance of PARIS was evaluated in a user study with two surgeons who performed 32 simulated robot-assisted partial nephrectomies. They performed 16 simulated partial nephrectomies with PARIS for guidance and 16 simulated partial nephrectomies with only an LUS transducer for guidance. Efficient green lasers for high-resolution scanning micro- projector displays.
Laser-based projectors are gaining increased acceptance in mobile device market due to their low power consumption, superior image quality and small size. The basic configuration of such micro- projectors is a miniature mirror that creates an image by raster scanning the collinear red, blue and green laser beams that are individually modulated on a pixel-bypixel basis. The image resolution of these displays can be limited by the modulation bandwidth of the laser sources, and the modulation speed of the green laser has been one of the key limitations in the development of these displays.
We will discuss how this limitation is fundamental to the architecture of many laser designs and then present a green laser configuration which overcomes these difficulties. In this green laser architecture infra-red light from a distributed Bragg-reflector DBR laser diode undergoes conversion to green light in a waveguided second harmonic generator SHG crystal.
The direct doubling in a single pass through the SHG crystal allows the device to operate at the large modulation bandwidth of the DBR laser. Overhead distribution line models for harmonics studies. Carson's formulae and Maxwell's potential coefficients are used for calculating the per unit length series impedances and shunt capacitances of the overhead lines. The per unit length values are then used for building the models, nominal pi-circuit, and equivalent pi-circuit at the harmonic frequencies.
This paper studies the accuracy of these models for presenting the overhead distribution lines in steady-state harmonic solutions at frequencies up to 5 kHz. The models are verified with a field test on a 25 kV distribution line and the sensitivity of the models to ground resistivity, skin effect, and multiple grounding is reported.
Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification.
It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews. Operational overhead of moving to higher energies. The operational overheads of moving above 3. The costs of performing such a move at the start, or during, the run are evaluated. The impact of operation with beams above 3. Finally the possible benefits of increasing the beam energy on the luminosity are discussed. Analysis of the existing conditions was carried out to proffers solution to the cause of the problems occurring due to the vehicle competing for space at this intersection.
Before carrying out the analysis a traffic surveys at peak hours for morning to am and afternoon to pm were conducted using 15 minutes interval. From the analysis it was found out that the peak hour factor and flow rate was 0. This implies that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow hence overhead roadway was introduced to improve the efficiency of the intersection.
The overhead -roadway is of m length with 7 spans 20 m per span. It consists of a deck slab longitudinal girders cross girders deck beam pier foundation and retailing wall. All structural parts for this Flyover were designed using Staad professional software package and Manual method. Speckle perception and disturbance limit in laser based projectors. We investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector.
For this purpose, we equipped a movie theatre room with a prototype laser projector. This study is important as the introduction of lasers in projection systems has been hampered by the presence of speckle in projected images. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content.
As is also discussed in [Verschaffelt et al. As we could not independently tune the speckle contrast of each of the primary colors, this speckle disturbance limit seems to be determined by the 6. The speckle disturbance limit for movies thus turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.
Acoustic beam control in biomimetic projector via velocity gradient. A biomimetic projector BioP based on computerized tomography of pygmy sperm whale's biosonar system has been designed using gradient-index GRIN material. The directivity of this BioP device was investigated as function of frequency and the velocity gradient of the GRIN material.
A strong beam control over a broad bandwidth at the subwavelength scale has been achieved. Compared with a bare subwavelength source, the main lobe pressure of the BioP is about five times as high and the angular resolution is one order of magnitude better. Our results indicate that this BioP has excellent application potential in miniaturized underwater sonars. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method.
We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector -augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg Optimization of freeform lightpipes for light-emitting-diode projectors.
Standard nonimaging components used to collect and integrate light in light-emitting-diode-based projector light engines such as tapered rods and compound parabolic concentrators are compared to optimized freeform shapes in terms of transmission efficiency and spatial uniformity. The optimization process involves a manual study of the trends for different shapes and the use of an optimization algorithm to further improve the performance of the freeform lightpipe. State stability analysis for the fermionic projector in the continuum.
The principle of the fermionic projector in the continuum gives an indication that there might be a deeper reason why elementary particles only appear with a few definite masses. In this thesis the existence of approximately state-stable configurations is shown.
In order to achieve that, we make use of a variational principle for the fermionic projector in the continuum which contains certain contributions supported on the light cone. In a certain sense, these extra terms contain the structure of the underlying discrete spacetime. Lorentz invariant distributions and their convolutions are studied. Some of these are well-defined because the convolution integrals have compactly supported integrands.
Other convolutions can be regularized such that the property of being ill-defined only plays a role on the light cone. These results are used to analyze the variational principle and to give criteria for state stability, which can be numerically analyzed. Some plots are presented to allow a decision about state stability and to show how possible configurations could look like. Pure quasifree states of the Dirac field from the fermionic projector.
We prove that this state generically fails to be Hadamard. However, we also show how a modified version of the construction, inspired by the work of Brum and Fredenhagen, yields states that are Hadamard. We also relate the Hadamard condition to the finiteness of fluctuations of Wick polynomials. Real-space grid implementation of the projector augmented wave method. B 50, sdg for density functional theory sDFTd calculations is presented.
The use of uniform three-dimensional s3Dd real-space grids for representing wave functions, densities We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by calculating the atomization energies of 20 small molecules, and the bulk modulus and lattice constants of bulk aluminum. We show that the approach in terms of computational efficiency The light engine module and the PCBA main board are the essence of the projectors and it is at May 18, A copy of the final determination is attached.
Any party-at-interest, as defined in The Kochen—Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable theories are incompatible with quantum mechanics. We provide a state-independent proof of the Kochen—Specker theorem using the smallest number of projectors , i. Full Text Available Many electronic devices have a network connection facility. Projectors today have network facilities to bolster its customer satisfaction in everyday use.
By using a device that can be controlled, the expected availability and reliability of the presentation system computer and projector can be maintained to keep itscondition ready to use for presentation. Nevertheless, there is still a projector device that has no network facilities so that the necessary additional equipment with expensive price.
Besides, control equipment in large quantities has problems in timing and the number of technicians in performing controls. This study began with study of literature, from searching for the projectors that has LAN and software to control and finding a number of computer control softwares where the focus is easy to use and affordable. Result of this research is creating asystem which contains suggestions of procurement of computer hardware, hardware and software projectors each of which can be controlled centrally from a distance.
Realizing the increased potential of an open-system high-definition digital projector design. Modern video projectors are becoming more compact and capable. Various display technologies are very competitive and are delivering higher performance and more compact projectors to market at an ever quickening pace. However the end users are often left with the daunting task of integrating the 'off the self projectors ' into a previously existing system. As the projectors become more digitally enhanced, there will be a series of designs, and the digital projector technology matures.
The design solutions will be restricted by the state of the art at the time of manufacturing. In order to allow the most growth and performance for a given price, many design decisions will be made and revisited over a period of years or decades. A modular open digital system design concept is indeed a major challenge of the future high definition digital displays for al applications.
Lightning in hybrid cable- overhead lines and consequent transient overvoltages. Whereas lines that consist entirely of underground cable are naturally protected from lightning, the phenomenon must be considered for lines that are a mix of overhead lines and underground cables. The difference between overhead lines and underground cables wave impedances may lead to transient A projector of iridium wires: motivations and preliminary studies.
Though the majority of procedures involved in curietherapy with Iridium wires cause very few problems concerning radiation protection, this is not true in all cases: in elderly of debilitated patients, young children, or when using special techniques curietherapy for prostate of bladder cancers for example. In these cases, the need for frequent treatment exposes the therapists to increased doses. The projector of Iridium wires was conceived in order to reduce this irradiated hazard.
A simple manipulation places the radioactive wires in a lead container during treatment, and then replaces them in the right position after therapy. This apparatus appears to offer the possibility of: an almost total protection of the therapists, and thus an opportunity for enlarging the indications for curietherapy; an improved quality of treatment to the patient during the application [fr.
A hybrid structured-light measurement using a laser projector. For a shiny and diffusive surface with complex shape, neither of the systems could manage it individually at a low cost. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a method combining these two ways of projections together using a laser projector , which could project fringe patterns and scanning-laser-stripes both.
Then combine two disparity maps together by quality maps and reconstruct the surface of the object with the combined disparity map. Real experiments are carried out to verify the proposed method and to evaluate the system performance. The plain, the colored and the metal plastic mixed objects are all reconstructed successfully in the proposed method. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use. Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use.
This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.
Projectors and seed conformal blocks for traceless mixed-symmetry tensors. In this paper we derive the projectors to all irreducible SO d representations traceless mixed-symmetry tensors that appear in the partial wave decomposition of a conformal correlator of four stress-tensors in d dimensions. Further results include a differential operator that generates the projectors to traceless mixed-symmetry tensors and the general normalization constant of the shadow operator.
Costa, Miguel S. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops. Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems.
With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From through , in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.
Actual practical considerations about overhead line engineering. Planning of overhead lines is booming; Aktuelle praktische Betrachtung der Freileitungstechnik. Freileitungsplanung boomt. The power breakdowns we encountered in March due to extreme weather conditions and in November due to overload of overhead lines made overhead line techniques more interesting. After pausing for decades, technical development and investments for overhead lines in Germany become necessary again, meaning reconstructions and new constructions worth several millions of investment.
