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JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Microsoft PowerPoint Template and Background with taking a risk in the stock market. Presenting risk reward matrix ppt presentation. This is a risk reward matrix ppt presentation. This is four stage process. The stages in this process are risk reward matrix, investment reward, investment risk, high, med, low.

Shirshak sapkota investments best charting software forex

Shirshak sapkota investments

However because the Act is urban centric it has been ineffective in effectively addressing nationwide problems of villages and towns becoming increasingly urban. Realizing the necessity to encourage the private sector to invest in various sectors to take infrastructure development forward the Private Investment in Infrastructure Construction and Operation Act was created. The preamble of the Act provides for the construction of multi residential buildings. Although the government has not already received the help it expected from the private sector to invest in such projects it might be a little to early to comment on the Act.

This is creating problems to arrange proper housing and residences. This issue needs to addressed in a planned manner and the housing problems resolved as soon as possible. Appropriate laws should therefore be made to create an atmosphere for the private sector to invest. Lack of properly planned housing and residences is a problem in all the urban areas and even villages that are getting urbanized in the country. Although it is getting late to start trying to resolve the problem, it is still not too late to start to do something.

What is clear is that a large investment and proper planning is necessary. There is therefore no other alternative than to encourage private investors to invest in this sector in a commercial manner. This is the demand of time. Preamble Whereas it has become essential to form necessary laws to provide for and manage residential housing for people in cities, towns and areas that are slowly getting urbanized, in a planned manner so that the private sector can be encouraged to invest in its commercial trade, Proposed preamble: The preamble of any proposed act justifies the reason, aim, spirit, and working area in a clear manner.

However it does not clarify what kind of management is to be used when building residences in public or government land. To be added 13 7 Certain fixed percentage of amounts received from the sale of residences built in public or government land must be deposited with the government or the local agency and used for the social welfare of the same area. This provision contradicts the provision no 4.

When preparing plans if there are public roads permits must be sought from the local authority to use the land and replace it with an alternative route of the same size outside the project area. Article 20 4 b : If there are any public roads within the project area and if such roads are deemed unnecessary while implementing the project, the permit holder must put aside the land covered by the road for some other public use.

Punishment: As per Article 30 if work is conducted without permit papers or contradictory to what has been permitted a fine of Rs 0. This case can also be filed in the appellate court. Article 32 1 provides for any compensation to any damages done. Usually in these hill areas the land is either community forests, Guthi owned, and other public land.

Such land must be used. Article 13 is inadequate in addressing this and talks must be held with the concerned agencies to resolve this issue. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques.

The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

Lateritic, supergene rare earth element REE deposits. Intensive lateritic weathering of bedrock under tropical or sub-tropical climatic conditions can form a variety of secondary, supergene-type deposits. These secondary deposits may range in composition from aluminous bauxites to iron and niobium, and include rare earth elements REE. Weld deposit in Australia being brought into production in late Lateritic REE deposits may be derived from a wide range of primary host rocks, but all have similar laterite and enrichment profiles, and are probably formed under similar climatic conditions.

The weathering profile commonly consists of a depleted zone, an enriched zone, and a partially weathered zone which overlie the protolith. Lateritic weathering may commonly extend to depths of 30 to 60 m. REE are mobilized from the breakdown of primary REE-bearing minerals and redeposited in the enriched zone deeper in the weathering horizon as secondary minerals, as colloids, or adsorbed on other secondary minerals.

Enrichment of REE may range from 3 to 10 times that of the source lithology; in some instances, enrichment may range up to times. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil. An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples.

The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples. The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible.

Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation.

Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues.

We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements.

Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils. By looking at a problem at a nanoscale level, PNNL researchers are developing an economic way to extract valuable rare earth elements from geothermal fluids.

This novel approach may help meet the high demand for rare earth elements that are used in many clean energy technologies. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget.

Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd REE between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite.

Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures. Rare earth element deposits in China. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively.

The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products.

Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts e. They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults.

The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian early Mesozoic and Yanshanian late Mesozoic granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian early Paleozoic granites are also of local importance.

The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies. The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks.

This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material.

However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits—A deposit model. The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers.

In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements , the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages.

As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements.

