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Miriam ordinas fidelity investments

In malignancies and chronic viral infections, increased expression of programmed death - 1 by T cells is generally associated with a poor prognosis. However, its role in early host microbial defense at the intestinal mucosa is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in programmed death - 1 or treated with anti-programmed death - 1 antibody were more susceptible to acute enteric and systemic infection with Citrobacter rodentium.

Wild-type but not programmed death - 1 -deficient mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium showed significantly increased expression of the conventional mucosal NK cell effector molecules granzyme B and perforin. In contrast, natural killer cells from programmed death - 1 -deficient mice had impaired expression of those mediators. Consistent with programmed death - 1 being important for intracellular expression of natural killer cell effector molecules, mice depleted of natural killer cells and perforin-deficient mice manifested increased susceptibility to acute enteric infection with Citrobacter rodentium.

Our findings suggest that increased programmed death - 1 signaling pathway expression by conventional natural killer cells promotes host protection at the intestinal mucosa during acute infection with a bacterial gut pathogen by enhancing the expression and production of important effectors of natural killer cell function. Influence of antiretroviral therapy on programmed death - 1 CD expression on T cells in lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

Human immunodeficiency virus infection leads to T- cell exhaustion and involution of lymphoid tissue. Recently, the programmed death - 1 pathway was found to be crucial for virus-specific T- cell exhaustion during human immunodeficiency virus infection. During human immunodeficiency infection, lymphoid tissue acts as a major viral reservoir and is an important site for viral replication, but it is also essential for regulatory processes important for immune recovery.

We compared programmed death - 1 expression in 2 consecutive inguinal lymph nodes of 14 patients, excised before antiretroviral therapy antiretroviral therapy as of and 16 to 20 months under antiretroviral therapy. In analogy to lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals, in all treated patients, the germinal center area decreased, whereas the number of germinal centers did not significantly change.

Programmed death - 1 expression was mostly found in germinal centers. The absolute extent of programmed death 1 expression per section was not significantly altered after antiretroviral therapy resulting in a significant-relative increase of programmed death 1 per shrunken germinal center. Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express cancer-specific receptors can mediate impressive tumor regression in terminally ill patients.

In addition, the lack of positive costimulation at the tumor site can further dampen T cell response. Thus, as T cell genetic engineering has become clinically relevant, we aimed at enhancing T cell antitumor activity by genetically diverting T cell -negative costimulatory signals into positive ones using chimeric costimulatory retargeting molecules and which are composed of the PD1 extracellular domain fused to the signaling domains of positive costimulatory molecules such as CD28 and BB.

After characterizing the optimal PD1 chimera, we designed and optimized a tripartite retroviral vector that enables the simultaneous expression of this chimeric molecule in conjunction with a cancer-specific TCR. These engineered cells also proliferated better compared with control cells. Overall, we propose that engineering T cells with a costimulatory retargeting molecule can enhance their function, which bears important implications for the improvement of T cell immunotherapy.

PD-1, a receptor expressed by T cells , B cells , and monocytes, is a potent regulator of immune responses and a promising therapeutic target. The structure and interactions of human PD-1 are, however, incompletely characterized. The affinities of these interactions and that of PD-L1 with the costimulatory protein B, measured using surface plasmon resonance, are significantly weaker than expected.

Mathematical simulations based on the biophysical data and quantitative expression data suggest an unexpectedly limited contribution of PD-L2 to PD-1 ligation during interactions of activated T cells with antigen-presenting cells. These findings provide a rigorous structural and biophysical framework for interpreting the important functions of PD-1 and reveal that potent inhibitory signaling can be initiated by weakly interacting receptors. Structure-guided development of a high-affinity human Programmed Cell Death - 1 : Implications for tumor immunotherapy.

We report the crystal structure of the human PD-1 ectodomain and the mapping of the PD-1 binding interface. Mutagenesis studies confirmed the crystallographic interface, and resulted in mutant PD-1 receptors with altered affinity and ligand-specificity. HA PD-1 Ig showed enhanced binding to human dendritic cells , and increased T cell proliferation and cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR assay.

Moreover, in an experimental model of murine Lewis lung carcinoma, HA PD-1 Ig treatment synergized with radiation therapy to decrease local and metastatic tumor burden, as well as in the establishment of immunological memory responses. Our studies highlight the value of structural considerations in guiding the design of a high-affinity chimeric PD-1 Ig fusion protein with robust immune modulatory properties, and underscore the power of combination therapies to selectively manipulate the PD-1 pathway for tumor immunotherapy.

Purpose: We aimed to establish whether programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 PD-L1 expression, in ovarian cancer tumor tissue and blood, could be used as biomarkers for discrimination of tumor histology and prognosis of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design: Immune cells were separated from blood, ascites, and tumor tissue obtained from women with suspected ovarian cancer and studied for the differential expression of possible immune biomarkers using flow cytometry.

PD-L1 expression on tumor-associated inflammatory cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. The relationships among immune markers were explored using hierarchical cluster analyses. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was elevated in patients with EOC compared with healthy women and patients with benign ovarian tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 23 13 ; Attenuation of the programmed cell death - 1 pathway increases the M1 polarization of macrophages induced by zymosan.

We assessed the contribution of the PD-1 pathway to regulating the polarization of macrophages that promote inflammation induced by zymosan. Risk of hematologic toxicities with programmed cell death - 1 inhibitors in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of current studies. Programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 inhibitor-related hematologic toxicities are a category of rare but clinically serious and potentially life-threatening adverse events; however, little is known about their risks across different treatment regimens and tumor types.

The objective of this study was to compare the incidences of PD-1 inhibitor-related hematologic toxicities among different therapeutic regimens and tumor types. Twenty-six original articles on PD-1 inhibitor trials were identified based on a PubMed search completed on September 26, The incidences of hematologic toxicities were collected.

A total of 26 studies containing 5, patients were included in the meta-analysis. However, low incidences of high-grade hematologic toxicities were observed in cancer patients treated with PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy. In addition, all-grade and high-grade hematologic toxicities in chemotherapy and everolimus treatment arms were more frequent than in PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy arms.

The risks of PD-1 inhibitor-related hematologic toxicities were higher in RCC than in other cancers, and during combination therapy. These results may contribute toward enhancing awareness among clinicians about frequent clinical monitoring when managing PD-1 inhibitors. Tolerance and outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery combined with anti-programmed cell death - 1 pembrolizumab for melanoma brain metastases. Anti-programmed cell death - 1 anti-PD1 antibodies are currently the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic BRAF wild-type melanoma, alone or combined with the anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab.

To date, data on safety and the outcomes of patients treated with the anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies, pembrolizumab PB , or nivolumab, combined with stereotactic radiosurgery SRS , for melanoma brain metastases MBM are scarce. The primary endpoint was neurotoxicity. The secondary endpoints were local, distant intracranial controls and overall survival OS.

Radiation necrosis, occurring within a median time of 6. No other significant SRS-related adverse event was observed. After a median follow-up of 8. Reduced cell wall invertase CWIN activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress LMHS , an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato Solanum lycopersicum with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively.

Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis.

The effect of green, black and white tea on the level of alpha and gamma tocopherols in free radical-induced oxidative damage of human red blood cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous tea extracts on lipid peroxidation and alpha and gamma tocopherols concentration in the oxidative damage of human red blood cells RBC. RBC was taken as the model for study of the oxidative damage was induced by cumene hydroperoxide cumOOH. The correlation was observed between reducing power of tea extract and formation of malondialdehyde--MDA an indicator of lipid peroxidation in oxidative damage of RBC.

The extract of green tea in comparison to black and white tea extracts at the same levels seems to be a better protective agent against oxidative stress. The antioxidant synergism between components extracted from leaves of green tea and endogenous alpha tocopherol in the oxidative damage of red blood cells was observed. The consumption of alpha tocopherol in oxidative damage of RBC was the lowest after treatment with the highest dose of green tea extract. All tea extracts did not protect against decrease of gamma tocopherol in human erythrocytes treated with cumOOH.

Programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 is a co-stimulatory molecule that inhibits T cell proliferation. Programmed cell death 1 PD-1 is an inhibitory molecule expressed by activated T cells. In aggregate, our data strongly suggest that PD-L1, expressed on activated target keratinocytes presenting autoantigens, regulates autoaggressive CD8 T cells , and inhibits the development of mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Singlet oxygen plays a role in cellular stress either by providing direct toxicity or through signaling to initiate death programs. It was therefore of interest to examine cell death, as occurs in Arabidopsis, due to differentially localized singlet oxygen photosensitizers. The photosensitizers rose bengal RB and acridine orange AO were localized to the plasmalemma and vacuole, respectively. Their photoactivation led to cell death as measured by ion leakage. Cell death could be inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavenger histidine in treatments with AO but not with RB.

In the case of AO treatment, the vacuolar membrane was observed to disintegrate. In the case of RB treatment, the tonoplast remained intact and no complex was formed. Over-expression of AtSerpin1 repressed cell death, only under AO photodynamic treatment. Interestingly, acute water stress showed accumulation of singlet oxygen as determined by fluorescence of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the induction of singlet oxygen marker genes.

Cell death by acute water stress was inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavenger histidine and was accompanied by vacuolar collapse and the appearance of serpin-protease complex. Over-expression of AtSerpin1 also attenuated cell death under this mode of cell stress. Thus, acute water stress damage shows parallels to vacuole-mediated cell death where the generation of singlet oxygen may play a role. Lack of association of programmed cell death 1 gene PDCD1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to chronic urticaria in patients with positive autologous serum skin test.

Autoimmune mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria CU , and the autologous serum skin test ASST helps to identify patients with autoreactive CU. One of the factors involved in autoreactive mechanisms is the cell surface receptor programmed death - 1 which is encoded by the programmed cell death 1 gene PDCD1.

In all individuals, PD1. No statistically significant differences were found between CU patients and controls for allele or genotype distribution. We also did not observe any association between PDCD1 genotypes and severity of urticaria or age of disease onset. A more comprehensive analysis of the 2qq37 genomic region might reveal whether variants of 1 or more of the genes in this region are involved in susceptibility to CU.

New-onset third-degree atrioventricular block because of autoimmune-induced myositis under treatment with anti-programmed cell death - 1 nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. There has been considerable progress in treating malignant melanoma over the last few years. The immune-checkpoint-inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in for the therapy of metastatic melanoma.

Anti-programmed cell death - 1 -blocking antibodies are known to cause immune-related adverse events. Physicians should be aware of common and rare side effects and pay attention to new ones. We therefore report a severe and life-threatening side effect of anti-programmed cell death - 1 immunotherapy with nivolumab that has not been previously reported: the development of a third-degree atrioventricular block.

After a second infusion with nivolumab, our patient developed a troponin I-positive and autoantibody-positive myositis and a few days later a new-onset third-degree atrioventricular block. This is most likely because of an autoimmune-induced myositis with a cardiac impairment in terms of a myocarditis, which led to an impairment of the conduction of cardiac electrical stimuli. Programmed death - 1 ligands 1 and 2 expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and their relationship with tumour- infiltrating dendritic cells.

Prognostic impact of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression in human leukocyte antigen class I-positive hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy. Hepatocellular carcinoma HCC is one of the most common solid tumors worldwide. Surgery is potentially curative, but high recurrence rates worsen patient prognosis.

The interaction between the proteins programmed cell death 1 PD-1 and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 PD-L1 is an important immune checkpoint. Memory phenotype CD4 T cells are found in normal mice and arise through response to environmental antigens or homeostatic mechanisms. The factors that regulate the homeostasis of memory phenotype CD4 cells are not clear. In the present study we demonstrate that there is a marked accumulation of memory phenotype CD4 cells , specifically of the effector memory TEM phenotype, in lymphoid organs and tissues of mice deficient for the negative co-stimulatory receptor programmed death 1 PD This can be correlated with decreased apoptosis but not with enhanced homeostatic turnover potential of these cells.

This accumulation effect was mediated by CD4 cell -intrinsic mechanisms as shown by mixed bone marrow chimera experiments. In conclusion, we provide evidence that PD-1 has an important role in determining the composition and functional aspects of memory phenotype CD4 T cell pool.

Therapeutic PD-1 blockade has been shown to mediate tumor eradication with impressive clinical results. We provide unequivocal evidence that PD-1 is highly expressed PD-1 bright on an NK cell subset detectable in the peripheral blood of approximately one fourth of healthy subjects. These donors are always serologically positive for human cytomegalovirus. Functional analysis revealed a reduced proliferative capability in response to cytokines, low degranulation, and impaired cytokine production on interaction with tumor targets.

We have identified and characterized a novel subpopulation of human NK cells expressing high levels of PD These cells have the phenotypic characteristics of fully mature NK cells and are increased in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Many pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. We studied malarial infections to understand the contribution of PD-L2 to immunity.

Here we have shown that higher PD-L2 expression on blood dendritic cells , from Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals, correlated with lower parasitemia. Importantly, administration of soluble multimeric PD-L2 to mice with lethal malaria was sufficient to dramatically improve immunity and survival.

Up-regulation of this marker of T cell exhaustion is associated with a reduction in the proliferative response to T cell receptor TCR stimulation, a defect that is reversed by PD-1 pathway blockade. Genome-wide association studies and microarray analyses have correlated signaling downstream from the TCR with sarcoidosis disease severity, but the mechanism is not yet known.

Gene and protein expression levels reverted to healthy control levels after PD-1 pathway blockade. This supports the concept that PD-1 up-regulation drives the immunologic deficits associated with sarcoidosis severity by inducing signaling aberrancies in key mediators of cell cycle progression.

Celada, Lindsay J. Dilara; Desar, Ingrid M. In order to explore the potential of immune checkpoint blockade in sarcoma, we investigated expression and clinical relevance of programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 , programmed death ligand-1 PD-L1 and CD8 in tumors of sarcoma patients. In the alveolar subtype PD-L1 expression was associated with better overall, event-free and metastases-free survival.

Overall, expression and clinical associations were found to be subtype dependent. Lack of an association of programmed cell death - 1 PD1. The programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 is a potent immunoregulatory molecule which is responsible for the negative regulation of T- cell activation and peripheral tolerance.

Recently, overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system evasion and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 4 of PD-1 gene called PD The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this polymorphism could be involved in the risk of HCC susceptibility.

The genotype frequency of PD No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distributions of the PD Our results demonstrate for the first time that the PD Independent studies are needed to validate our findings in a larger series, as well as in patients of different ethnic origins. Molecular cloning and responsive expression to injury stimulus of a defender against cell death 1 DAD1 gene from bay scallops Argopecten irradians.

Apoptosis is an active process of cell death, which is an integral part of growth and development in multicellular organisms. The full-length cDNA of the A. The deduced amino acid sequence of the A. The A. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of A. The US Food and Drug Administration FDA is increasing its pace of approvals for novel cancer therapeutics, including for immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 protein anti-PD-1 agents.

However, little is known about how quickly anti-PD-1 agents reach eligible patients in practice or whether such patients differ from those studied in clinical trials that lead to FDA approval pivotal clinical trials.

To assess the speed with which anti-PD-1 agents reached eligible patients in practice and to compare the ages of patients treated in clinical practice with the ages of those treated in pivotal clinical trials. This retrospective cohort study, performed from January 1, , through August 31, , included patients from the Flatiron Health Network who were eligible for anti-PD-1 treatment of selected cancer types, which included melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC , and renal cell carcinoma RCC.

Cumulative proportions of eligible patients receiving anti-PD-1 treatment and their age distributions. The study identified patients who were eligible for anti-PD-1 treatment median age, 66 [interquartile range, ] years for patients with melanoma, 66 [interquartile range, ] years for patients with RCC, and 67 [interquartile range, ] years for patients with NSCLC; male [ Of these patients, Overall, similar proportions of older and younger patients received anti-PD-1 treatment during the first 9 months after FDA approval.