An additional reason for this is given by the Federal Government's request for the construction of new power plants and overhead lines as well as by the energy plan of the EU-Commission. The power supplier have begun planning already. These plans require new and economical overhead lines. Proposals and practical examples are shown in the following article. We report a beam shaping system for generating high intensity programmable opticalspots using mGPC: matched filtering combined with Generalized Phase Contrastapplying two consumer handheld pico- projectors.
Such a system presents a low costalternative for optical trapping and manipulation, optical lattices and other beamshaping applications usually implemented with high-end spatial light modulators. Portable pico- projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon LCoS devices were usedas binary ph Realizability of drivers is estimated under rigid operation conditions using the RTM60 real time monitor.
The problem of the projector testing is also considered. Employing the general ordering theorem GOT , operational methods and incomplete 2-D Hermite polynomials, we derive the t-ordered expansion of Fock space projectors. Using the result, the general ordered form of the coherent state projectors is obtained. This indeed gives a new integration formula regarding incomplete 2-D Hermite polynomials.
In addition, the orthogonality relation of the incomplete 2-D Hermite polynomials is derived to resolve Dattoli's failure. In today's multimedia era, visual systems are widely used not only for two-dimensional images but also for the depiction of virtual reality and for simulated three-dimensional images. At the same time, the projection technology used in large-screen projectors is shifting from the cathode ray tube CRT to the liquid crystal display LCD.
Mattsson, Ann E. Multi-Scale Science. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data.
This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave PAW potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Study on earthquake responses of overhead traveling cranes. In nuclear power plants, large-size overhead traveling cranes, such as reactor building crane and turbine building crane, are installed.
These overhead cranes are used for transporting heavy loads on the operation floor, and call for safety and reliability even during strong earthquake as well as under the normal operational conditions. The seismic behaviors of overhead traveling cranes, which move on the rails, may be different from those of other structures that are anchored to the building: in the case of cranes, traveling wheels and rails can slip relative to each other when the horizontal seismic force reaches the level of frictional force.
In Japan, therefore, a practical guide to the seismic design that considers the sliding has been proposed. However, detailed experimental study on sliding between wheels and rails has not been carried out. In this study, the seismic behaviors of traveling overhead cranes accompanied by sliding between wheels and rails in the traveling direction are examined.
Problems due to icing of overhead lines - Part II. A companion paper describes uncertainties in overhead line design due to the variability of ice and wind loads. This paper reviews two other effects due to icing; conductor galloping and torsional instability, which require further study. Asserts that small group collaborative writing exercises that produce overhead transparencies for large class critique can be an effective method for teaching letter and memorandum construction.
Offers a five-step process for encouraging individual and collaborative writing skills. A modelling approach for railway overhead line equipment asset management. If OLE asset management strategies can be evaluated using a whole lifecycle cost analysis that considers degradation processes and maintenance activities of the OLE components, the investment required to deliver the level of performance desired by railway customers and regulators can be based on evidence from the analysis results.
Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem.
More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled. The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines.
The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.
The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface. Planning of overhead contact lines and simulation of the pantograph running; Oberleitungsplanung und Simulation des Stromabnehmerlaufes.
Using the software FLTG all planning steps for overhead contact lines can be carried out based on the parameters of the contact line type and the line data. Contact line supports and individual spans are presented graphically. The geometric interaction of pantograph and contact line can be simulated taking into account the pantograph type, its sway and the wind action. Thus, the suitability of a line for the interoperability of the transEuropean rail system can be demonstrated.
Full Text Available Radical chemistry is a very convenient way to produce polymer materials. Here, an application of a particular photoinduced radical chemistry is illustrated. Excellent polymerization-initiating abilities are found and high final reactive function conversions are obtained.
Interestingly, these new derivatives display much better near-UV polymerization-initiating abilities compared to a reference UV absorbing carbazole CARET 9H-carbazoleethanol demonstrating that the new substituents have good ability to red shift the absorption of the proposed photoinitiators. All the more strikingly, in combination with iodonium salt, Cd1—Cd7 are likewise preferred as cationic photoinitiators over the notable photoinitiator bis 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphenylphosphine oxide BAPO for mild irradiation conditions featuring their remarkable reactivity.
In particular their utilization in the preparation of new cationic resins for LED projector 3D printing is envisioned. A full picture of the included photochemical mechanisms is given. Dynamic contrast enhancement in widefield microscopy using projector -generated illumination patterns. We present a simple and cost-effective optical protocol to realize contrast-enhancement imaging such as dark-field, optical-staining and oblique illumination microscopy of transparent samples on a conventional widefield microscope using commercial multimedia projectors.
The projector functions as both light source and mask generator implemented by creating slideshows of the filters projected along the illumination planes of the microscope. The projected optical masks spatially modulate the distribution of the incident light to selectively enhance structures within the sample according to spatial frequency thereby increasing the image contrast of translucent biological specimens.
Any amplitude filter can be customized and dynamically controlled so that switching from one imaging modality to another involves a simple slide transition and can be executed at a keystroke with no physical filters and no moving optical parts. The polarization properties of the projector are then utilized to discriminate birefringent and non-birefringent sites on the sample using single-shot, simultaneous polarization and optical-staining microscopy.
In addition to dynamic pattern generation and polarization, the projector also provides high illumination power and spectral excitation selectivity through its red-green-blue RGB channels. We exploit this last property to explore the feasibility of using video projectors to selectively excite stained samples and perform fluorescence imaging in tandem with reflectance and polarization reflectance microscopy.
On the use of video projectors for three-dimensional scanning. Structured light projection is one of the most useful methods for accurate three-dimensional scanning. Video projectors are typically used as the illumination source. However, because video projectors are not designed for structured light systems, some considerations such as gamma calibration must be taken into account. In this work, we present a simple method for gamma calibration of video projectors. First, the experimental fringe patterns are normalized.
Then, the samples of the fringe patterns are sorted in ascending order. The sample sorting leads to a simple three-parameter sine curve that is fitted using the Gauss-Newton algorithm. The novelty of this method is that the sorting process removes the effect of the unknown phase. Thus, the resulting gamma calibration algorithm is significantly simplified.
The feasibility of the proposed method is illustrated in a three-dimensional scanning experiment. Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors , most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process.
The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi- projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators.
The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users. Cloud bursting is one of the key research topics in the cloud computing communities. A well designed cloud bursting module enables private clouds to automatically launch virtual machines VMs to public clouds when more resources are needed.
One of the main challenges in developing a cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on system operational data obtained from FermiCloud, a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows, the VM launching overhead is not a constant.
Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launching overhead reference model is needed. In this paper, we first develop a VM launching overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud. Second, we apply the developed reference model on FermiCloud and compare calculated VM launching overhead values based on the model with measured overhead values on FermiCloud.
Our empirical results on FermiCloud indicate that the developed reference model is accurate. We believe, with the guidance of the developed reference model, efficient resource allocation algorithms can be developed for cloud bursting process to minimize the operational cost and resource waste. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states.
We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.
Finster, Felix, E-mail: finster ur. Roeken mathematik. Solving Witten's SFT by insertion of operators on projectors. E-mail: hyanga MIT. Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory.
We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector , the energy density can account for at most The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.
Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs.
The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones. Seismic behavior with sliding of overhead travelling crane.
In this study, the seismic behavior of an overhead travelling crane with the sliding between travelling wheels and rails is examined. First, the dynamic characteristic test of the actual crane installed in a reactor building and the sliding test of the rigid-element model to observe the basic sliding characteristic were performed.
Next, to examine the dynamic response with sliding, shaking tests using the scaled model of an actual crane were conducted. From these results, useful design information about seismic behavior of an overhead travelling crane was obtained. It was also observed that numerical predictions considering sliding behavior have good agreement with the experimental results and are applicable to seismic design.
Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method. We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids.
The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we Calibration method for projector -camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system. By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional 3D surfaces of micro-components.
This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry FPP system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector -camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed.
First, the initial parameters, e. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system.
Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable. This paper describes a system called GENTORO that uses a robot and a handheld projector for supporting children's storytelling activities.
GENTORO differs from many existing systems in that children can make a robot play their own story in a physical space augmented by mixed-reality technologies. Pilot studies have been conducted to clarify the….
Portable pico- projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon LCoS devices were used as binary phase-only spatial light modulators by setting the appropriate polarization of the illumination Calibration of a camera— projector measurement system and error impact analysis. In the camera— projector measurement system, calibration is a key to the measurement accuracy; especially, it is more difficult to obtain the same calibration accuracy for projector than camera due to the inaccurate corresponding relationship between its calibration points and imaging points.
Thus, based on stereo vision measurement models of the camera and the projector , a calibration method with direct linear transformation DLT and bundle adjustment BA is introduced to adjust the corresponding relationships for better optimization purpose in this paper, which minimize the effect of inaccurate calibration points.
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A bill may be passed from a committee only by a majority of the committee membership. A simple majority of those present and voting is sufficient to adopt committee amendments. Subcommittees may be appointed by committee chairmen to consider subjects specified by the committee and shall report back to the committee.
A committee shall act only when together, and all votes must be taken in the presence of the committee. A member shall not be recorded as voting unless he was actually present in the committee at the time of the vote. The chairman shall vote on all final actions on bills or resolutions. The provisions of this subsection do not prohibit the prefiling of legislative bills and resolutions on behalf of a committee in the manner prescribed by the legislative commission. All committee and subcommittee meetings are open to the public, except as otherwise provided in Senate Standing Rule No.