The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements , and similarities in genesis.

A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements , niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

Alkali element constraints on Earth -Moon relations. Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth -Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures.

Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth 's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements , if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth 's mantle. Earth , rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements.

This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material. The idea that everything is made of the four " elements ", earth , air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

Membrane assisted solvent extraction for rare earth element recovery. Systems and methods for the recovery of rare earth elements are provided. The systems and methods generally include membrane assisted solvent extraction using permeable hollow fibers having an immobilized organic phase within the pores of the hollow fibers.

The permeable hollow fibers are generally in contact with an acidic aqueous feed on one side thereof and a strip solution on another side thereof. The systems and methods generally include the simultaneous extraction and stripping of rare earth elements as a continuous recovery process that is well suited for post-consumer products, end-of-life products, and other recovery sources of rare earth elements.

Leaching behavior of rare earth elements in Fort Union lignite coals of North America. Rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U. Traditional mineral ores including those previously mined in the U. Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical.

The U. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources. This paper details the results of a study on characterization of North Dakota lignite and lignite-related feedstocks as an assessment of their feasibility for rare earth element recovery.

The abundance, distribution and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements in the samples collected were determined in this initial study to inform the selection of appropriate extraction and concentration methods to recover the rare earth elements. Materials investigated include the lignite coals, clay-rich sediments associated with the coal seams, and materials associated with a lignite beneficiation system and power plant.

The results show that high rare earth element levels exist both in lignite coals and associated sediments. The form of the rare earth elements in the clay materials is primarily as ultra-fine mineral grains. Distribution of the near- earth objects. This paper analyzes the distribution of the orbits of near- Earth minor bodies from the data on more than objects. The study of the orbital distribution for the entire sample of all detected objects has found new significant features.

These deviations cannot be stochastic, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a more than 0. These features can be explained by the dynamic behavior of the minor bodies related to secular resonances with Jupiter. For the objects with H distribution are not so apparent. By extrapolating the orbital characteristics of the NEOs with H distributions of potentially hazardous objects in a heliocentric ecliptic coordinate frame. The differences in the orbital distributions of objects of different size appear not to be a consequence of observational selection, but could indicate different sources of the NEOs.

Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera. This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements REEs in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland.

The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula.

The high concentration of rare earth elements REE in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites.

In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO g which is somewhat more stable.

In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites.

Shergottites i. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth. Rare earth element REE distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types terrestrial and meteoritic. However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites.

Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes pigeonite and augite , maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand. Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution.

These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC , as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML and a Paecilomyces spp. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual.

Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

Google Earth is recognized as a highly effective visualization tool for geospatial information. However, there remain serious limitations that have hindered its acceptance as a tool for research and education in the geosciences. One significant limitation is the inability to translate or rotate geometrical elements on the Google Earth virtual globe.

MaRGEE includes tools to simplify, translate, and rotate elements , add intermediate steps to a transposition, and batch process multiple transpositions. The transposition algorithm uses spherical geometry calculations, such as the haversine formula, to accurately reposition groups of points, paths, and polygons on the Google Earth globe without distortion.

However, the inherent spatial distortions that result from the Google Maps Web Mercator projection are not apparent once the transposed elements are saved as a KML file and opened in Google Earth. Potential applications of the MaRGEE toolkit include tectonic reconstructions, the movements of glaciers or thrust sheets, and time-based animations of other large- and small-scale geologic processes. Light rare earth element depletion during Deepwater Horizon blowout methanotrophy.

Rare earth elements have generally not been thought to have a biological role. Furthermore, incubation experiments conducted with naturally methane-enriched waters from hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead also showed LREE removal concurrent with methane consumption.

Our field and laboratory observations provide further insight into the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy during the DWH blowout. Additionally, our results are the first observations of direct biological alteration of REE distributions in oceanic systems. In view of the ubiquity of LREE-containing MDHs in oceanic systems, our results suggest that biological uptake of LREEs is an overlooked aspect of the oceanic geochemistry of this group of elements previously thought to be biologically inactive and an unresolved factor in the flux of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the ocean.

Rare earth elements REE in various forms e. Characterization is critical for understanding environmental risks related to their fate and transport as well as determining the most practical and economical techniques for concentrating the REE and converting them into chemical stocks for manufacturing. Sites of interest were identified and imaged and respective elemental x-ray maps acquired and montaged.