However, there were significant differences in age between clinical trial participants and patients receiving anti-PD-1 treatment in clinical. Chemical determination of free radical-induced damage to DNA. Free radical-induced damage to DNA in vivo can result in deleterious biological consequences such as the initiation and promotion of cancer. Chemical characterization and quantitation of such DNA damage is essential for an understanding of its biological consequences and cellular repair.

Hydroxyl radical-induced DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian chromatin, and products of the sugar moiety in DNA are also unequivocally identified and quantitated. Response to programmed cell death - 1 blockade in a murine melanoma syngeneic model requires costimulation, CD4, and CD8 T cells. The programmed cell death protein 1 PD-1 limits effector T- cell functions in peripheral tissues and its inhibition leads to clinical benefit in different cancers.

PD-L1 expression did not differ between the three models at baseline or upon interferon stimulation. In YUMM2. Compared to YUMM1. In conclusion, response to PD-1 blockade therapy in tumor models requires CD4 and CD8 T cells and costimulation that is mediated by dendritic cells and macrophages. Glioblastoma multiforme GBM is a heterogeneous malignant brain tumor, the pathological incidence of which induces the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes TILs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism underlying GBM microenvironment and provide a new therapeutic strategy using re-expression of LRRC4 in GBM cells to create a permissive intratumoral environment.

Mechanisms of free radical-induced damage to DNA. Endogenous and exogenous sources cause free radical-induced DNA damage in living organisms by a variety of mechanisms. The highly reactive hydroxyl radical reacts with the heterocyclic DNA bases and the sugar moiety near or at diffusion-controlled rates.

Hydrated electron and H atom also add to the heterocyclic bases. These reactions lead to adduct radicals, further reactions of which yield numerous products. These include DNA base and sugar products, single- and double-strand breaks, 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides, tandem lesions, clustered sites and DNA-protein cross-links.

Reaction conditions and the presence or absence of oxygen profoundly affect the types and yields of the products. There is mounting evidence for an important role of free radical-induced DNA damage in the etiology of numerous diseases including cancer. Further understanding of mechanisms of free radical-induced DNA damage, and cellular repair and biological consequences of DNA damage products will be of outmost importance for disease prevention and treatment. Kent; Winter, Jane N.

The reconstituting immune landscape after autologous hematopoietic stem- cell transplantation AHSCT may be particularly favorable for breaking immune tolerance through PD-1 blockade. Results Sixty-six eligible patients were treated.

Toxicity was mild. At 16 months after the first treatment, progression-free survival PFS was 0. Among the 24 high-risk patients who remained positive on positron emission tomography after salvage chemotherapy, the month PFS was 0. Treatment was associated with increases in circulating lymphocyte subsets including PD-L1E—bearing lymphocytes, suggesting an on-target in vivo effect of pidilizumab.

We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response HR , a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 THF1 as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol.

Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. Membrane-localized proteins perceive and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. We performed quantitative proteomics on plasma membrane-enriched samples from Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana treated with bacterial flagellin. We identified multiple receptor-like protein kinases changing in abundance, including cysteine Cys -rich receptor-like kinases CRKs that are up-regulated upon the perception of flagellin.

CRKs possess extracellular Cys-rich domains and constitute a gene family consisting of 46 members in Arabidopsis. In contrast, silencing of multiple bacterial flagellin-induced CRKs resulted in enhanced susceptibility to pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae, indicating functional redundancy in this large gene family.

Expression of CRK28 in Nicotiana benthamiana induced cell death, which required intact extracellular Cys residues and a conserved kinase active site. These data support a model where Arabidopsis CRKs are synthesized upon pathogen perception, associate with the FLS2 complex, and coordinately act to enhance plant immune responses. Vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-programmed cell death - 1 therapies are clinically and biologically distinct from vitiligo.

The use of anti-programmed cell death PD -1 therapies in metastatic tumors is associated with cutaneous side effects including vitiligo-like lesions. We sought to characterize clinically and biologically vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies by studying a case series of 8 patients with metastatic tumors and 30 control subjects with vitiligo. Eight patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies with features of vitiligo-like lesions seen in our department were recruited.

Clinical features and photographs were analyzed. For some patients, skin and blood samples were obtained. Results were compared with the vitiligo group. All patients developed lesions localized on photoexposed areas with a specific depigmentation pattern consisting of multiple flecked lesions without Koebner phenomenon.

In contrast to vitiligo, patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies who developed vitiligo-like lesions did not report any personal or family histories of vitiligo, thyroiditis, or other autoimmune disorders. This cross-sectional study concerned a single center. Clinical and biological patterns of vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies differ from vitiligo, suggesting a different mechanism.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Diverse cutaneous adverse eruptions caused by anti-programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 PD-L1 immunotherapies: clinical features and management. The anti-programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 PD-L1 immunotherapies have shown exceptional activity in many cancers. However, these immunotherapies can also result in diverse adverse cutaneous eruptions that need to be better characterized for ongoing management.

A total of 16 patients were included in this study; of these, five were treated with pembrolizumab alone, two with avelumab alone, eight with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and one with nivolumab plus T-Vec. Of these 16 patients, eight had received systemic chemotherapy, six had received radiotherapy, and one had received trememlimumab prior to the immunotherapies described in this study.

Cutaneous eruptions occurred at variable times, from week 1 to 88, with a median of All cutaneous immune-related adverse events were either grade 1 or 2. Four patients eventually required systemic steroids. There are several different types of adverse cutaneous morphologies that may be seen with administration of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. Identifying the patterns of eruption may assist in prompt treatment. Most eruptions could be managed with. Thus, following the antigen-driven downregulation of IL-7Ralpha seen on all populations in acute IM, in every case, the TLD-specific population recovered expression unusually quickly post-IM.

As well, in four of six patients studied, TLD-specific cells showed very strong PD-1 upregulation in the last blood sample obtained before the cells ' disappearance. Our data suggest that the disappearance of this individual epitope reactivity from an otherwise stable EBV-specific response i reflects a selective loss of cognate antigen restimulation rather than of ILdependent signals and ii is immediately preceded, and perhaps mediated, by PD-1 upregulation to unprecedented levels.

Programmed death 1 is an immune checkpoint that suppresses antitumor immunity. Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, was active and generally well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts. We report overall survival OS , response durability, and long-term safety in patients with non-small- cell lung cancer NSCLC receiving nivolumab in this trial. Median OS across doses was 9.

Nivolumab monotherapy produced durable responses and encouraging survival rates in patients with heavily pretreated NSCLC. Vectorization in an oncolytic vaccinia virus of an antibody, a Fab and a scFv against programmed cell death - 1 PD-1 allows their intratumoral delivery and an improved tumor-growth inhibition. We report here the successful vectorization of a hamster monoclonal IgG namely J43 recognizing the murine Programmed cell death - 1 mPD-1 in Western Reserve WR oncolytic vaccinia virus.

Three forms of mPD-1 binders have been inserted into the virus: whole antibody mAb , Fragment antigen-binding Fab or single-chain variable fragment scFv. MAb, Fab and scFv were produced and assembled with the expected patterns in supernatants of cells infected by the recombinant viruses. The concentration of circulating mAb detected after IT injection was up to 1,fold higher than the level obtained after a subcutaneous SC injection i. These results pave the way for next generation of oncolytic vaccinia armed with immunomodulatory therapeutic proteins such as mAbs.

The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of T follicular helper Tfh - cell subsets in patients with hepatitis B virus HBV and determine the underlying mechanism of HBV regulation of Tfh cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tfh subsets was analyzed using flow cytometry. Increased B7-H1 expression on dendritic cells correlates with programmed death 1 expression on T cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques and may contribute to T cell dysfunction and disease progression.

Suppression of dendritic cell DC function in HIV-1 infection is thought to contribute to inhibition of immune responses and disease progression, but the mechanism of this suppression remains undetermined. Blockade of this pathway may have therapeutic implications for HIV-infected patients. However, they are often associated with potentially fatal immune-mediated pneumonitis.