Before reporting a bill or resolution to the Senate, a committee may reconsider its action. A motion to reconsider must be made by a member who voted with the prevailing side. Committee chairmen shall determine the agenda of each meeting except that committee members may request an item for the agenda by communicating with the chairman at least 4 days before the meeting.
A majority of a committee may, by vote, add an item to the agenda of the next regularly scheduled meeting. Secretaries to committees shall give notices of hearings on bills to anyone requesting notices of particular bills. All committees shall keep minutes of meetings. Any member may submit to the secretary additional remarks to be included in the minutes and records of committee meetings.
At the conclusion of the legislative session, the Secretary of the Senate shall deliver all minutes and records of committee meetings in her possession to the Director of the Legislative Counsel Bureau. In addition to the minutes, the committee secretary shall maintain a record of all bills, including:. Each committee secretary shall file the minutes of each meeting with the Secretary of the Senate [ within 2 weeks ] as soon as practicable after the meeting.
All committee minutes are open to public inspection upon request and during normal business hours. Review of State Agency Programs. Motions Generally. No motion [ shall ] may be debated until it is announced by the President. By consent of the Senate , a motion may be withdrawn before amendment or decision. Precedence of Motions. When a question is under debate no motion shall be received but the following, which shall have precedence in the order named:.
To adjourn. For a call of the Senate. To lay on the table. For the previous question. To postpone to a day certain. To commit. To amend. To postpone indefinitely. The first four shall be decided without debate. When Not Entertained.
When a motion to commit, to postpone to a day certain, or to postpone indefinitely has been decided, it [ shall ] must not be again entertained on the same day. When a question has been postponed indefinitely , it [ shall ] must not again be introduced during the session [ except ] unless this rule [ may be ] is suspended by a two-thirds vote. There must be no reconsideration of a vote on a motion to postpone indefinitely. Particular Motions. To Adjourn. A motion to adjourn shall always be in order.
The name of the Senator moving to adjourn, and the time when the motion was made, shall be entered on the Journal. Lay on the Table. A motion to lay on or take from the table shall be carried by a majority vote. To Strike Enacting Clause. A motion to strike out the enacting clause of a bill or resolution [ shall have precedence of ] has precedence over a motion to commit or amend. Division of Question. Any Senator may call for a division of a question.
A question must be divided if it embraces subjects so distinct that [ one being ] if one subject is taken away, a substantive proposition [ shall remain ] remains for the decision of the Senate. A motion to strike out and insert [ shall ] must not be divided. To Reconsider — Precedence of. A motion to reconsider [ shall have ] has precedence over every other motion, except a motion to adjourn.
No notice of reconsideration of any final vote [ shall be ] is in order on the day preceding the last day of the session. Explanation of Motion. Speaking on Question. No Senator [ shall speak more ] may speak:. Incidental and subsidiary questions arising during debate shall not be considered the same question.
Previous Question. A person who is speaking on a question shall not while he has the floor move to put that question. Suspension of Rule. When the suspension of a rule is called for, and after due notice from the President no objection is offered, he can announce the rule suspended and the Senate may proceed accordingly; but this shall not apply to that portion of Senate Standing Rule No. Notices of Bills, Topics and Public Hearings. Adequate notice shall be provided to the Legislators and the public by posting information relative to the bills, topics and public hearings which are to come before committees.
Notices shall include the date, time, place and agenda, and shall be posted conspicuously in the legislative building, shall appear in the daily history, and shall be made available to the news media. This requirement of notice may be suspended for an emergency by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the committee members appointed. Any Senator, or Senators, may protest against the action of the Senate upon any question, and have such protest entered upon the Journal.
Privilege of the Floor. To preserve decorum and facilitate the business of the Senate, only [ state officers and officers and members of the Senate ] the following persons may be present on the floor of the Senate during formal sessions [ , except for employees ] :. Guests of Senators must be seated in a section of the upper or lower gallery of the Senate Chamber to be specially designated by the Sergeant at Arms. The Majority [ Floor ] Leader may specify special occasions when guests may be seated on the floor of the Senate with a Senator.
A majority of Senators may authorize the President to have the Senate Chamber cleared of all persons except Senators and officers of the Senate. The Senate Chamber may not be used for any [ but ] business other than legislative business [ except by permission given by a two-thirds vote.
Such material must contain the name of the Legislator requesting the placement of [ such ] the material on the desk or [ contain ] a designation of the origin of [ such ] the material. This rule does not apply to books containing the legislative bills and resolutions, the [ legislative daily histories, the legislative daily journals, ] daily histories and daily journals of the Senate or Assembly, or Legislative Counsel Bureau material.
Petitions and Memorials. The contents of any petition or memorial shall be briefly stated by the President or any Senator presenting it. It shall then lie on the table or be referred, as the President or Senate may direct. Objection to Reading of Paper. Where the reading of any paper is called for, and is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined by a vote of the Senate, and without debate. Questions Relating to Priority of Business.
All questions relating to the priority of business shall be decided without debate. Skeleton Bills. A skeleton bill will be [ provided for purposes of introduction and committee referral. Such bill will be ] a presentation of ideas or statements of purpose, sufficient in style and expression to enable the Legislature and the committee to which the bill may be referred to consider the substantive merits of the legislation proposed. Information Concerning Bills.
Bills introduced may be accompanied by information relative to witnesses and selected persons of departments and agencies who should be considered for committee hearings on the proposed legislation. At the time of introduction of a bill, a list may be given to the Secretary of witnesses who are proponents of the measure together with their addresses and telephone numbers. This information may be provided by:. The Secretary shall deliver this information to the chairman of the committee to which the bill is referred.
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The President shall give notice at each whether it be first, second or third reading. No bill [ shall ] may be committed until once read, nor amended until twice read. The third reading of every bill [ shall ] must be by sections. Second Reading File — Consent Calendar. All bills or resolutions reported by committee [ shall ] must be placed on a second reading file unless recommended for placement on the consent calendar. A committee shall not recommend a bill or resolution for placement on the consent calendar if:.
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No motion to reconsider [ shall be ] is in order on the day [ such ] the final vote was taken, except by unanimous consent. Motions to reconsider a vote upon amendments to any pending question may be made and decided at once. Different Subject Not Admitted as Amendment. No subject different from that under consideration shall be admitted as an amendment; and no bill or resolution shall be amended by incorporating any irrelevant subject matter or by association or annexing any other bill or resolution pending in the Senate, but a substitute may be offered at any time so long as the original is open to amendment.
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Special Order. The President shall call the Senate to order on the arrival of the time fixed for the consideration of a special order, and announce that the special order is before the Senate, which shall be considered, unless it be postponed by a two-thirds vote, and any business before the Senate at the time of the announcement of the special order shall go to Unfinished Business. Messages from the Governor, state officers and from the Assembly may be considered at any time by a vote of the Senate.
Contests of Elections. The Senate shall not dismiss a statement of contest for want of form if any ground of contest is alleged with sufficient certainty to inform the defendant of the charges he is required to meet. The following grounds are sufficient, but are not exclusive:.
The contest must be submitted so far as may be possible upon depositions or by written or oral arguments as the Senate may order. Any party to a contest may take the deposition of any witness at any time after the statement of contest is filed with the Secretary of State and before the contest is finally decided.
If oral statements are made at any hearing before the Senate or a committee thereof which purport to establish matters of fact, they must be made under oath. Strict rules of evidence do not apply. The contestant has the burden of proving that any irregularities shown were of such nature as to establish the probability that the result of the election was changed thereby. After consideration of all the evidence, the Senate shall declare the defendant elected unless the Senate finds from the evidence that a person other than the defendant received the greatest number of legal votes, in which case the Senate shall declare that person elected.
Compensation of Witnesses. Witnesses summoned to appear before the Senate, or any of its committees, shall be compensated as provided by law for witnesses required to attend in the courts of the State of Nevada. Pierini, Charles P. Welsh, Sam A. Palazzolo, Ronald Sandoval, Geraldine E. Selover, John D. Assembly Resolution No. Harris, Gregorio D. Torres, Jeanne Douglass, Paula A. Winne, Betty J. Phenix, Jackie L. Cheney, Kathryn Lombardo, Linda A.
Baker, Jennifer Batchelder, Jane L. Colard, Christine M. Cole, Hilary A. Graunke, Sara J. Rubin, Sharon T. Spencer, Carol J. Adkins, Victoria L. Bujalski, Heather T. Davis, Kathleen A. Day, Nancy Dickson, Naomi S. Dottei, Kelly S. Heckman, Lonnie Heiderman, Joyce G. Valley, Tabitha D. Horn, Francis L. Noe, Michael G.
Collins, Stanley B. Davin, John Davis Jr. Juanita M. Heston, Kathleen L. Meyer, Barbara Morgan, Jesse N. Speaker of the Assembly. Possessing the powers and performing the duties described in this rule, the Speaker shall:. If a vacancy occurs in the office of Speaker, through death, resignation or disability of the Speaker, the Speaker pro Tempore shall temporarily and for the period of vacancy or disability conduct the necessary business of the Assembly.