Pixel classification of SEM imagers was completed using image analysis techniques to quantify the distribution of REE associated features. Trace minerals were identified as pyrite, zircon, REE-phosphates' monazite, xenotime , and barite within the coal tailings. In CUB, amorphous aluminosilicates, iron oxide cenospheres, and calcium oxides were present; monazite appear to be unaltered and unaffected by the combustion process in these samples.

Thermal decomposition may have occurred due to presence of detrital zircon and xenotime and subsequent thin Ca-oxide coating enriched in trace REEs. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores.

The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements. The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate.

The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate. Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes.

Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are?? Maximum error for separated thoria is?? Distribution of transuranic elements in bone. The transport, retention, and excretion of transuranic elements from the body have been widely studied for many years. A summary of the results is given with an emphasis on the distribution of these elements in bone.

Implications of these studies for understanding the relationships between lead in blood and lead in bone are presented. The expected distribution of lead at various bone sites is also considered. Anthropogenic disturbance of element cycles at the Earth 's surface. The extent to which humans are modifying Earth 's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts Klee and Graedel, We quantify anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compare it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions, and for helium, hydrodynamic escape from the Earth 's atmosphere.

We introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporate uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that at the Earth 's surface anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium currently exceed natural fluxes.

For these elements mining is the major factor of anthropogenic influence, whereas petroleum burning strongly influences the surficial cycle of rhenium. Our assessment indicates that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements surpass their corresponding natural fluxes.

Data are not corrected to zero Mg. Multi-objective optimization of chromatographic rare earth element separation. The importance of rare earth elements in modern technological industry grows, and as a result the interest for developing separation processes increases. This work is a part of developing chromatography as a rare earth element processing method.

Process optimization is an important step in process development, and there are several competing objectives that need to be considered in a chromatographic separation process. Most studies are limited to evaluating the two competing objectives productivity and yield, and studies of scenarios with tri-objective optimizations are scarce. Tri-objective optimizations are much needed when evaluating the chromatographic separation of rare earth elements due to the importance of product pool concentration along with productivity and yield as process objectives.

In this work, a multi-objective optimization strategy considering productivity, yield and pool concentration is proposed. This was carried out in the frame of a model based optimization study on a batch chromatography separation of the rare earth elements samarium, europium and gadolinium. The findings from the multi-objective optimization were used to provide with a general strategy for achieving desirable operation points, resulting in a productivity ranging between 0.

Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials. The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age.

There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements REEs , in total, samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence XRF spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime 0. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock.

Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

Purification of rare earth elements is challenging due to their chemical similarities. All of the deployed separation methods rely on thermodynamic properties, such as distribution equilibria in solvent extraction. Rare- earth -metal separations based on kinetic differences have not been examined. Using this method, a single-step separation factor up to was obtained for the separation of a yttrium-lutetium mixture. Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization.

The retention of rare earth element REE in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, i the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, ii the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and ii the concentration of colloidal organic matter OM. Considering that each soil phases mineral or organic displays ii various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and ii their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions dissolution, colloidal release….

To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment using hydroxylamine.

By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar. Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. They also evidence the potential of. In order to investigate the content and distribution of rare earth elements REE in main economic macroalgaes in our country, fifteen rare earth elements in three economic macroalgaes including 30 samples of kelp, 30 samples of laver and 15 samples of Enteromorpha were detected using ICP-MS method.

Results showed that the total content of REE in different species of macroalgaes was different. The highest total content of REE was in Enteromorpha 16, The content of fifteen rare earth elements in kelp ranged from 7. For Enteromorpha, the concentration of 15 rare earth elements were between In addition, the content and distribution of different rare earth elements in different macroalgaes was also different. For kelp, the highest content of REE was Ce 1 For laver, the highest was Y For Enteromorpha, the highest was Ce Present results also showed that three macroalgaes accumulated the light rare earth elements much more than the high rare earth elements.

The light rare earth elements occupied The result that the Enteromorpha had high content of rare earth elements could provide important support for opening new research directions for the utilization of Enteromorpha. Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting. Accurate labelling of meat e.

Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi- element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS. Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat.

Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements REE are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies.

However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from to The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years and Other years are available in the supporting information.

Comparing and , the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. Spectroscopic identification of rare earth elements in phosphate glass. In this work, rare earth -doped phosphate glasses were synthesized and characterized using three different spectroscopic techniques.

The absorption spectra of the prepared praseodymium Pr and samarium Sm doped glasses, recorded by a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, show the characteristic absorption bands of these elements. Their emission bands are reported here. The elemental analysis of these samples was carried out using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS system. Characteristic emission lines of Pr and Sm have been identified and reported by the recorded LIBS spectra of glass samples. Results prove that using these three complimentary spectroscopic techniques absorption, fluorescence and LIBS , we can meaningfully characterize rare earth -doped glass samples.

Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum. Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements TE in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic and structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with X-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and nondestructive irradiation.

The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semiquantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used.

All analyzed elements were observed in each structure of the cerebellum except mercury which was not observed in granule cell layer or fiber tract. This approach permits an exacting correlation of the TE distribution in complex structure with the diet, toxic elements , and functional status of the animal. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals. This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements REE occur as essential constituents e.

Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth. Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements water, carbon, nitrogen on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research.

In his pioneering work, W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time. Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth 's history.

We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth 's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets. Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system.

The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes e. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known. Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water.

Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the. Fisher, William S. In press. For over a century w The lanthanide series of elements the 14 rare earth elements , REEs have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content.

The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale.

Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments.

We present our. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China. To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes 0.

The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children. The Lunar Architecture Team LAT is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories.

The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture.

Two types of ground station networks are discussed. This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation. The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP—MS.

The results indicate that the rare earth elements REEs are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit TSRU sample compared to the oil sand itself. Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.

Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops. Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species Salix spec.

In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg Saxony, Germany , differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals Pb, As, Cd. On each site plant tissues wood and leaves, respectively of different species were sampled.

In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous.

The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves 0. The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey.

We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines.

Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La 2. A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare- earth elements are essential constituents, e. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented.

As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together. C3 : Lead - , polonium - , manganese and iron in the Cariaco Behaviour of the Rare Earth Elements in anoxic waters of When the radioactive particles were no longer available, the accumulated radioactivity of the zooplankters was rapidly lost.

Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia. Rare earth elements REE , with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining.

A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC. Ireland, T. Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element REE group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide SiC from the Murchison CM2 chondrite.

The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass 1.

The overall trace element abundances excluding Eu and Yb appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements like Ba , and the presence of volatile elements e. Xe indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

Exploring the limits of EDS microanalysis: rare earth element analyses. It is a great time to be a microanalyst. After a few decades of incremental progress in energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry EDS , the last decade has seen the accuracy and precision surge forward.

Today, the question is not whether EDS is generally useful but to identify the types of problems for which wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry remains the better choice. Low Z, low energy, and trace element detection have been demonstrated even in the presence of extreme peak interferences. In this paper, we will summarise the state-of-the-art and investigate a challenging problem domain, the analysis of minerals bearing multiple rare- earth elements.

Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations. These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs 0. Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers.

The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms. Rare earth elements REs consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies.

The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs namely Nd and Eu, respectively , opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry.

Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials.

Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags LBTs , short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements , on its cell surface S-layer protein.

Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method.

JUEGOS DE CALVADOS PROFESIONALES DE FOREX

A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples. The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix.

A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions.

Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues.

Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

By looking at a problem at a nanoscale level, PNNL researchers are developing an economic way to extract valuable rare earth elements from geothermal fluids. This novel approach may help meet the high demand for rare earth elements that are used in many clean energy technologies. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.

The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd REE between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite.

Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures. Rare earth element deposits in China. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively.

The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products. Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts e.

They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults.

The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian early Mesozoic and Yanshanian late Mesozoic granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian early Paleozoic granites are also of local importance.

The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are.

Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies. The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner.

We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material.

However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits—A deposit model. The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications.

Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements , the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages.

As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.

Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements , and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements , niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium.

Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Alkali element constraints on Earth -Moon relations. Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth -Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures.

Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth 's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements , if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth 's mantle.