Preliminary reports of trials suggest a difference in the rate of pneumonitis with PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. We sought to determine the overall incidence of pneumonitis and differences according to type of inhibitors and prior chemotherapy use. The incidence of pneumonitis across trials was calculated using DerSimonian-Laird random effects models.

We compared incidences between PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors and between treatment naive and previously treated patients. PD-1 inhibitors were found to have statistically significant higher incidence of any grade pneumonitis compared with PD-L1 inhibitors 3. PD-1 inhibitors were also associated with higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis 1.

Treatment naive patients had higher incidence of grade 1 through 4 pneumonitis compared with previously treated patients 4. There was a higher incidence of pneumonitis with use of PD-1 inhibitors compared with PD-L1 inhibitors. Higher rate of pneumonitis was more common in treatment naive patients. Prokaryotic expression of the extracellular domain of porcine programmed death 1 PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 and identification of the binding with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Our previous studies showed that the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is up-regulated during viral infection in pigs.

We amplified the cDNA encoding the extracellular domains of PD-1 and PD-L1 to construct recombinant expression plasmids and obtain soluble recombinant proteins, which were then labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC. We then prepared polyclonal antibodies against the proteins with a multi-antiserum titer of Binding of the proteins with PBMCs was evaluated by flow cytometry. Activated mitofusin 2 signals mitochondrial fusion, interferes with Bax activation, and reduces susceptibility to radical induced depolarization.

We have created an activated mutant of Mfn2, which shows increased rates of nucleotide exchange and decreased rates of hydrolysis relative to wild type Mfn2. Mitochondrial fusion is stimulated dramatically within heterokaryons expressing this mutant, demonstrating that hydrolysis is not requisite for the fusion event, and supporting a role for Mfn2 as a signaling GTPase. Although steady-state mitochondrial fusion required the conserved intermembrane space tryptophan residue, this requirement was overcome within the context of the hydrolysis-deficient mutant.

Furthermore, the punctate localization of Mfn2 is lost in the dominant active mutants, indicating that these sites are functionally controlled by changes in the nucleotide state of Mfn2. Upon staurosporine-stimulated cell death, activated Bax is recruited to the Mfn2-containing puncta; however, Bax activation and cytochrome c release are inhibited in the presence of the dominant active mutants of Mfn2.

The dominant active form of Mfn2 also protected the mitochondria against free radical-induced permeability transition. In contrast to staurosporine-induced outer membrane permeability transition, pore opening induced through the introduction of free radicals was dependent upon the conserved intermembrane space residue.

This is the first evidence that Mfn2 is a signaling GTPase regulating mitochondrial fusion and that the nucleotide-dependent activation of Mfn2 concomitantly protects the organelle from permeability transition. The data provide new insights into the critical relationship between mitochondrial membrane dynamics and programmed cell death. Radical-induced chemistry from VUV photolysis of interstellar ice analogues containing formaldehyde. Surface processes and radical chemistry within interstellar ices are increasingly suspected to play an important role in the formation of complex organic molecules COMs observed in several astrophysical regions and cometary environments.

We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of complex organic molecules - glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and polyoxymethylene - through radical-induced reactivity from VUV photolysis of formaldehyde in water-free and water-dominated ices. Radical reactivity and endogenous formation of COMs were monitored in situ via infrared spectroscopy in the solid state and post photolysis with temperature programmed desorption TPD using a quadripole mass spectrometer.

We show the ability of free radicals to be stored when formed at low temperature in water-dominated ices, and to react with other radicals or on double bonds of unsaturated molecules when the temperature increases. It experimentally confirms the role of thermal diffusion in radical reactivity. We propose a new pathway for formaldehyde polymerisation induced by HCO radicals that might explain some observations made by the Ptolemy instrument on board the Rosetta lander Philae.

Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death - 1 PD-1 and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody ipilimumab and BRAF inhibitor.

The most mature results have been obtained in advanced melanoma patients. They indicate important response rates and high quality responses or prolonged duration. Also in renal cancer and in lung cancer remarkable activity has been demonstrated.

Thus it is clear that these antibodies have a very broad potential and trials in many tumour types are being initiated. Breaking tolerance at the tumour site is a potent phenomenon and the potential for synergy with other checkpoint inhibitors such as ipilimumab have also been demonstrated in Long term tumour control now seems achievable and thus the concept of a clinical cure is emerging by modulation of the immune system.

These antibodies bring immunotherapy to the forefront and indicate that immune-modulation will be a key component of therapeutic strategies from now on. OH- radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products—A gamma radiolysis study. The OH- radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids HBA , hydroxycinnamic acids HCiA and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions.

A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated.

Reaction mechanisms are discussed. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes. The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract CTE against in vitro 2,2'-azobismethyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride AAPH -induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes.

From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.

Induction of painless thyroiditis in patients receiving programmed death 1 receptor immunotherapy for metastatic malignancies. Immunotherapies against immune checkpoints that inhibit T cell activation [cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 CTLA-4 and programmed cell death 1 PD-1 ] are emerging and promising treatments for several metastatic malignancies. However, the precise adverse effects of these therapies on thyroid gland function have not been well described.

We report on 10 cases of painless thyroiditis syndrome PTS from a novel etiology, following immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies mAb during treatment for metastatic malignancies. Six patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis in which thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins TBII were absent for all, whereas four patients had evidence of positive antithyroid antibodies. All thyrotoxic patients required temporary beta-blocker therapy and had spontaneous resolution of thyrotoxicosis with subsequent hypothyroidism.

Four patients presented with hypothyroidism without a detected preceding thyrotoxic phase, occurring weeks after initial drug exposure. All of these patients had positive antithyroid antibodies and required thyroid hormone replacement therapy for a minimum of 6 months. Patients receiving anti-PD-1 mAb therapy should be monitored for signs and symptoms of PTS which may require supportive treatment with beta-blockers or thyroid hormone replacement.

The anti-PD-1 mAb is a novel exogenous cause of PTS and provides new insight into the possible perturbations of the immune network that may modulate the development of endogenous PTS, including cases of sporadic and postpartum thyroiditis. Effects of phenylpropanoid and iridoid glycosides on free radical-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings.

The protective effect of phenylpropanoid glycosides, forsythoside B and alyssonoside, and the iridoid glycoside lamiide, isolated from the aerial parts of Phlomis pungens var. Aortic rings were exposed to free radicals by the electrolysis of the physiological bathing solution. Major components of the phenylpropanoid fraction forsythoside B and alyssonoside also prevented the inhibition of the acetylcholine response, at 10 -4 M concentration. However, the major component of iridoid fraction lamiide was found ineffective at the same concentration.

The protective activity of phenylpropanoid glycosides against the free radical-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation may be related to their free radical scavenging property. Programmed death - 1 PD-1 protein is a co-inhibitory receptor which negatively regulates immune cell activation and permits tumors to evade normal immune defense.

Anti-PD-1 antibodies have been shown to restore immune cell activation and effector function-an exciting breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy. Recent reports have documented a soluble form of PD-1 sPD-1 in the circulation of normal and disease state individuals. A clinical assay to quantify sPD-1 would contribute to the understanding of sPDfunction and facilitate the development of anti-PD-1 drugs.

Here, we report the development and validation of a sPD-1 protein assay. The assay validation followed the framework for full validation of a biotherapeutic pharmacokinetic assay. A purified recombinant human PD-1 protein was characterized extensively and was identified as the assay reference material which mimics the endogenous analyte in structure and function.

Potential matrix effects were investigated in sera from both normal healthy volunteers and selected cancer patients. Bulk-prepared frozen standards and pre-coated Streptavidin plates were used in the assay to ensure consistency in assay performance over time. Although CD4 T cells mediate innate immunity-dominated ischemia and reperfusion injury IRI in the liver, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

We used an established mouse model of partial liver warm ischemia 90 minutes followed by reperfusion 6 hours. Although disruption of PD-1 signaling after anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody treatment augmented hepatocellular damage, its stimulation following B7-H1 immunoglobulin B7-H1Ig fusion protected livers from IRI, as evidenced by low serum alanine aminotransferase levels and well-preserved liver architecture.