If a permanent vacancy occurs in the office of Speaker, the Assembly shall select a new Speaker. The Assembly shall meet each day at 11 a. All meetings of the Assembly and its standing committees [ shall ] must be open to the public.
If any member, in speaking or otherwise, transgresses the rules of the Assembly, the Speaker shall, or any member may, call to order, in which case the member so called to order shall immediately sit down, unless permitted to explain; and if called to order by a member, such member shall immediately state the point of order.
If the point of order be sustained by the presiding officer, the member shall not be allowed to proceed; but if it be not sustained, then he shall be permitted to go on. Every such decision from the presiding officer shall be subject to an appeal to the House; but no discussion of the question of order shall be allowed unless an appeal be taken from the decision of the presiding officer.
Committee on Ethics; Legislative Ethics. The Committee on Ethics consists of:. The Speaker shall appoint two members of the Assembly, one from the majority political party and one from the minority political party to serve as alternate members of the committee. If a member is disqualified, the alternate appointed from the same political party shall serve as a member of the committee during the consideration of a specific question. A member is disqualified if he is the requester of advice concerning a question of ethics or conflict of interest, or if the advice is requested by another member of the Assembly and a reasonable person in his situation could not exercise independent judgment on the matter in question.
The committee shall hear complaints on alleged breaches of ethics and conflicts of interest, brought by Legislators and others, and it may advise Legislators on questions of breaches of ethics and conflicts of interest. All proceedings held to consider the character, alleged misconduct, professional competence or physical or mental health of any person by the committee on matters of ethics or conflicts of interest are confidential unless a Legislator:.
A complaint which alleges a breach of ethics or a conflict of interest must be in writing and signed by the person making the allegation. The complaint must be filed with the chairman. The chairman shall send a copy of the complaint, within 24 hours after receiving it, to the Legislator against whom the complaint is brought. The criterion to be applied by the committee in determining whether a Legislator has a conflict of interest is whether the independence of judgment of a reasonable person in his position upon the matter in question would be materially affected by:.
A Legislator who determines that he has a conflict of interest may vote upon, advocate or oppose any measure as to which a potential conflict exists if he makes a general disclosure of the conflict. In determining whether to vote upon, advocate or oppose the measure, the Legislator should consider whether:. Manner of Voting. The presiding officer shall declare all votes, but the [ ayes and noes shall ] yeas and nays must be taken when called for by three members present, and the names of those calling for the [ ayes and noes shall ] yeas and nays must be entered in the Journal by the Chief Clerk.
The presiding officer shall call for [ ayes and noes ] yeas and nays by a division or by a roll call, either electronic or oral. When taking the [ ayes and noes ] yeas and nays on any question, the electronic roll call system may be used, and when so used shall have the force and effect of any roll call under these rules. The electronic roll call system may be used to determine the presence of a quorum.
The [ ayes and noes shall ] yeas and nays must not be taken with the electronic roll call system until all members present are at their desks. The presiding officer may vote at the rostrum. Only a member, certified by the Committee on Credentials or special committee of the Assembly, may cast a vote in the Assembly.
A member shall not vote for another member on any roll call, either electronic or oral. Any member who votes for another member may be punished in any manner deemed appropriate by the Assembly. Announcement of the Vote. A member may change his vote at any time before the announcement of the vote if the voting is by voice, or at any time before the votes are electronically recorded if the voting is conducted electronically.
The announcement of the result of any vote shall not be postponed. Voting by Division. Upon a division and count of the Assembly on any question, no person without the bar shall be counted. The standing committees of the Assembly are as follows:. Ways and Means, [ fifteen ] fourteen members. Judiciary, fourteen members. Taxation, [ eleven ] thirteen members. Education, [ thirteen ] twelve members. Elections, Procedures, and Ethics, nine members.
Natural Resources, Agriculture, and Mining, [ eleven ] thirteen members. Commerce [ , eleven ] and Labor, fourteen members. Health and Human Services, [ ten ] twelve members. Government Affairs, fourteen members. Infrastructure, eleven members. Constitutional Amendments, seven members.
Appointment of Committees. Except as otherwise provided in Assembly Standing Rule No. The Speaker shall designate the chairman and vice chairman of each committee. To facilitate the full participation of the members during an adjournment called pursuant to NRS Committee Action. The committee shall have regular meetings scheduled by the Assembly leadership. A quorum of the committee is a majority of its members and may transact business except as limited by this rule. Motions may be moved, seconded and passed by voice vote by a simple majority of those present.
Definite action on a bill or resolution will require a majority of the entire committee. A two-thirds majority of all the committee is required to reconsider action on a bill or resolution. Committee introduction of legislative measures which are not prefiled requires concurrence of two-thirds of the committee and does not imply commitment to support final passage.
The chairman shall vote on all final action regarding bills or resolutions. No member of the committee may vote by proxy under any circumstances. Subcommittees made up of committee members may be appointed by the chairman to consider and report back on specific subjects or bills. Committee on Elections, Procedures, and Ethics. The Committee on Elections, Procedures, and Ethics has jurisdiction over matters relating to personnel. Procedure for Election Contests.
The committee shall conduct a hearing to consider the contest. The committee shall keep written minutes of the hearing. The contestant has the burden of proving that any irregularities shown were of such a nature as to establish that the result of the election was changed thereby. The contest must be submitted so far as may be possible upon depositions or by written or oral arguments as the Assembly may order.
If oral statements are made at any hearing before the Assembly or a committee thereof which purport to establish matters of fact, they must be made under oath. The committee shall, not later than 5 calendar days after the contest was referred to the committee, report to the Assembly its findings on whether the contestant has met the burden of proving that any irregularities shown were of such a nature as to establish that the result of the election was changed thereby.
The committee shall then report to the Assembly its recommendation on which person should be declared elected or report that it has no recommendation. If the recommendation is accepted, the Speaker shall declare the recommended person elected. If the recommendation is rejected or the committee did not make a recommendation, the Assembly shall consider immediately which person should be declared elected. The Speaker shall not adjourn the Assembly until it has declared a person to be elected.
The Speaker shall inform the Governor of the identity of the person declared to be elected by the Assembly. Committee Action on Reports. Committee reports [ shall ] must be adopted at a committee session actually assembled and meeting as a committee with a quorum present. Every committee vote on a matter pertaining to a bill or resolution [ shall ] must be recorded. The vote may be taken by roll call at the discretion of the chairman.
Committee Records. The chairman of each committee shall keep, or cause to be kept, a complete record of the committee proceedings in which there [ shall ] mus t be entered:. The time and place of each meeting;. The attendance and absence of members;. The names of all persons appearing before the committee, with the names of persons, firms, corporations or associations in whose behalf such appearance is made; and.
The subjects or measures considered and action taken. Disposition of Committee Records. All minutes, records and documents in the possession of committees and their chairmen [ shall ] must be filed in the offices of the Legislative Counsel Bureau upon adjournment sine die.
Committee Hearings. Public hearings are opened by the chairman who announces the subject under consideration and provides for those wishing to address the committee to be heard. These persons shall rise in an order determined by the chairman, address the chair and furnish their names, addresses and firms or other organizations represented.
Committee members may address the chairman for permission to question the witness. When all persons present have been heard, the chairman may declare closed the portion of the meeting wherein the committee will accept public testimony on the matter before proceeding to other matters.
Concurrent Referrals. When a bill or resolution is referred to two committees , the bill or resolution must go to the first committee named. If the first committee votes to amend the bill or resolution, it must be reprinted with amendments and then returned to the first committee or sent immediately to the next committee.
If there is no amendment proposed by the first committee, or if the first committee acts upon the bill or resolution after amendment, the bill or resolution must be sent with the committee recommendation immediately to the second committee. No motion [ shall be debated until the same be ] may be debated until it is distinctly announced by the presiding officer. A motion may be withdrawn by the maker at any time before amendment or before the motion is put to vote.
Indefinite Postponement. When a question is postponed indefinitely, the same [ shall ] question must not be considered again during the session and the question [ shall not be ] is not subject to a motion for reconsideration. A motion to strike out the enacting clause of a bill or resolution [ shall ] does not take precedence over any other subsidiary motion.
If the motion is carried, it shall be considered equivalent to the rejection of such bill or resolution. Any member may call for a division of the question, which shall be divided, if it comprehends propositions in substance so distinct that, one being taken away, a substantive proposition shall remain for the decision of the Assembly. A motion to strike out being lost shall preclude neither amendment nor a motion to strike out and insert.
A motion to strike out and insert shall be deemed indivisible. A motion to reconsider shall have precedence over every other motion, except a motion to adjourn, or to fix the time to which to adjourn; and when the Assembly adjourns, while a motion to reconsider is pending, or before passing the order of business of Motions [ and Resolutions, ] , Resolutions and Notices, the right to move a reconsideration shall continue to the next day of sitting. No notice of reconsideration of any final vote shall be in order on the day preceding the last day of the session.
No member shall speak more than twice during the consideration of any one question, on the same day, and at the same stage of proceedings, without leave. Members who have once spoken shall not again be entitled to the floor except for explanation to the exclusion of others who have not spoken.
The previous question shall be put only when demanded by three members. The previous question shall not be moved by the member last speaking on the question. Rules and Procedure. Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3 [ :.
Notices in all cases shall ] which are to come before the committees. The notice must include the date, time, place and agenda to be covered. The daily history must include the most current version of the notice that is available at the time the daily history is created and an informational statement informing the public where more current information, if any, regarding such notices may be found.