Earth , rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material. The idea that everything is made of the four " elements ", earth , air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks.

In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

Membrane assisted solvent extraction for rare earth element recovery. Systems and methods for the recovery of rare earth elements are provided. The systems and methods generally include membrane assisted solvent extraction using permeable hollow fibers having an immobilized organic phase within the pores of the hollow fibers. The permeable hollow fibers are generally in contact with an acidic aqueous feed on one side thereof and a strip solution on another side thereof.

The systems and methods generally include the simultaneous extraction and stripping of rare earth elements as a continuous recovery process that is well suited for post-consumer products, end-of-life products, and other recovery sources of rare earth elements. Leaching behavior of rare earth elements in Fort Union lignite coals of North America.

Rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U. Traditional mineral ores including those previously mined in the U.

Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical. The U. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources.

This paper details the results of a study on characterization of North Dakota lignite and lignite-related feedstocks as an assessment of their feasibility for rare earth element recovery. The abundance, distribution and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements in the samples collected were determined in this initial study to inform the selection of appropriate extraction and concentration methods to recover the rare earth elements.

Materials investigated include the lignite coals, clay-rich sediments associated with the coal seams, and materials associated with a lignite beneficiation system and power plant. The results show that high rare earth element levels exist both in lignite coals and associated sediments. The form of the rare earth elements in the clay materials is primarily as ultra-fine mineral grains.

Distribution of the near- earth objects. This paper analyzes the distribution of the orbits of near- Earth minor bodies from the data on more than objects. The study of the orbital distribution for the entire sample of all detected objects has found new significant features. These deviations cannot be stochastic, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a more than 0.

These features can be explained by the dynamic behavior of the minor bodies related to secular resonances with Jupiter. For the objects with H distribution are not so apparent. By extrapolating the orbital characteristics of the NEOs with H distributions of potentially hazardous objects in a heliocentric ecliptic coordinate frame. The differences in the orbital distributions of objects of different size appear not to be a consequence of observational selection, but could indicate different sources of the NEOs.

Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera. This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements REEs in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.

From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula. The high concentration of rare earth elements REE in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites.

In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies.

For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO g which is somewhat more stable. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites. Shergottites i. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth.

Rare earth element REE distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types terrestrial and meteoritic. However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites.

Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes pigeonite and augite , maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC , as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML and a Paecilomyces spp.

Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids.

Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

Google Earth is recognized as a highly effective visualization tool for geospatial information. However, there remain serious limitations that have hindered its acceptance as a tool for research and education in the geosciences. One significant limitation is the inability to translate or rotate geometrical elements on the Google Earth virtual globe.

MaRGEE includes tools to simplify, translate, and rotate elements , add intermediate steps to a transposition, and batch process multiple transpositions. The transposition algorithm uses spherical geometry calculations, such as the haversine formula, to accurately reposition groups of points, paths, and polygons on the Google Earth globe without distortion.

However, the inherent spatial distortions that result from the Google Maps Web Mercator projection are not apparent once the transposed elements are saved as a KML file and opened in Google Earth. Potential applications of the MaRGEE toolkit include tectonic reconstructions, the movements of glaciers or thrust sheets, and time-based animations of other large- and small-scale geologic processes.

Light rare earth element depletion during Deepwater Horizon blowout methanotrophy. Rare earth elements have generally not been thought to have a biological role. Furthermore, incubation experiments conducted with naturally methane-enriched waters from hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead also showed LREE removal concurrent with methane consumption. Our field and laboratory observations provide further insight into the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy during the DWH blowout.

Additionally, our results are the first observations of direct biological alteration of REE distributions in oceanic systems. In view of the ubiquity of LREE-containing MDHs in oceanic systems, our results suggest that biological uptake of LREEs is an overlooked aspect of the oceanic geochemistry of this group of elements previously thought to be biologically inactive and an unresolved factor in the flux of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the ocean.

Rare earth elements REE in various forms e. Characterization is critical for understanding environmental risks related to their fate and transport as well as determining the most practical and economical techniques for concentrating the REE and converting them into chemical stocks for manufacturing. Sites of interest were identified and imaged and respective elemental x-ray maps acquired and montaged.