Harnessing mechanisms of negative costimulation by PD-1 upon T cell -Kupffer cell cross-talk may be instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis by minimizing organ damage and promoting ILdependent cytoprotection. Combined blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor and programmed death 1 pathways in advanced kidney cancer. Targeted and immune-based therapies have improved outcomes in advanced kidney cancer, yet novel strategies are needed to extend the duration of these benefits and expand them to more patients.

We present preclinical evidence of interaction between these pathways and the rationale for combined blockade. The major objective of this work was to develop a green and facile process to prepare gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and comprehensively evaluate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of an as-prepared water-soluble chitosan derivative.

A free- radical-induced grafting approach using an ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide redox pair was adopted. The obtained conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, and pKa analysis. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH , 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 -sulphonic acid ABTS , reducing power, and oxygen-radical antioxidant-capacity assays.

The antioxidant assays demonstrated that conjugation significantly improved the antioxidant activities, being dramatically higher than that of free chitosan. Our study demonstrated a green and facile synthesis approach to preparing a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative that may have promising potentials in the food industry. Sunlight represents an exogenous factor stimulating formation of free radicals which can induce cell damage.

For all skin probes, the ultraviolet UV spectral region stimulates the most intensive radical formation, followed by the visible VIS and the near infrared NIR regions. Modulation of expression of Programmed Death - 1 by administration of probiotic Dahi in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Interaction of probiotic bacteria with the host immune system elicits beneficial immune modulating effects. Although, there are many published studies on interaction of probiotics with immune system focusing on activation of immune system by bacterial cell wall through the engagement of Toll-like receptor family; very few studies have focused on molecules involved in the T- cell activation, and not much work has been executed to study the correlation of probiotics and programmed death - 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models.

Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of probiotic Dahi on expression of programmed death PD-1 in colorectum of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine treated Wistar rats. A total of male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to seven groups, each group having twenty-four animals. The rats were euthanized at the 8th, 16th and 32nd week of the experiment and examined for the expression of PD-1 in colorectal tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Feeding rats with probiotic Dahi or the treatment with piroxicam decreased the expression of PD-1 in DMH-induced colorectal mucosa, and the combined treatment with probiotic Dahi and piroxicam was significantly more effective in reducing the expression of PD PD-1 expressed independent of carcinogen administration in normal colonic mucosa and may play a role in modulation of immune response in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis.

The present study suggests that probiotic Dahi can be used as an effective chemopreventive agent in the management of colorectal cancer. Programmed death - 1 gene polymorphism PD This study aimed to determine the association between PD Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. The programmed death 1 PD-1 is a member of the CD28 super family. PD-1 is a negative regulator of T- cell effector mechanisms which decrease immune responses against cancer.

DNA was extracted from blood specimens. CC genotype was more frequent in control individuals than in patients but we found no statically significant association. The frequencies of PD Frequency of C and T alleles was These results suggest that PD Neurological complications are an increasingly recognized consequence of the use of anti-programmed death 1 PD-1 antibodies in the treatment of solid-organ tumors, with an estimated frequency of 4. To date, the clinical spectrum and optimum treatment approach are not established.

To investigate the frequency, clinical spectrum, and optimum treatment approach to neurological complications associated with anti-PD-1 therapy. This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted from either September or December the approval dates of the study drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration to May 19, Patients with development of neurological symptoms within 12 months of anti-PD-1 therapy were included. Patients with neurological complications directly attributable to metastatic disease or other concurrent cancer-related treatments were excluded.

Clinical and pathological characteristics, time to development of neurological symptoms, and modified Rankin Scale mRS score. Among patients treated with anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies pembrolizumab or nivolumab , 10 2. Seven patients were receiving pembrolizumab, and 3 patients were receiving nivolumab. The patients included 8 men and 2 women. Their median age was 71 years age range, years. Neurological complications occurred after a median of 5. Elsayed, Yahya. Emery, Cecile , Calvard, Thomas S.

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During two cruises in March and June , planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon DIC and oxygen O2 mass balance budgets.

These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay 55 m.

This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass -covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

Implications of extreme life span in clonal organisms: millenary clones in meadows of the threatened seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Full Text Available The maximum size and age that clonal organisms can reach remains poorly known, although we do know that the largest natural clones can extend over hundreds or thousands of metres and potentially live for centuries.

We made a review of findings to date, which reveal that the maximum clone age and size estimates reported in the literature are typically limited by the scale of sampling, and may grossly underestimate the maximum age and size of clonal organisms. A case study presented here shows the occurrence of clones of slow-growing marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica at spatial scales ranging from metres to hundreds of kilometres, using microsatellites on sampling units from a total of 40 locations across the Mediterranean Sea.

This analysis revealed the presence, with a prevalence of 3. Using estimates from field studies and models of the clonal growth of P. These results, obtained combining genetics, demography and model-based calculations, question present knowledge and understanding of the spreading capacity and life span of plant clones. These findings call for further research on these life history traits associated with clonality, considering their possible ecological and evolutionary implications.

Full Text Available The availability of the first complete genome sequence of the marine flowering plant Zostera marina commonly known as seagrass in early , is expected to significantly raise the impact of seagrass proteomics. Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining worldwide at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Seagrasses especially species of the genus Zostera are compromised for proteomic studies primarily due to the lack of efficient protein extraction methods because of their recalcitrant cell wall which is rich in complex polysaccharides and a high abundance of secondary metabolites in their cells.

In the present study, three protein extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics i. However, the BPP method produces better results in Z. Therefore, we further modified the BPP method M-BPP by homogenizing the tissue in a modified protein extraction buffer containing both ionic and non-ionic detergents 0. Further, the extracted proteins were solubilized in 0. This slight modification to the BPP method resulted in a higher protein yield, and good quality 2-DE maps with a higher number of protein spots in both the tested seagrasses.

Experimental assessment and modeling evaluation of the effects of seagrass Posidonia oceanica on flow and particle trapping. Retention of particles in seagrass canopies is usually attributed to only the indirect, attenuating effects canopies have on flow, turbulence and wave action, promoting sedimentation and reducing resuspension within seagrass meadows.

Yet recent evidence suggests that seagrasses are also able to. Patch types in Posidonia oceanica meadows around Corsica. How can we use them in seascape ecology? The meadows formed by the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica are subjected to various natural e. The assemblage of the P. On the basis of this assessment, we aimed to investigate the importance of the patch type in structuring P.

Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica L. Delile is a seagrass , the only group of vascular plants to colonize the marine environment. Seawater is an extreme yet stable environment characterized by high salinity, alkaline pH and low availability of essential nutrients, such as nitrate and phosphate.

This mechanism seems to be a key step in the process of adaptation of seagrasses to the marine environment. Herbivory on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa Ucria Ascherson in contrasting Spanish Mediterranean habitats. We assess the magnitude and variability of herbivory i. Variation along the year of trace metal levels in the compartments of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in Port El Kantaoui, Tunisia. The accumulation of the five trace metals TMs cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc was measured in Posidonia oceanica leaves.

Shoots were seasonally sampled at m depth from four stations located in Port El Kantaoui area, Tunisia, during four campaigns performed in Results showed a preferential accumulation of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in adult leaf blades. Therefore, we focus on the study of this compartment. Therefore, this study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of this compartment of P. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools.

This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline.

The effects of fish farming on P. A safety distance of m is suggested for management of P. Response of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to different light environments: Insights from a combined molecular and photo-physiological study. Analyses were performed during two seasons, summer and autumn, in a meadow located in the Island of Ischia Gulf of Naples, Italy , where a genetic distinction between plants growing above and below the summer thermocline was previously revealed.

At molecular level, analyses carried out using cDNA-microarray and RT-qPCR, revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in photoacclimation RuBisCO, ferredoxin, chlorophyll binding proteins , and photoprotection antioxidant enzymes, xanthophyll-cycle related genes, tocopherol biosynthesis in the upper stand of the meadow, indicating that shallow plants are under stressful light conditions.