The noticing requirements of this rule may be suspended for emergency situations but only after approval by a two-thirds vote of a committee. Subsection 1 does not apply to:. Privilege of the Floor and Lobbying. No person, except Senators, former Assemblymen and state officers, may be admitted at the bar of the Assembly, except by special invitation on the part of some member; but a majority may authorize the Speaker to have the Assembly cleared of all such persons.
No person may do any lobbying upon the floor of the Assembly at any time, and it is the duty of the Sergeant at Arms to remove any person violating any of the provisions of this rule. This rule does not apply to books containing the legislative bills and resolutions, the legislative daily histories, the legislative daily journals or Legislative Counsel Bureau material.
Peddling , Begging and Soliciting. Peddling, begging and soliciting are strictly forbidden in the Assembly Chamber, and in the lobby, gallery and halls adjacent thereto. A brief statement of the contents thereof shall be made by the introducer. They shall not be debated on the day of their being presented, but shall be on the table, or be referred, as the Assembly shall determine.
Request of Purpose. A member may request the purpose of a bill or joint resolution upon its introduction. It shall be in order for members to make remarks and to have such remarks entered in the Journal. Precedence of Parliamentary Authority. The precedence of parliamentary authority in the Assembly [ shall be as follows: ] is:.
The Constitution of the State of Nevada. The Statutes of the State of Nevada. Substitute Bills. A substitute bill shall be deemed and held to be an amendment, and treated in all respects as such. However, a substitute bill may be amended after its adoption, in the same manner as if it were an original bill. The introduction of skeleton bills is authorized [ after the beginning of a session ] when, in the opinion of the sponsor and the Legislative Counsel, the full drafting of the bill would entail extensive research or be of considerable length.
A skeleton bill will be provided for purposes of introduction and committee referral. Such a bill will be a presentation of ideas or statements of purpose, sufficient in style and expression to enable the Legislature and the committee to which the bill may be referred to consider the substantive merits of the legislation proposed. The presiding officer shall announce at each reading of a bill whether it be the first, second or third reading.
The first reading of a bill shall be for information. No bill shall be referred to a committee until after the first reading, nor amended until after the second reading. Second Reading and Amendment of Bills. All bills [ shall ] must be read the second time on the first legislative day after which they are reported by committee, unless a different day is designated by motion. Upon second reading, Assembly bills reported without amendments shall be placed on the General File and Senate bills reported without amendments shall be placed on the General File.
Committee amendments reported with bills shall be considered upon their second reading, and such amendments may be adopted by a majority vote of the members present. Any amendment which is numbered, copied and made available to all members [ shall ] must be moved and voted upon by number unless any member moves that it be read in full. Assembly bills so amended [ shall ] must be reprinted, engrossed, and placed on the General File.
Any member may move to amend a bill during its second or third reading, and such a motion to amend may be adopted by a majority vote of the members present. Any bill so amended upon the General File [ shall ] must be reprinted and then engrossed or reengrossed, as applicable. The reprinting of amended bills may be dispensed with only in accordance with the provisions of law.
The question of recommending a bill for the consent calendar may be voted upon in committee only after the bill has been recommended for passage and only if no amendment is recommended. The Chief Clerk shall maintain a list of bills recommended for the consent calendar.
The list must be printed in the daily history and must include the summary of each bill, and the date the bill is scheduled for consideration on final passage. A bill reported on Friday to Monday, inclusive, is eligible to be considered on the following Thursday; a bill reported on Tuesday to Thursday, inclusive, is eligible to be considered on the following Monday.
If a member so objects, the Chief Clerk shall remove the bill from the consent calendar and transfer it to the second reading file. A bill removed from the consent calendar may not be restored to that calendar. During floor consideration of the consent calendar, members may ask questions and offer explanations relating to the respective bills. When the consent calendar is brought to a vote, the bills remaining on the consent calendar must be read by number and summary and the vote must be taken on their final passage as a group.
General File. All bills reported to the Assembly, by either standing or special committees, after receiving their second readings [ shall ] must be placed upon a General File, to be kept by the Chief Clerk. No bill shall be considered by the Assembly until the regular order of business shall have been gone through.
Then bills shall be taken from the General File and acted upon in the order in which they were reported, unless otherwise specially ordered by the Assembly. But engrossed bills shall be placed at the head of the file, in the order in which they are received. The Chief Clerk shall post, in a conspicuous place in the chamber, a daily statement of the bills on the General File, setting forth the order in which they are filed, and specifying the alterations arising from the disposal of business each day.
The Chief Clerk shall likewise post notices of special orders as made. On the first legislative day that the Assembly is in session succeeding that on which a final vote on any bill or resolution has been taken, a vote may be reconsidered on the motion of any member. Notice of intention to move such reconsideration [shall] must be given on the day on which [such] the final vote was taken by a member voting with the prevailing party.
It [ shall not be ] is not in order for any member to move a reconsideration on the day on which [ such ] the final vote was taken, except by unanimous consent. Motions to reconsider a vote upon amendments to any pending question may be made at once. Treated as Bills — Joint Resolutions. The procedure of enacting joint resolutions [ shall ] must be identical to that of enacting bills. However, joint resolutions proposing amendments to the Constitution [ shall ] must be entered in the Journal in their entirety.
The Order of Business must be as follows:. Reading and Approval of Journal. Presentation of Petitions. Reports of Select Committees. Messages from the Senate. Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests ROIs with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods.
Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke.
The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation. Early physiological abnormalities after simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Here we report the detection of early physiological abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus- infected monkeys. The acute infection caused a disruption of the circadian rhythm manifested by rises in body temperature, observed in all five individuals between 1 and 2 weeks postinoculation p.
Animals remained hyperthermic at 1 and 2 months p. Although motor activity recovered to baseline values at 1 month p. Analysis of sensory-evoked responses 1 month p. These early physiological abnormalities may precede the development of observable cognitive or motor deficiencies and can provide an assay to evaluate agents to prevent or alleviate neuronal dysfunction.
Horn, Thomas F. Cyclooxygenase activity is important for efficient replication of mouse hepatitis virus at an early stage of infection. Cyclooxygenases COXs play a significant role in many different viral infections with respect to replication and pathogenesis. Both viral RNA and viral protein synthesis were affected with subsequent loss of progeny virus production. Thus, COX activity appears to be required for efficient MHV replication, providing a potential target for anti-coronaviral therapy.
The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes.
In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins and 98 Nup and Nup98 in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV We showed that Nupdepleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration.
Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nupdepleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nupdepleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration.
Currently, there are very few vaccines against or therapeutic treatments for flaviviruses, and our understanding of how these viruses cause disease is limited. Evidence suggests that the capsid proteins of flaviviruses play critical nonstructural roles during infection , and therefore, elucidating how these viral proteins affect cellular signaling pathways could lead to novel targets for antiviral therapy. We used affinity purification to identify host cell proteins that interact with the capsid proteins of West Nile and dengue viruses.
One of the cellular proteins that formed a stable complex with flavivirus capsid proteins is the peroxisome biogenesis factor Pex Intriguingly, flavivirus infection resulted in a significant loss of peroxisomes, an effect that may be due in part to capsid expression.
Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of peroxisome biogenesis may be a novel mechanism by which flaviviruses evade the innate immune system during early stages of infection. Chief among these pathogens are the flaviviruses, which include dengue virus and West Nile virus. Despite their medical importance, there are very few prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for these viruses. Moreover, the manner in which they subvert the innate immune response in order to establish infection in mammalian cells is not well understood.
Recently, peroxisomes were reported to function in early antiviral signaling, but. Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults.
The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue.
We have only recently begun to define the differences in respiratory immunity in early life and its environmental and developmental influences. The innate immune system may be of relatively greater importance than the adaptive immune system in the neonatal and infant period than later in life, as it does not require specific antigenic experience. A better understanding of what constitutes protective innate immunity in the respiratory tract in this age group and the factors that influence its development should allow us to predict why certain infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory infections , design treatments to accelerate the development of protective immunity, and design age specific adjuvants to better boost immunity to infection in the lung.
The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections : Update and next steps. In , the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections STIs. Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development.
This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.. Baseler, Laura; Scott, Dana P. End stage lesions have been described in the respiratory and nervous systems, vasculature and often lymphoid organs in fatal human cases; however, the initial target organs of Nipah virus infection have not been identified.
Here, we detected the initial target tissues and cells of Nipah virus and tracked virus dissemination during the early phase of infection in Syrian hamsters inoculated with a Nipah virus isolate from Malaysia NiV-M or Bangladesh NiV-B. Virus replication was first detected at 8 hours post inoculation hpi. Nipah virus initially targeted type I pneumocytes, bronchiolar respiratory epithelium and alveolar macrophages in the lung and respiratory and olfactory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates.
By 16 hpi, virus disseminated to epithelial cells lining the larynx and trachea. Although the pattern of viral dissemination was similar for both virus isolates, the rate of spread was slower for NiV-B. Infectious virus was not detected in the nervous system or blood and widespread vascular infection and lesions within lymphoid organs were not observed, even at 48 hpi. Virus replication in the brain and infection of blood vessels in non-respiratory tissues does not occur during the early phase of infection.