Pixel classification of SEM imagers was completed using image analysis techniques to quantify the distribution of REE associated features. Trace minerals were identified as pyrite, zircon, REE-phosphates' monazite, xenotime , and barite within the coal tailings. In CUB, amorphous aluminosilicates, iron oxide cenospheres, and calcium oxides were present; monazite appear to be unaltered and unaffected by the combustion process in these samples.

Thermal decomposition may have occurred due to presence of detrital zircon and xenotime and subsequent thin Ca-oxide coating enriched in trace REEs. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores. The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements.

The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate. The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate.

Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes. Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are??

Maximum error for separated thoria is?? Distribution of transuranic elements in bone. The transport, retention, and excretion of transuranic elements from the body have been widely studied for many years. A summary of the results is given with an emphasis on the distribution of these elements in bone. Implications of these studies for understanding the relationships between lead in blood and lead in bone are presented.

The expected distribution of lead at various bone sites is also considered. Anthropogenic disturbance of element cycles at the Earth 's surface. The extent to which humans are modifying Earth 's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts Klee and Graedel, We quantify anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compare it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions, and for helium, hydrodynamic escape from the Earth 's atmosphere.

We introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporate uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that at the Earth 's surface anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium currently exceed natural fluxes.

For these elements mining is the major factor of anthropogenic influence, whereas petroleum burning strongly influences the surficial cycle of rhenium. Our assessment indicates that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements surpass their corresponding natural fluxes. Data are not corrected to zero Mg. Multi-objective optimization of chromatographic rare earth element separation.

The importance of rare earth elements in modern technological industry grows, and as a result the interest for developing separation processes increases. This work is a part of developing chromatography as a rare earth element processing method. Process optimization is an important step in process development, and there are several competing objectives that need to be considered in a chromatographic separation process.

Most studies are limited to evaluating the two competing objectives productivity and yield, and studies of scenarios with tri-objective optimizations are scarce. Tri-objective optimizations are much needed when evaluating the chromatographic separation of rare earth elements due to the importance of product pool concentration along with productivity and yield as process objectives. In this work, a multi-objective optimization strategy considering productivity, yield and pool concentration is proposed.

This was carried out in the frame of a model based optimization study on a batch chromatography separation of the rare earth elements samarium, europium and gadolinium. The findings from the multi-objective optimization were used to provide with a general strategy for achieving desirable operation points, resulting in a productivity ranging between 0. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials.

The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect.

For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements REEs , in total, samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence XRF spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime 0. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body.

These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body. Purification of rare earth elements is challenging due to their chemical similarities. All of the deployed separation methods rely on thermodynamic properties, such as distribution equilibria in solvent extraction. Rare- earth -metal separations based on kinetic differences have not been examined.

Using this method, a single-step separation factor up to was obtained for the separation of a yttrium-lutetium mixture. Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization. The retention of rare earth element REE in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, i the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, ii the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and ii the concentration of colloidal organic matter OM. Considering that each soil phases mineral or organic displays ii various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and ii their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions dissolution, colloidal release….

To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment using hydroxylamine. By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar.

Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. They also evidence the potential of. In order to investigate the content and distribution of rare earth elements REE in main economic macroalgaes in our country, fifteen rare earth elements in three economic macroalgaes including 30 samples of kelp, 30 samples of laver and 15 samples of Enteromorpha were detected using ICP-MS method.

Results showed that the total content of REE in different species of macroalgaes was different. The highest total content of REE was in Enteromorpha 16, The content of fifteen rare earth elements in kelp ranged from 7. For Enteromorpha, the concentration of 15 rare earth elements were between In addition, the content and distribution of different rare earth elements in different macroalgaes was also different.

For kelp, the highest content of REE was Ce 1 For laver, the highest was Y For Enteromorpha, the highest was Ce Present results also showed that three macroalgaes accumulated the light rare earth elements much more than the high rare earth elements. The light rare earth elements occupied The result that the Enteromorpha had high content of rare earth elements could provide important support for opening new research directions for the utilization of Enteromorpha.

Game meat authentication through rare earth elements fingerprinting. Accurate labelling of meat e. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi- element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

Elemental signatures showed excellent ability to discriminate the wild rabbit from non-wild rabbit meat. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of metabolic markers -rare earth signatures, as well as other trace element signatures for game meat authentication. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

The rare earth elements REE are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption.