However, the lack of photo-damage, indicates the successful activation of defense mechanisms. Deep plants, despite the lower available light, seem to be not light-limited, thanks to some shade-adaptation strategies e. Furthermore, also at the molecular level there were no signs of stress response, indicating that, although the lower energy available, low-light environments are more favorable for P.

Globally, results of whole transcriptome analysis displayed two distinct gene expression signatures related to depth distribution, reflecting the different light-adaptation strategies adopted by P. This observation, also taking into account the genetic disjunction of clones along the bathymetry, might have important implications for micro-evolutionary processes.

Simulations of dredged sediment spreading on a Posidonia oceanica meadow off the Ligurian coast, Northwestern Mediterranean. The sandy deposits from dredging can have negative effects on the environment such as increase in suspended solids in the water column and their consequent transport. An experimental study was conducted to characterize water masses, dynamics, and sedimentation rates on the Ligurian continental shelf Italy , where both a sand deposit, that could be used for beach nourishment, and a nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow coexist.

The environmental plan provides a mathematical simulation of the sediment-dispersion to evaluate the possible impact on the meadow. It has been calculated that the dredging could double the concentration of suspended particles, but its scheduling will preclude a sediment accumulation. All the information obtained from this work will be used to study the environmental feasibility of the sand deposit exploitation and as starting point for drawing up the monitoring plan in case of dredging.

In seagrass , results, compared with metal concentrations in sediments, showed that the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb, Sn and Cu were found in the roots, while in the green leaves were found the highest levels of Cd and Zn. Instead the lowest metal concentrations were found in the basal part of the leaf. Mercury levels in roots were correlated to levels in sediments. This could demonstrate the plant memorizes sediments contamination. This study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of Posidonia oceanica as an indicator of spatial metal contamination and an interesting tool for environmental quality evaluation.

Resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows over the last four decades in a Mediterranean lagoon. Understanding what controls the capacity of a coastal lagoon ecosystem to recover following climatic and anthropogenic perturbations and how these perturbations can alter this capacity is critical to efficient environmental management. The goal of this study was to examine the resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated seagrass meadows in Urbino lagoon Corsica, Mediterranean Sea by characterizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of seagrass meadows over a year period and comparing anthropogenic and climatic environmental fluctuations.

The spatio-temporal evolution of seagrass meadows was investigated using previous maps , , , , , and a map realized by aerial photography-remote sensing combined with GIS technology. Environmental fluctuation was investigated via physical-chemical parameters rainfall, water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and human-impact changes aquaculture, artificial channel. Increased turbidity, induced either by rainfall events, dredging or phytoplankton growth, emerged as the most important driver of the spatio-temporal evolution of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated meadows in Urbino lagoon over the last four decades.

Climate events associated to increased turbidity and reduced salinity and temperature could heavily impact seagrass dynamics. This study shows that Urbino lagoon, a system relatively untouched by human impact, shelters seagrass meadows that exhibit high resilience and stability.

Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets. The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii and 3 temperate Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii seagrass species.

Effects of recreational fishing on three fish species from the Posidonia oceanica meadows off Minorca Balearic archipelago, western Mediterranean. Full Text Available Experimental fishing and visual censuses were conducted at nine Posidonia oceanica sites off Minorca exposed to different levels of fishing intensity to assess the effects of recreational fishing on the species that dominate the catch.

Total catch per unit effort CPUE was highly seasonal and a statistically significant interaction term existed between the season and the level of fishing intensity. CPUE decreased everywhere at the end of the fishing season autumn, but such a reduction was more intense at those sites exposed to the highest level of fishing.

Visual censuses confirmed that there was a lower abundance of vulnerable fish in autumn. Differences vanished in spring probably because fish reshuffled between the considered sites throughout the winter, when the level of fishing intensity was extremely low. Although the average total lengths of Serranus scriba and Diplodus annularis were unaffected by the level of fishing intensity, the average total length of Coris julis was smaller at the most heavily fished sites.

In conclusion, recreational fishing has a relevant impact on most of the exploited species and some of the seasonality reported for the Posidonia oceanica fish assemblages might be caused by the seasonality of the fishery. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa Ucria Aschers. Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra Greece. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf.

Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass.

Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated.

Legal protection is not enough: Posidonia oceanica meadows in marine protected areas are not healthier than those in unprotected areas of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. Using the Conservation Index, which measures the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live Posidonia oceanica, we assessed the health of 15 P. These areas were characterized by different degrees of anthropization, from highly urbanized sites to marine protected areas. Two different scenarios were identified according to depth: in shallow zones, the health of P.

In contrast, in deep zones, most meadows exhibited poor health, independent of both the degree of disturbance and the legal measures protecting the area. Working synergistically with the regional impact of increased water turbidity, local impacts from the coast were recognized as the main causes of the severe regression of most Ligurian P.

We conclude that marine protected areas alone are not sufficient to guarantee the protection of P. Extreme weather events are major drivers of ecological change, and their occurrence is likely to increase due to climate change. The transient increases in atmospheric temperatures are leading to a greater occurrence of heat waves, extreme events that can produce a substantial warming of water, especially in enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea.

Here, we tested the effects of current and predicted heat waves on the early stages of development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. It suffered a reduction in leaf growth and faster leaf senescence, and in some cases mortality. This study demonstrates that the greater frequency of heat waves, along with anticipated temperature rises in coming decades, are expected to negatively affect the germination of P.

The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring. Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. We found that: i the condition of P. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. Cumulative impacts from multiple human activities on seagrass meadows in eastern Mediterranean waters: the case of Saronikos Gulf Aegean Sea, Greece.

Ecosystem-based management EBM addresses the fundamental need to account for cumulative impacts of human activities with the aim of sustainably delivering ecosystem services. The Saronikos Gulf, a large embayment of the Aegean Sea, provides a wide range of ecosystem services that are impacted by multiple human activities, deriving from the metropolitan area of Athens situated at the northeast part of the Gulf.

The anthropogenic impacts affect the status of several marine ecosystem components, e. Cymodocea nodosa meadows are only present at the most confined western part of the Gulf, whereas Posidonia oceanica meadows are mainly distributed in the inner and outer part of the Gulf. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impacts from multiple human activities on the seagrass meadows in the Gulf. The main results indicated that most impacted meadows are P.

Land-based pollution, as well as physical damage and loss seem to be the main pressures exerted on the meadows. Understanding cumulative impacts is crucial for informing policy decisions under an EBM approach. Altered epiphyte community and sea urchin diet in Posidonia oceanica meadows in the vicinity of volcanic CO2 vents. Ocean acidification OA predicted for is expected to shift seagrass epiphyte communities towards the dominance of more tolerant non-calcifying taxa.

However, little is known about the indirect effects of such changes on food provision to key seagrass consumers. We found that epiphyte communities of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in two naturally acidified sites i. Such differences involved a higher abundance of non-calcareous crustose brown algae and a decline of calcifying polychaetes in both acidified sites.

A lower epiphytic abundance of crustose coralline algae occurred only in the south side of the vents, thus suggesting that OA may alter epiphyte assemblages in different ways due to interaction with local factors such as differential fish herbivory or hydrodynamics.

The OA effects on food items seagrass , epiphytes, and algae indirectly propagated into food provision to the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, as reflected by a reduced P. In contrast, we detected no difference close and outside the vents neither in the composition of sea urchin diet nor in the total abundance of calcareous versus non-calcareous taxa. More research, under realistic scenarios of predicted pH reduction i.

Seagrass ecosystem response to long-term high CO2 in a Mediterranean volcanic vent. We examined the long-term effect of naturally acidified water on a Cymodocea nodosa meadow growing at a shallow volcanic CO2 vent in Vulcano Island Italy. Density and biomass showed a clear decreasing trend at the low pH station and the below- to above-ground biomass ratio was more than 10 times lower compared to the control.