However, virus replicates early in olfactory epithelium and may serve as the first step towards nervous system dissemination, suggesting that development of vaccines that block virus dissemination or treatments that can access the brain and spinal cord and directly inhibit virus replication may be necessary for preventing central. Syrian hamsters were euthanized between 4 and 48 hours post intranasal inoculation and tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral RNA, viral antigen and infectious virus.
Nipah virus initially targets the respiratory system. However, virus replicates early in olfactory epithelium and may serve as the first step towards nervous system dissemination, suggesting that development of vaccines that block virus dissemination or treatments that can access the brain and spinal cord and directly inhibit virus replication may be necessary for preventing central nervous system pathology.
For young children with and without disabilities, positive outcomes depend on smooth, effective transitions between and within early intervention programs, preschool programs, and public school programs. Now there is a how-to guide that helps professionals across programs work together to make these transitions happen. Coauthored by top expert…. Eosinophils contribute to early clearance of Pneumocystis murina infection. Pneumocystis pneumonia remains a common opportunistic infection in the diverse immunosuppressed population.
Non-HIV infected individuals taking immunosuppressive drug regimens targeting T-cell activation are also susceptible. In wild type mice, a strong eosinophil signature was observed at day 14 post-Pneumocystis challenge and eosinophils were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild type mice.
Streptococcus sanguinis is a member of the viridans group of streptococci and a leading cause of the life-threatening endovascular disease infective endocarditis. Initial contact with the cardiac infection site is likely mediated by S. In an attempt to identify the proteins required for this crucial step in pathogenesis, we searched for surface-exposed, cell wall-anchored proteins encoded by S. Thirty-three predicted cell wall-anchored proteins were identified—a number much larger than those found in related species.
The requirement of each cell wall-anchored protein for infective endocarditis was assessed in the rabbit model. It was found that no single cell wall-anchored protein was essential for the development of early infective endocarditis. STM screening was also employed for the evaluation of three predicted sortase transpeptidase enzymes, which mediate the cell surface presentation of cell wall-anchored proteins.
The combined results suggest that while cell wall-anchored proteins may play a role in S. Comprehensive evaluation of Streptococcus sanguinis cell wall-anchored proteins in early infective endocarditis. Thirty-three predicted cell wall-anchored proteins were identified-a number much larger than those found in related species.
The sortase A mutant exhibited a modest approximately 2-fold reduction in competitiveness, while the other two sortase mutants were indistinguishable from the parental strain. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin provides key insights into early steps of pore formation.
Lawrence, Sara L. Pore-forming proteins are weapons often used by bacterial pathogens to breach the membrane barrier of target cells. Despite their critical role in infection important structural aspects of the mechanism of how these proteins assemble into pores remain unknown.
Pneumolysin PLY is a major virulence factor of S. PLY is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins CDCs , a family of pore-forming toxins that form gigantic pores in cell membranes. Here we present the structure of PLY determined by X-ray crystallography and, in solution, by small-angle X-ray scattering. The crystal structure reveals PLY assembles as a linear oligomer that provides key structural insights into the poorly understood early monomer-monomer interactions of CDCs at the membrane surface.
An early cytoplasmic step of peptidoglycan synthesis is associated to MreB in Bacillus subtilis. MreB proteins play a major role during morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria by organizing biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. However, the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. In Bacillus subtilis, membrane-associated MreB polymers have been shown to be associated to elongation-specific complexes containing transmembrane morphogenetic factors and extracellular cell wall assembly proteins.
We have now found that an early intracellular step of cell wall synthesis is also associated to MreB. We show that the previously uncharacterized protein YkuR renamed DapI is required for synthesis of meso-diaminopimelate m-DAP , an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan precursor, and that it physically interacts with MreB.
Highly inclined laminated optical sheet microscopy revealed that YkuR forms uniformly distributed foci that exhibit fast motion in the cytoplasm, and are not detected in cells lacking MreB. We propose a model in which soluble MreB organizes intracellular steps of peptidoglycan synthesis in the cytoplasm to feed the membrane-associated cell wall synthesizing machineries. Patients and methods: Urine samples for microscopic and bacteriologic examination were obtained with bladder catheterization from newborns with early neonatal jaundice.
Newborns with a negative urine culture and with a positive urine culture were defined as group I and group II, respectively, and the 2 groups were compared with each other. Results: The incidence of UTI in whole of the study group was Conclusions: Urinary tract infection should be investigated in the etiologic evaluation of newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia.
The possibility of UTI should be considered in jaundiced newborns who do not respond to phototherapy well or have a prolonged duration of phototherapy treatment. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE. It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins.
Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined.
In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides.
Retinopathy of prematurity ROP is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life.
It is easy to calculate, does not rely on extensive postnatal data collection, and can be calculated early after birth. Early ROP screening may help physicians limit patient exposure to additional risk factors, and may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trials aimed at reducing ROP.
Karger AG, Basel. Identification of a novel genetically controlled step in mycorrhizal colonization: plant resistance to infection by fungal spores but not extra-radical hyphae. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi infect plants by means of both spores and vegetative hyphae at early stages of symbiosis. Using M2 fast-neutron-mutagenized seeds of the miniature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar, Micro-Tom, we isolated a mutant, M, that is able to resist colonization in the presence of Glomus intraradices spores.
The myc - phenotype of the mutant was stable for nine generations, and found to segregate as a single Mendelian recessive locus. The mutant exhibited morphological and growth-pattern characteristics similar to those of wild-type plants. Resistance to mycorrhizal fungal infection and colonization was also evident following inoculation with the fungi Glomus mosseae and Gigaspora margarita. Normal colonization of M was evident when mutant plants were grown together with arbuscular mycorrhizal-inoculated wild-type plants in the same growth medium.
During evaluation of the pre- infection stages in the mutant rhizosphere, spore germination and appressoria formation of G. These results reveal a novel, genetically controlled step in the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization process, governed by at least one gene, which significantly reduces key steps in pre-mycorrhizal infection stages. Early assessment of the step patient engagement framework for patient-centred outcomes research studies: the first three steps.
A key principle of patient-centred outcomes research PCOR is the engagement of patients and other stakeholders in the research process, but the evidence is still emerging on the impact patient engagement has on the research process. A step framework has been developed to provide methodological guidance for patient engagement throughout the research process.
However, the utility of the framework for patient engagement has not been tested in actual research studies. To describe researcher's overall experiences with engaging patients at the beginning of their PCOR research process. All data were audiotaped and transcribed, and NVivo 10 software was used for data analysis. Four major themes emerged i the importance of patient engagement and how it provides 'a perspective you can't get unless you talk to the patient'; ii the impact of patient engagement; iii challenges and barriers of engagement; and iv the realities of patient engagement.
Researchers' views illustrate the need to re-evaluate patient engagement in PCOR based on current realities. Given the many challenges to engagement that researchers encounter, it may be more productive to redefine the process of patient engagement so that the issues researchers now face are taken into account in future funding announcements, engagement rubrics and methodology frameworks developed.
Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection : a recognized cause of early -onset prosthetic joint infection. Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI.
Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. Rapidly growing mycobacteria RGM 11 and M. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes. Single-molecule studies highlight conformational heterogeneity in the early folding steps of a large ribozyme.
Previous ensemble studies of this nucleotide ribozyme described the equilibrium folding with two transitions, U-to-Ieq-to-N, and focused on the Ieq-to-N transition. The present study focuses on the U-to-Ieq transition. A free energy contour is constructed to illustrate the complex folding surface.
Early manifestation of arm-leg coordination during stepping on a surface in human neonates. The accomplishment of mature locomotor movements relies upon the integrated coordination of the lower and upper limbs and the trunk. Human adults normally swing their arms and a quadrupedal limb coordination persists during bipedal walking despite a strong corticospinal control of the upper extremities that allows to uncouple this connection during voluntary activities.
Here we investigated arm-leg coordination during stepping responses on a surface in human neonates. In eight neonates, we found the overt presence of alternating arm-leg oscillations, the arms moving up and down in alternation with ipsilateral lower limb movements. These neonates moved the diagonal limbs together, and the peak of the arm-to-trunk angle i.
Although episodes of arm-leg coordination were sporadic in our sample of neonates, their presence provides significant evidence for a neural coupling between the upper and lower limbs during early ontogenesis of locomotion in humans. Challenges of early detection of oral cancer: raising awareness as a first step to successful campaigning. In some plants, pollen grains accumulate storage lipids that serve as energy supply during germination. Here, three enzymes involved in early steps of oil body mobilization in the male gametophyte were functionally characterized for the first time.
The effect of extracellular sugars on pollen performance and oil body dynamics was also analysed. Olive pollen oil bodies showed phospholipase A, lipase, and lipoxygenase activities on their surface. Enzyme activity levels increased during germination with a maximum after 3h. Removal of extracellular sugars from the germination medium did not affect pollen performance but increased enzyme activity rates and sped up oil body mobilization.
Inhibitors seriously hampered pollen germination and pollen tube growth, leading to a characteristic accumulation of oil bodies in the germinative aperture. It can be concluded that storage lipids are sufficient for proper olive pollen germination. A lipase and a lipoxygenase are likely involved in oil body mobilization.