We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from to The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years and Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing and , the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure.

The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. Spectroscopic identification of rare earth elements in phosphate glass. In this work, rare earth -doped phosphate glasses were synthesized and characterized using three different spectroscopic techniques. The absorption spectra of the prepared praseodymium Pr and samarium Sm doped glasses, recorded by a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, show the characteristic absorption bands of these elements.

Their emission bands are reported here. The elemental analysis of these samples was carried out using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS system. Characteristic emission lines of Pr and Sm have been identified and reported by the recorded LIBS spectra of glass samples. Results prove that using these three complimentary spectroscopic techniques absorption, fluorescence and LIBS , we can meaningfully characterize rare earth -doped glass samples.

Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum. Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements TE in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic and structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development.

We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with X-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and nondestructive irradiation. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated.

Both point analyses and two-dimensional semiquantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used. All analyzed elements were observed in each structure of the cerebellum except mercury which was not observed in granule cell layer or fiber tract. This approach permits an exacting correlation of the TE distribution in complex structure with the diet, toxic elements , and functional status of the animal.

Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals. This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements REE occur as essential constituents e. Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities.

It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth. Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements water, carbon, nitrogen on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research. In his pioneering work, W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time.

Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth 's history. We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth 's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets.

Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system. The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes e. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known.

Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water. Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the. Fisher, William S. In press. For over a century w The lanthanide series of elements the 14 rare earth elements , REEs have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content.

The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale.

Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments.

We present our. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China. To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China.

The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes 0. The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children.

The Lunar Architecture Team LAT is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories. The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture.

Two types of ground station networks are discussed. This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation.

The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP—MS. The results indicate that the rare earth elements REEs are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit TSRU sample compared to the oil sand itself.

Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops. Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species Salix spec.

In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg Saxony, Germany , differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals Pb, As, Cd. On each site plant tissues wood and leaves, respectively of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous.

The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves 0. The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude.

Within the tree. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey. We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits.

One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La 2. A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare- earth elements are essential constituents, e. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet are also derived.

Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together. C3 : Lead - , polonium - , manganese and iron in the Cariaco Behaviour of the Rare Earth Elements in anoxic waters of When the radioactive particles were no longer available, the accumulated radioactivity of the zooplankters was rapidly lost.

Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia. Rare earth elements REE , with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining.

A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC. Ireland, T. Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element REE group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide SiC from the Murchison CM2 chondrite.

The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass 1.

The overall trace element abundances excluding Eu and Yb appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements like Ba , and the presence of volatile elements e.

Xe indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation. Exploring the limits of EDS microanalysis: rare earth element analyses. It is a great time to be a microanalyst. After a few decades of incremental progress in energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry EDS , the last decade has seen the accuracy and precision surge forward. Today, the question is not whether EDS is generally useful but to identify the types of problems for which wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry remains the better choice.

Low Z, low energy, and trace element detection have been demonstrated even in the presence of extreme peak interferences. In this paper, we will summarise the state-of-the-art and investigate a challenging problem domain, the analysis of minerals bearing multiple rare- earth elements. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations.

These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs 0. Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc.

Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms. Rare earth elements REs consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs.

Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs namely Nd and Eu, respectively , opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials.

Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures.

Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags LBTs , short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements , on its cell surface S-layer protein. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE.

Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

These distributions indicate trace element input near South Korea and enhanced subsurface scavenging, as indicated by strong heavy REE to light REE fractionation. Yet, absolute REE concentrations are extremely low at these depths e. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare- earth elements. World demand for rare- earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly.

Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare- earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2, seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare- earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific.

We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare- earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration.

We show that rare- earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara Quilon district, Kerala, India , were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Shirshak also brings in experience in general management, client engagement, government liaison, engaging with in-house counsels and of-counsels. Experience: 8 Years Experience.

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The team is also well-regarded for its expertise in commercial litigation and arbitration matters as well as for its work on banking and finance deals and infrastructure projects. Clients include international companies that operate in the aviation, technology, media and telecommunications sectors.

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