Photosynthetic activity of C. Seagrass community metabolism was intense at the low pH station, with significantly higher net community production, respiration and gross primary production than the control community, whereas metabolism of the unvegetated community did not differ between stations. Productivity was promoted by the low pH, but this was not translated into biomass, probably due to nutrient limitation, grazing or poor environmental conditions.

The results indicate that seagrass response in naturally acidified conditions is dependable upon species and geochemical characteristics of the site and highlight the need for a better understanding of complex interactions in these environments. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia.

This work describes the human conditioned evolution medium term and the short term dynamics mainly sediment transport in southern Sardinia beach between Giorgino and Cala d'Orri, about 11km , composed of fine to coarse quartz sand, backed by dune ridges and lagoons. Geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators as: urbanization and coastal defence expansion, dune and beach changes, biotic indices benthic foraminifera and Posidonia meadow have been used.

Medium-term evolution, over a period of 60 years, was carried out by ortho-images for reconstructing coastline changes at this temporal scale. The main modifications were the building of the canal harbor, the consequent loss of 2. Short-term variations have been periodically monitored during 5 different field surveys DGPS and Echo-sounder data obtaining topo-bathymetric digital models. Sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics have been studied. Wave propagation, coastal currents and sediment transport, have been simulated through numerical models within Delft3D software.

The results obtained allowed to visualize the response of the beach to wave stress, forced from SW, S, SE Cagliari buoy and weather data. The comparison between data collected, thematic maps and models allowed to identify the main controlling factors and distribution mechanisms of the sedimentary paths on the shoreface. Those human modifications e. In , the Italian Environment Office reported a wide area between -4m and m of degraded Posidonia and dead matte in front of the study beach. Variability in the carbon storage of seagrass habitats and its implications for global estimates of blue carbon ecosystem service.

Full Text Available The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in 'Blue Carbon'-carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon C org stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats.

There was an fold difference in the Corg stock 1. Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of g C org m For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the C org stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats.

The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was Mt. The estimates of annual C org accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0. These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage.

TEP release. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last yr.

The contribution of P. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region.

Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. Important quantities of this alga are accumulated on coasts making necessary the cleaninness of those beaches where it can be found. For this reason, many authors are developmenting new products made by this raw material, like green composites or are studing this material to be used as biomass, for example.

The aim of this study is to dye the Posidonia Oceanica fiber using commercial natural dye to change their appearance to get a material more attractive for different areas. To achieve this aim, fibers were scoured and bleached in order to remove the brown colour of the Posidonia Oceanica fibers. Scoured and bleached processes were followed by the treatment done for cellulosic fibers, because some researches indicate that P.

Oceanica is composed of high quantity of cellulose. Different types of biomordants were use in the pre-treatment of the fiber to improve the affinity between the fiber and the dye used. The results showed that medium molecular weight chitosan, which was used as biomordant, gets the highest intensity of colour.

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of sea bed covers and seagrass in coastal waters is of key importance in monitoring and managing Mediterranean shallow water environments often subject to both increasing anthropogenic impacts and climate change effects. In this context we present a methodology for effective monitoring and mapping of Posidonia oceanica PO meadows in turbid waters using remote sensing techniques tested by means of LAI Leaf Area Index point sea truth measurements.

Preliminary results using Daedalus airborne sensor are reported referring to the PO meadows at Civitavecchia site central Tyrrhenian sea where vessel traffic due to presence of important harbors and huge power plant represent strong impact factors. This coastal area, km far from Rome Central Italy, is characterized also by significant hydrodynamic variations and other anthropogenic factors that affect the health of seagrass meadows with frequent turbidity and suspended sediments in the water column.

During — years point measurements of several parameters related to PO meadows phenology were acquired on various stations distributed along 20 km of coast between the Civitavecchia and S. Marinella sites. The Daedalus airborne sensor multispectral data were preprocessed with the support of satellite MERIS derived water quality parameters to obtain here improved thematic maps of the local PO distribution. Their thematic accuracy was then evaluated as agreement R2 with the point sea truth measurements and regressive modeling using an on purpose developd method.

Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive ecosystems that provide ecosystem services to the coastal zone but are declining globally, particularly due to anthropogenic activities that reduce the quantity of light reaching seagrasses , such as dredging, river discharge and eutrophication.

Light quality the spectral composition of the light is also altered by these anthropogenic stressors as the differential attenuation of wavelengths of light is caused by materials within the water column. This study addressed the effect of altered light quality on different life-history stages of the seagrass Posidonia australis, a persistent, habitat-forming species in Australia.

Posidonia australis adults did not respond to changes in light quality relative to full-spectrum light, demonstrating a capacity to obtain enough photons from a range of wavelengths across the visible spectrum to maintain short-term growth at high irradiances. Posidonia australis seedlings seagrass species. Persistent seagrasses such as P. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows.

Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon C-org in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last years, P. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological e.

We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats. Retention of lignin in seagrasses : angiosperms that returned to the sea. The results. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves. The resorption of nutrients C, N and P from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical Indonesia and Kenya , Mediterranean Spain and temperate The Netherlands regions has been investigated.

Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the. The effects of climate change are likely to be dependent on local settings. Nonetheless, the compounded effects of global and regional stressors remain poorly understood.

Here, we used CO2 vents to assess how the effects of ocean acidification on the seagrass , Posidonia oceanica, and the associated epiphytic community can be modified by enhanced nutrient loading. The response of P. Threats to and loss of seagrass ecosystems globally, impact not only natural resources but also the lives of people who directly or indirectly depend on these systems.

Seagrass ecosystems play a multi-functional role in human well-being, e. Quantifying these services reveals their contributions to human well-being and helps justify seagrass conservation. There has been no comprehensive assessment as to whether seagrass ecosystem services are perceived to vary over the globe or amongst genera. Our study compiles the most complete list of ecosystem services provided by seagrasses so far, including bioregional- and genus-specific information from expert opinion and published studies.

Several seagrass ecosystem services vary considerably in their known provision across genera and over the globe. Seagrasses genera are clearly not all equal with regard to the ecosystem services they provide. As seagrass genera are not evenly distributed over all bioregions, the presence of an ecosystem service sometimes depends on the genera present.

Larger sized seagrass genera e. Posidonia , Enhalus are perceived to provide more substantial and a wider variety of ecosystem services than smaller species e. Halophila, Lepilaena. Nevertheless, smaller species provide important services. Our findings point out data gaps, provide new insight for more efficient management and recommend caution in economic valuation of seagrass services worldwide.

Effect of environmental factors wave exposure and depth and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows. Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica Mediterranean Sea considered as the most relevant species.

Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. In addition, P. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands.

Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from Pb concentrations profiles. Top centimeters carbon stocks 6. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined.

Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure. The use of banquettes of Posidonia oceanica as a source of fiber and minerals in ruminant nutrition. An observational study. In the search for new food sources that contribute to the optimization of livestock production this paper discusses the possibility of using waste called banquettes of a marine plant commonly found on the Mediterranean coasts: Posidonia oceanica.

The idea stems from the use of a waste that in summertime generates large costs because it is considered bothersome on the beaches. Thus, tons and tons of residues are collected each year from the beach, being destined for incineration. However, alternative uses for these residues are suggested, such as forage that is particularly relevant for the Mediterranean coast, where the weather does not support abundant grass growth. With this purpose, samples of banquettes of P.

Approximately g of each sample of plant material was chopped and two subsamples of g each were placed in airtight plastic containers and sent to the laboratory for mineral and chemical analysis. This report provides data on the nutritional composition of P. Our results showed that minerals, except for Fe, where within the range of values reported for P. Given the high Fe content further studies assessing the antagonic Fe-Cu interaction and its effect on animal health should be addressed.

In relation to chemical composition, it is clear that this seagrass is a poor protein source and has levels of DM degradability at 24 h, similar to those obtained for cereal straw. The information. Full Text Available Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica L. Finally, PEE lipolytic activity was assessed by measuring glycerol release from adipocytes following triglyceride degradation.