Extracellular sugars may modulate their function, while a phospholipase A may promote their access to the storage lipids. The initial steps toward optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules arose out of the study of spectral hole-burning in inhomogeneously broadened optical absorption profiles of molecular impurities in solids at low temperatures. Spectral signatures relating to the fluctuations of the number of molecules in resonance led to the attainment of the single-molecule limit in In the early s, many fascinating physical effects were observed for individual molecules such as spectral diffusion, optical switching, vibrational spectra, and magnetic resonance of a single molecular spin.
Since the mids when experiments moved to room temperature, a wide variety of biophysical effects may be explored, and a number of physical phenomena from the low temperature studies have analogs at high temperature.
Recent advances worldwide cover a huge range, from in vitro studies of enzymes, proteins, and oligonucleotides, to observations in real time of a single protein performing a specific function inside a living cell. Because each single fluorophore acts a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic observation of individual fluorophores leads naturally to localization beyond the optical diffraction limit.
Combining this with active optical control of the number of emitting molecules leads to superresolution imaging, a new frontier for optical microscopy beyond the optical diffraction limit and for chemical design of photoswitchable fluorescent labels. Finally, to study one molecule in aqueous solution without surface perturbations, a new electrokinetic trap is described the ABEL trap which can trap single small biomolecules without the need for large dielectric beads.
Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings. The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied.
To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin CK , abscisic acid, salicylic acid SA and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation.
We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base.
Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.
Feil, Edward G. PFS is a targeted intervention for children years old with externalizing behavior problems and addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. As part of a larger…. Early -season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection. An analysis of and West Nile virus WNV surveillance data shows that counties that report WNV- infected dead birds early in the transmission season are more likely to report subsequent WNV disease cases in humans than are counties that do not report early WNV- infected dead birds.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin for early intracranial infection after craniotomy. Intracranial infection is a common clinical complication after craniotomy. We aimed to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of dynamic changing procalcitonin PCT in early intracranial infection after craniotomy. A prospective study was performed on 93 patients suspected of intracranial infection after craniotomy. Serum and CSF analysis continued on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and The patients were divided into intracranial infection group and non-intracranial infection group; intracranial infection group was further divided into infection controlled group and infection uncontrolled group.
Thirty-five patients were confirmed with intracranial infection after craniotomy according to the diagnostic criteria. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid PCT levels in the infected group were significantly higher than the non- infected group on day 1 P infection. Since CSF PCT levels have higher sensitivity and specificity, dynamic changes in this parameter could be used for early detection of intracranial infection after craniotomy, combined with other biochemical indicators.
A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure. Breastfeeding BF is associated with willingness to accept vegetables. This may be due to the variety of flavours delivered via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk during complementary feeding CF to enhance acceptance.
The present study tested a step-by-step exposure to vegetables in milk then rice during CF, on intake and liking of vegetables. Plain milk and rice were given to CG. Then both received 11 daily exposures to vegetable puree.
Intake was weighed and liking rated on days and after the start of CF in the laboratory, supplemented by the same data recorded at home. Vegetables were rotated daily carrots, green beans, spinach, broccoli. Intake, liking and pace of eating were greater for IG than CG infants.
Intake and liking of carrots were greater than green beans. Mothers reported appreciation of the structure and guidance of this systematic approach. Early exposure to vegetables in a step-by-step method could be included in CF guidelines and longer term benefits assessed by extending the exposure period. Apoptosis induced in an early step of African swine fever virus entry into vero cells does not require virus replication. Permissive Vero cells develop apoptosis, as characterized by DNA fragmentation, caspases activation, cytosolic release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, upon infection with African swine fever virus ASFV.
To determine the step in virus replication that triggers apoptosis, we used UV-inactivated virus, inhibitors of protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and lysosomotropic drugs that block virus uncoating. ASFV-induced apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 activation, which was detected even in the presence of either cytosine arabinoside or cycloheximide, indicating that viral DNA replication and protein synthesis were not required to activate the apoptotic process.
The activation of caspase-3 was released from chloroquine inhibition 2 h after virus absorption, while the infection with UV-inactivated ASFV did not induce the activation of the caspase cascade. We conclude that ASFV induces apoptosis in the infected cell by an intracellular pathway probably triggered during the process of virus uncoating. Periprosthetic infection represents a major complication in breast reconstruction, frequently leading to expander-implant loss.
Recent studies report variable success in the salvage of infected breast prostheses through systemic antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. There is currently no consensus regarding a management algorithm for attempted salvage.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the early outcomes of a protocol using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate PMMA implant placement with expander device exchange. A retrospective database was queried to identify all patients with infected implant-based breast reconstruction who were treated by the study authors and who underwent attempted salvage under the study protocol. After clinical resolution of infection , tissue expansion was performed with the PMMA implants remaining in situ until exchanged to permanent implants.
All patients with infected prosthetic breast reconstructions achieved implant pocket sterilization using this method. At a mean follow-up of 8. One patient, while under treatment with prednisone for a rash, developed recurrent infection , which led to explantation of her implant.
Two patients underwent radiation therapy while an antibiotic plate and tissue expander were in place, with no observed exposure or infection recurrence. Sustained local antibiotic delivery using PMMA implants and expander device exchange can successfully salvage an infected breast implant.
Perceived benefits include shorter time to completed reconstruction, preserved skin envelope integrity, and possibly improved long-term aesthetic outcomes. This publication, developed by W. Kellogg Foundation in collaboration with IDEO, details a human-centered approach to evolving the system of early education for the needs and possibilities of the 21st century. It provides a set of ideas or "thought-starters" on transforming early education to ensure school readiness and success for the….
Background Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early -onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period.
Studies were included that reported effect measures on the risk of neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool data and calculate the odds ratio estimates of risk of infection. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria.
Seven studies 8. Considerable heterogeneity existed between studies given the various definitions of laboratory-confirmed and clinical signs of infection , as well as for colonization and risk factors. The odds ratio for neonatal lab-confirmed infection among newborns of mothers with lab-confirmed infection was 6. Newborns of mothers with colonization had a 9.
Newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection defined as prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM], preterm infection than newborns of mothers without risk factors. Conclusions Neonatal infection in the first week of life is associated with maternal infection and colonization. High-quality studies, particularly from settings with high. Failure of the first step of two-stage revision due to polymicrobial prosthetic joint infection of the hip. The unsuccessful treatment of prosthetic joint infection PJI with two-stage revision leads to infection recurrence.
The objectives of the study were to assess the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with polymicrobial PJI, and to evaluate the role of the microbial profile involved in PJI in the risk of infection recurrence after the first step of two-stage revision surgery. A retrospective analysis of cases of culture-positive PJI following total hip replacement over a 5-year period was performed. The demographic characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, microbiology cultures of intraoperative biopsies, laboratory values of C-reactive protein CRP , white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were analyzed.
Patients were divided into two groups with monomicrobial and 54 with polymicrobial infection. Of all patients, The median CRP values were 5. The percentage of successful outcomes was They were predisposed to recurrence of infection after the first step of two-stage revision. An unsuccessful outcome was more likely in cases with polymicrobial infection compared to those with monomicrobial infection.
In addition, the presence of multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria substantially increased the risk of PJI treatment being unsuccessful. Level III, therapeutic study. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections.
Toxoplasma gondii, the most common parasitic infection of the human brain and eye, persists across lifetimes, can progressively damage sight, and is currently incurable. New, curative medicines are needed urgently. Herein, we developed novel models to facilitate drug development: EGS strain T. We report full-length EBV genomes sequenced from the blood and oral wash of 10 individuals early in primary infection and during convalescence.
Our data demonstrate considerable diversity within the pool of circulating EBV strains, as well as within individual patients. Overall viral diversity decreased from early to persistent infection , particularly in latently infected B cells, which serve as the viral reservoir. Reduction in B cell-associated viral genome diversity coincided with a convergence toward a reference-like EBV genotype. Greater convergence positively correlated with time after infection , suggesting that the reference-like genome is the result of selection.
Early recognition of serious infections in obstetrics and gynecology. Pelvic infections commonly occur in pregnant and postoperative women. Most of these infections are readily diagnosed because of their typical clinical manifestations and prompt antimicrobial therapy that leads to the resolution of disease. However, uncommon cases may escape detection and the severity of the process may also go unrecognized without a careful assessment of clues available through physical examination and laboratory testing.
In some cases a particularly virulent pathogen can lead to severe infection , septic shock and its consequences, even death, despite clinicians acting appropriately. Acute bacterial osteoarticular infections : eight-year analysis of C-reactive protein for oral step -down therapy. One of the most important decisions in the treatment of osteoarticular infections is the time at which parenteral therapy can be changed to oral therapy.
C-reactive protein CRP is an acute inflammatory indicator with a half-life of 19 hours and thus can be helpful in assessing the adequacy of therapy for bacterial infections. At our institution, a combination of CRP and clinical findings is used to determine the transition to oral therapy. A search of 8 years of electronic records identified children with osteoarticular infections. Only children with culture-positive acute bacterial arthritis ABA or acute bacterial osteomyelitis ABO were studied further.
A primary chart review of demographic and clinical data was conducted, and a secondary chart review of complicated outcomes was performed. Of total patients, complicated outcomes occurred in 40, of which 35 were prolonged therapy.
Only 1 microbiologic failure occurred, presumably due to a retained intra-articular fragment of infected bone. The combination of clinical findings and CRP is a useful tool to transition children with osteoarticular infections to oral therapy.
