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This finding was supported by a study involving patients with COPD, whereby the bb polymorphism was associated with stronger quadriceps muscles Hopkinson et al. However, not all studies have shown similar results. Grundberg et al. Women homozygous for Bsm1 BB or poly-A repeat ss were found to have higher hamstring strength than the bb or LL genotypes.
Furthermore, no significant associations were found between VDR polymorphisms and either grip strength or quadriceps strength. Similarly, Roth et al. A pathway of vitamin D action, independent of the intra-nuclear transcription process, was mooted in the s and has been characterized more recently Boland et al. Subsequently, a membrane receptor in rat chondrocytes with a higher molecular weight than the intra-nuclear VDR known as the membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding protein MARRS Fleet, , specific for 1,25 OH 2 D, has been identified Nemere et al.
Recent evidence illustrating that the application of 1,25 OH 2 D results in the translocation of the VDR to the plasma membrane in chick skeletal muscle cells Capiati et al. While the exact mechanism of the non-genomic action of vitamin D remains a controversial and heavily researched topic, it is widely accepted that vitamin D levels have a rapid effect on the membrane calcium channels of muscle cells in numerous species Schmidt et al. As calcium is a critical modulator of skeletal muscle function Berchtold et al.
Vitamin D deficiency has traditionally been considered the domain of the elderly; however, this is changing as evidence of high rates of vitamin D deficiency is recognized in today's youth. Vitamin D deficiency is now endemic in many communities and athletes are not spared this condition. Increasingly, vitamin D deficiency is recognized as being associated with both chronic health conditions and musculo-skeletal injuries such as stress fractures; however, its potential impact on other tissues such as muscle is not well described.
The identification of the VDR, its various polymorphisms, and variable expression with aging, has provided some insight into the complex mechanisms by which vitamin D and its metabolic pathways may affect muscle function. The recognition of both genomic and non-genomic effects of vitamin D in skeletal muscle, with the resultant impact on both calcium metabolism and protein transcription, further illustrates the significance of vitamin D in muscle function.
Further clarification of the complex role of the VDR in both muscle and other musculo-skeletal tissues is required. Despite the limited evidence available at the time, athletes and trainers in the early 20th century believed that UVB radiation was beneficial to athletic performance. Accumulating evidence supports the existence of a functional role for vitamin D in skeletal muscle with potentially significant impacts on both the performance and injury profiles of young, otherwise healthy athletes.
While further research is required to evaluate the level of vitamin D required for optimal muscular function, clinicians working with athletes should be aware of the broad impact of vitamin D deficiency on the athlete.
Vitamin D should no longer be considered only to have an impact on calcium metabolism and bone morphology, but should be recognized to have a broad impact on the organism as a whole. Further epidemiological and in vitro research into the potential impact of vitamin D deficiency on muscle function, morphology and performance in young athletic individuals is required.
The author would like to acknowledge the support of Dr. Hakim Chalabi in the preparation of this manuscript. In addition, the support of Ivana Matic and Tanya Hamilton is much appreciated. The author has no financial or other conflicts of interest in the preparation of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Scand J Med Sci Sports. B Hamilton. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2. Accepted Jul 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly described phenomenon worldwide, with well-known impacts on calcium metabolism and bone health. Keywords: IGF-1, injury, deficiency. Myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency Myopathy associated with vitamin D deficient osteomalacia has been recognized for many years, presenting predominantly as a proximal muscle weakness or difficulty in walking upstairs Floyd et al.
Morphology Early biopsy studies Floyd et al. Age-related changes in muscle function It is well recognized that muscle strength declines with age, due to a number of contributory factors Iannuzzi-Sucich et al. Genomic actions of vitamin D Typical of steroid hormones, the binding of 1,25 OH 2 D to the VDR results in enhanced transcription of a range of proteins, including those involved in calcium metabolism Fleet, Open in a separate window.
Non-genomic effects of vitamin D on muscle A pathway of vitamin D action, independent of the intra-nuclear transcription process, was mooted in the s and has been characterized more recently Boland et al. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency has traditionally been considered the domain of the elderly; however, this is changing as evidence of high rates of vitamin D deficiency is recognized in today's youth. Acknowledgments The author would like to acknowledge the support of Dr.
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