In conclusion, we have collected new data about the biological activities of the phytocomplex of P. Our findings indicate that PEE could be profitably used in the development of products for skin aging, undesired hyperpigmentation, and cellulite.

Full Text Available Seagrass meadows, one of the most important habitats for many marine species, provide essential ecological services. Thus, society must conserve seagrass beds as part of their sustainable development efforts. Conserving these ecosystems requires information on seagrass distribution and relative abundance, and an efficient, accurate monitoring system. Although narrow multibeam sonar systems NMBSs are highly effective in resolving seagrass beds, post-processing methods are required to extract key data.

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method capable of detecting seagrass meadows and estimating their relative abundance in real time using an NMBS. Because most seagrass meadows grow on sandy seafloors, we proposed a way of discriminating seagrass meadows from the sand bed. These are respectively two times the standard deviation of beam depths, and the difference between the shallowest and the deepest depths in a 0.

We examined Zostera caulescens Miki, but this simple NMBS method of seagrass classification can potentially be used to map seagrass meadows with longer shoots of other species, such as Posidonia , as both have gas filled cavities. Effects of habitat and substrate complexity on shallow sublittoral fish assemblages in the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Full Text Available This is the first study to explore fish community structure and its relations to habitat and topographic complexity in the shallow coastal waters of the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea. In situ visual surveys were carried out at sampling sites in 26 islands of the Cyclades Archipelago.

Topographic complexity and percentage of algal cover were estimated on hard substrate. Substrate type was found to be a determining factor affecting the structure and composition of fish assemblages. Species number, abundance and biomass were significantly lower in sandy areas and always higher on hard substrates, with seagrass habitats presenting intermediate values.

Topographic complexity in rocky bottoms did not seem to affect species richness, density or biomass. This study provides a baseline for future evaluation of changes produced by potential management actions such as the creation of marine protected areas in the study region.

Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M. Purification of intact chloroplasts from marine plant Posidonia oceanica suitable for organelle proteomics. Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm, or seagrass , adapted to grow to the underwater life from shallow waters to 50 m depth. This raises questions of how their photosynthesis adapted to the attenuation of light through the water column and leads to the assumption that biochemistry and metabolism of the chloroplast are the basis of adaptive capacity.

In the present study, we described a protocol that was adapted from those optimized for terrestrial plants, to extract chloroplasts from as minimal tissue as possible. After isopynic separations, the chloroplasts purity and integrity were evaluated by biochemical assay and using a proteomic approach.

Zompo database for seagrasses in a local customized dataset. The curated localization of proteins in sub-plastidial compartments i. This purification protocol and the validation of compartment markers may serve as basis for sub-cellular proteomics in P. KGaA, Weinheim. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat. Seagrasses , a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians.

Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities. Full Text Available Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage.

In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1 understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2 explore the processes driving these linkages. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales s, 10 s and seagrass and rocky macroalgae to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages larvae, settlers, recruits and adults.

Our results indicate that large-scale factors potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes like predation acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration from adjoining rocky habitats functioning at much smaller scales.

The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the. Spatial priorities for the conservation of three key Mediterranean habitats, i.

Available information on the distribution of these habitats across the entire Mediterranean Sea was compiled to produce basin-scale distribution maps. Conservation targets for each habitat type were set according to European Union guidelines. Surrogates were used to estimate the spatial variation of opportunity cost for commercial, non-commercial fishing, and aquaculture.

Marxan conservation planning software was used to evaluate the comparative utility of two planning scenarios: a a whole-basin scenario, referring to selection of priority areas across the whole Mediterranean Sea, and b an ecoregional scenario, in which priority areas were selected within eight predefined ecoregions.

Although both scenarios required approximately the same total area to be protected in order to achieve conservation targets, the opportunity cost differed between them. The whole-basin scenario yielded a lower opportunity cost, but the Alboran Sea ecoregion was not represented and priority areas were predominantly located in the Ionian, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas. In comparison, the ecoregional scenario resulted in a higher representation of ecoregions and a more even distribution of priority areas, albeit with a higher opportunity cost.

We suggest that planning at the ecoregional level ensures better representativeness of the selected conservation features and adequate protection of species, functional, and genetic diversity across the basin. While there are several initiatives that identify priority areas in the Mediterranean Sea, our approach is novel as it combines three issues: a it is based on the distribution of habitats and not species, which was rarely the case in previous efforts, b it considers spatial variability of cost throughout this.

Photosynthetic activity buffers ocean acidification in seagrass meadows. Hendriks, I. Macrophytes growing in shallow coastal zones characterised by intense metabolic activity have the capacity to modify pH within their canopy and beyond. We observed diel pH changes in shallow m seagrass Posidonia oceanica meadows spanning 0. Calcifying organisms, e. There is, however, concern for the ability of seagrasses to provide modifications of similar importance in the future.

The predicted decline of seagrass meadows may alter the scope for alteration of pH within a seagrass meadow and in the water column above the meadow, particularly if shoot density and biomass decline, on which LAI is based. Organisms associated with seagrass communities may therefore suffer from the loss of pH buffering capacity in degraded meadows.

Seagrass leaf element content. Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles.

Full Text Available For seagrasses , seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients.

Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. Tandem algorithm against a local database.

Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. A total of peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions.

Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear o be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed. For seagrasses , seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline.

Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat. Macro-grazer herbivory regulates seagrass response to pulse and press nutrient loading. Coastal ecosystems are exposed to multiple stressors.

Predicting their outcomes is complicated by variations in their temporal regimes. Here, by means of a month experiment, we investigated tolerance and resistance traits of Posidonia oceanica to herbivore damage under different regimes of nutrient loading. Chronic and pulse nutrient supply were combined with simulated fish herbivory, treated as a pulse stressor. At ambient nutrient levels, P. Elevated nutrient levels, regardless of the temporal regime, negatively affected plant growth and increased leaf nutritional quality.

This ultimately resulted in a reduction of plant biomass that was particularly severe under chronic fertilization. Our results suggest that both chronic and pulse nutrient loadings increase plant palatability to macro-grazers. Strategies for seagrass management should not be exclusively applied in areas exposed to chronic fertilization since even short-term nutrient pulses could alter seagrass meadows. Can mud silt and clay concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon C-org content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content i.

We also combined these data with the delta C signatures of the soil C-org to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil C-org content only when the contribution of seagrass -derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast-growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems.

In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil C-org content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass -derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool in these meadows. The relatively high soil C-org contents with relatively low mud contents e.

This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil C-org content for. Density, size structure, shell orientation and epibiontic colonization of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis L. Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution, size structure, shell orientation and valve colonization by epibionts of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis in three continuous but different habitats in the Gulf of Oristano Sardinia, western Mediterranean.

The sampling stations chosen were: an estuarine area E of coastal salt-marshes characterized by unvegetated sea-bottoms; and two areas in a seagrass meadow characterized by an extensive Posidonia oceanica meadow Mw and patched mixed meadows of P. We found significant differences in mean densities among stations and the highest value was found in the estuarine area.

Shell epibiosis displayed differences between habitats. The highest valve colonization was in the estuary, with filamentous dark algae and Ostrea edulis reaching almost 90 percent of shell coverage. This study provides new information on habitat preferences and data for assessing local populations of P.

Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows. Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can.

Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica. Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. The saturation irradiance Ik was negatively affected by temperature.

We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here.

Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows. Alterations of the structure of Posidonia oceanica beds due to the introduced alga Caulerpa taxifolia. The cover of C. In an unexplained phenomenon led to a sharp decrease in the infestation and in the following years the colonisation remained low. Within the 10 years of the study, P. Between and a decrease in the shoot density observed at both sites was probably related to the warm temperature event recorded in from to shoots m-2 at the invaded site and from to at the control site.

At the invaded site, the seagrass never recovered its initial density even after a sharp decrease in C. From tourist paradises to immigrant detention camps, from offshore finance centres to strategic military bases, islands. The Routledge Handbook of Reenactment Studies provides the first overview of significant concepts within reenactment stu.

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