Complicated outcomes were associated with higher early CRP at diagnosis and lower CRP at the end of parenteral therapy, suggesting that clinicians were more conservative with prolonged initial parenteral therapy in this group.
Tuberculosis remains a major health threat in much of the world. New vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for preventing infection , disease, and transmission. However, the host immune responses that need to be induced by an effective vaccine remain unclear. Increasingly, it has become clear that early events in infection are of major importance in the eventual outcome of the infection. Studying such events in humans is challenging, as they occur within the lung and thoracic lymph nodes, and any clinical signs of early infection are relatively nonspecific.
Nonetheless, clinical studies and animal models of tuberculosis have provided new insights into the local events that occur in the first few weeks of tuberculosis. Development of an effective vaccine requires a clear understanding of the successful and detrimental early host responses against M.
Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is The structure of the interface of a growing crystal with its nutrient phase largely determines the growth dynamics.
We attribute these unexpected behaviors to the dynamics of step growth dominated by surface diffusion and the loss of identity of nuclei separated by less than the step width w. We put forth a general criterion for the onset of kinetic roughening using w as a critical length scale.
An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,g at birth or delivered at infections before and after implementing the interventions.
Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden.
The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from to The investigation pays considerable attention to the…. Improving the Nation's Health. To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system.
Children who experience toxic…. Background: Improving the home environment and parenting practices to support children's early development and learning is a key focus of many. Home visiting is one potential strategy to improve the home environment and parenting; however, more data about current programmatic efforts is needed, especially for children with multiple risks living in…. This boxed set includes eight booklets of home activities for early intervention for young children with developmental delays.
The first book provides an introduction to the program and its implementation, lists 23 resources, describes a videotape which supplements the booklets, and includes a glossary. Book 2 covers how to select goals for the…. Adjusted neutropenia is associated with early serious infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.
The susceptibility to infection increases in systemic lupus erythematosus SLE patients with neutropenia, but the link between infection risk and the cutoff neutrophil count still remains controversial. In this study, we investigated a valuable parameter associated with early serious infection in SLE patients during the first follow-up year.
We reviewed the medical records of patients with SLE. The initial levels were defined as the mean of the results of the first two consecutive tests. The adjusted levels were defined as the results of the accumulated area under the curve divided by interval follow-up days. Patients were divided into two groups according to early serious infection and initial and adjusted neutropenia and were then compared. Initial neutropenia was the independent predictive value for adjusted neutropenia OR 6.
We suggest that adjusted neutropenia is useful for predicting early serious infection in SLE patients during the first follow-up year. Early cytoplasmic uncoating is associated with infectivity of HIV After fusion, HIV delivers its conical capsid into the cytoplasm. To release the contained reverse-transcribing viral genome, the capsid must disassemble in a process termed uncoating. Defining the kinetics, dynamics, and cellular location of uncoating of virions leading to infection has been confounded by defective, noninfectious particles and the stochastic minefield blocking access to host DNA.
We used live-cell fluorescent imaging of intravirion fluid phase markers to monitor HIV-1 uncoating at the individual particle level. Most, but not all, of the capsid protein is rapidly shed in tissue culture and primary target cells, independent of entry pathway.
Extended time-lapse imaging with less than one virion per cell allows identification of infected cells by Gag-GFP expression and directly links individual particle behavior to infectivity , providing unprecedented insights into the biology of HIV infection. Early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic steps in Cannabis sativa: link between genes and metabolites. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL , Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase C4H and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase 4CL catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase CHS catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production.
This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated.
Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves mainly flavonoids and roots mainly lignin was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data.
Predictors of early infection in cerebral ischemic stroke. Infection is the most common complication of stroke. To determine the risk factors and predictors of post-stroke infection PSI , which developed within 7 days from the onset of acute ischemic stroke. The study included 60 ischemic stroke patients admitted in the Neurology Department of Zagazig University, Egypt, who were subdivided into: [Non Stroke Associated Infection group nSAI ; 30 patients having stroke without any criteria of infection within 7 days from the onset and Stroke Associated Infection group SAI ; 30 patients having stroke with respiratory tract infection RTI or urinary tract infection within 7 days], in addition to 30 healthy sex and age-matching subjects as control.
SAI patients were found to be significantly older with higher baseline blood glucose level. Also the number of patients with tube feeding, lower conscious level, more stroke severity and more large size infarcts were significantly higher in SAI patients.
Patients with older age, tube feeding, lower conscious level, worse baseline stroke severity, large cerebral infarcts in CT scan, and increased IL serum level were more susceptible to infection. Background: Infection is the most common complication of stroke. Aim: To determine the risk factors and predictors of post-stroke infection PSI , which developed within 7 days from the onset of acute ischemic stroke. Subjects: The study included 60 ischemic stroke patients admitted in the Neurology Department of Zagazig University, Egypt, who were subdivided into: [Non Stroke Associated Infection group nSAI ; 30 patients having stroke without any criteria of infection within 7 days from the onset and Stroke Associated Infection group SAI ; 30 patients having stroke with respiratory tract infection RTI or urinary tract infection within 7 days], in addition to 30 healthy sex and age-matching subjects as control.
Results: SAI patients were found to be significantly older with higher baseline blood glucose level. Conclusion: Patients with older age, tube feeding, lower conscious level, worse baseline stroke severity, large cerebral infarcts in CT scan, and increased IL serum level were more susceptible to infection. This study tested this gene editing system in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection by targeting the viral long terminal repeat and the gene coding sequences.
This latter defect might have reflected the degradation of viral DNA that has not been immediately repaired after Cas9 cleavage. It was further observed that Cas9, when solely located in the cytoplasm, inhibits HIV-1 as strongly as the nuclear Cas9, except that the cytoplasmic Cas9 does not act on the integrated HIV-1 DNA and thus cannot be used to excise the latent provirus.
Minimizing cows' stress when calves were early weaned using the two- step method with nose flaps. Early weaning may be used in beef cattle production to improve reproduction rates in range conditions. However, weaning causes a stress response in cows, which may be especially strong in early weaning management, as the bond between the cow and the calf is still strong.
We hypothesized that weaning calves in two steps , with the aid of anti-sucking devices nose flaps would reduce the behavioural stress response in the cows separated from their calves 2 months after parturition. We compared the behaviour frequency and weight change in cows that were weaned abruptly, by separation of the calf on day 0 of the study, or in two steps , consisting of the use of anti-sucking nose flaps for 5 days before permanent separation; a third group was not weaned to serve as control.
Cows' behaviour was observed by direct visual instantaneous sampling, at 10 min intervals from days -3 to Weaning the calves in two steps clearly attenuated the behavioural stress response observed in abruptly weaned cows, which included reductions in grazing and lying, and increases in pacing, walking and vocalizing.
Our results corroborate those previously shown for cows nursing older calves, and indicate that step weaning can reduce the behavioural stress response of cows at weaning, even when the calf is weaned shortly after birth, when the bond between the cow and calf is still very strong. Autonomic dysfunction with early respiratory syncytial virus-related infection.
The possibility of a central origin for the development of severe cardiac and respiratory events encouraged us, to explore the autonomic nervous system ANS profile of infected infants, since ANS activity may contribute to the constellation of symptoms observed during severe forms of RSV bronchiolitis.
Eight infants 2 preterm and 6 full-term less than 2 months of age and presenting with severe and apnoeic forms of RSV infection were evaluated using non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring obtained simultaneously for approximately 2 consecutive hours, including a quiet sleep period. Eight control subjects, paired for gestational and postnatal age, were also evaluated.
ANS status was monitored using electrocardiogram recordings and quantified through a frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability HRV. Regardless of gestational and postnatal age, heart rate variability components Ptot, VLF, LF, and HF and baroreflex components alpha LF, alpha HF and sBR were found to be significantly lower in the RSV- infected group than in the control group p infection in neonates is associated with profound central autonomic dysfunction.
The potentially fatal consequence stresses the importance of maintaining prolonged cardiopulmonary monitoring. Copyright Elsevier B. The sensorimotor theory of infancy has been overthrown, but there is little consensus on a replacement. We hypothesize that a capacity for representation is the starting point for infant development, not its culmination.
Logical distinctions are drawn between object representation, identity, and permanence. Modern experiments on early object permanence and deferred imitation suggest: a even for young infants, representations persist over breaks in sensory contact, b numerical identity of objects O s is initially specified by spatiotemporal criteria place and trajectory , c featural and functional identity criteria develop, d events are analyzed by comparing representations to current perception, and e representation operates both prospectively, anticipating future contacts with an O , and retrospectively, reidentifying an O as the "same one again.
It accounts for young infants' behavior toward absent people and things in terms of their efforts to determine the identity of objects. Our proposal is developmental without denying innate structure and elevates the power of perception and representation while being cautious about attributing complex concepts to young infants.
Erdmann, Kai S. Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL are responsible for Lowe syndrome, whose manifestations include mental retardation and renal Fanconi syndrome. OCRL has been implicated in membrane traffic, but disease mechanisms remain unclear. The interaction with APPL1, which is mediated by the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains of OCRL and is abolished by disease mutations, provides a link to protein networks implicated in the reabsorptive function of kidney and in traffic and signaling of growth factor receptors in brain.
Our results support a role of OCRL in the early endocytic pathway consistent with the predominant localization of its preferred substrates, PI 4,5 P2 and PI 3,4,5 P3, at the cell surface.
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