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Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem.

A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance.

Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph.

System performance characteristics V-I curves is measured depending on the process parameters temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc. The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights.

The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW for direct methanol fuel cells.

Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change. Leo, T. Quimicas, Univ. Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications.

In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell DMFC to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either or duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells.

Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained.

Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells.

Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent opera Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs.

The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content 1 wt. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane.

Electric cars are the vehicles of the future, and there is a proven hybrid system for extending their mileage. Direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs provide safe, lightweight, onboard battery charging that can free car owners from worry about running out of power. The hybrid system includes a DMFC fuel cell, fuel cell cartridge and electric vehicle batteries.

The fuel cell operates almost silently with virtually no exhaust, it is immune to extreme weather and the convenient fuel cartridges featu Direct methanol feed fuel cell with reduced catalyst loading. Improvements to direct feed methanol fuel cells include new protocols for component formation. Catalyst-water repellent material is applied in formation of electrodes and sintered before application of ionomer.

A membrane used in formation of an electrode assembly is specially pre-treated to improve bonding between catalyst and membrane. The improved electrode and the pre-treated membrane are assembled into a membrane electrode assembly. Effect of sorbed methanol , current, and temperature on multicomponent transport in nafion-based direct methanol fuel cells.

The CO2 in the cathode exhaust of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC has two sources: methanol diffuses through the membrane electrode assembly MEA to the cathode where it is catalytically oxidized to CO2; additionally, a portion of the CO2 produced at the anode diffuses through the MEA to the cathode.

The potential-dependent CO2 exhaust from the cathode was monitored by online electrochemical mass spectrometry ECMS with air and with H2 at the cathode. The crossover of CO2 initially increases linearly with the Faradaic oxidation of methanol , reaches a temperature-dependent maximum, and then decreases. The crossover maximum occurs when the current dependence of the diffusion coefficients and membrane CO2 solubility dominate over the Faradaic production of CO2.

The plasticizing effect of methanol is corroborated by measurements of the rotational diffusion of TEMPONE 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidone N-oxide spin probe by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A linear inverse relationship between the methanol crossover rate and current density confirms the absence of methanol electro-osmotic drag at concentrations relevant to operating DMFCs. The purely diffusive transport of methanol is explained in terms of current proton solvation and methanol -water incomplete mixing theories.

A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells. This method includes four steps, i. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn.

Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks. Update on status of direct methanol fuel cells. This report reviews the progress in direct methanol fuel cell DMFC technology since and examines the opportunities for this technology in various market sectors. The report is divided into two parts.

Part A describes the state-of-the-art of DMFC technology, developments in electrocatalysis relevant to DMFCs, single cell and stack performance, and polymer electrolyte membranes. Part B discusses the viability of current DMFCs for portable and automotive applications, and examines some niche markets, eg for remote power applications.

Market opportunities, technical issues, applications and competing technologies are summarised. The report draws attention to the outstanding technical issues and recommends further development in a number of areas eg inexpensive membranes with lower rates of methanol crossover, membranes with lower rates of water permeation, improved power density and methods to ensure solutions do not freeze in cold climates.

New ETFE-based membrane for direct methanol fuel cell. The films were made proton conductive by means of irradiation treatment followed by sulfonation. These membranes have exceptionally low water uptake and excellent dimensional stability. The new membranes are investigated widely in a laboratory-scale direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The temperature range used in the fuel cell tests was bar o C and the measurement results were compared to those of the Nafion R membrane. Methanol crossover was reported to decrease when the thickness of the membrane increases, so the ETFE-based membrane compares favourably to Nafion R membranes.

Chemical and mechanical stability of the ETFE-based membrane appeared to be promising since it was tested over bar h in the DMFC without any performance loss. A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques.

A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found.

The Ru single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel Ni and iron Fe. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance.

Cyclic voltammetry CV is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry CA tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction MOR.

The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. However, when operated in an autonomous oscillatory regime, the overall voltage loss decreases due to a self-cleaning mechanism. Another molecule, also widely used as feed in the fuel cell and susceptible to kinetic instabilities, is methanol.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on autonomous voltage oscillations in the direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The purpose of this work was to explore if such instabilities also occur in the DMFC system. Initially, half-cell experiments with a gas diffusion electrode were performed. Then, a DMFC was operated under current control and studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

The half-cell measurements revealed that the induction period for oscillations depends on the mass transfer conditions, where on stagnant electrode the induction time was shorter than in the case of forced convection. The DMFC showed also autonomous voltage oscillations above a certain threshold current. The results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy give evidence of a negative differential resistance in the fuel cell, hitherto not described in the literature, which can be related to the appearance of oscillations during galvanostatic methanol electro-oxidation.

These results open the possibility to evaluate the performance of low-temperature fuel cells fed with carbon-containing fuels under oscillatory operating conditions. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells. Passive direct methanol fuel cells for portable electronic devices. Due to the increasing demand for electricity, clean, renewable energy resources must be developed.

Thus, the objective of the present study was to develop a passive direct methanol fuel cell DMFC for portable electronic devices. The DMFCs were evaluated as a power source for mobile phone chargers and media players. The results indicated that the open circuit voltage of the DMFC was between 6. The fuel cell was tested on a variety of cell phone chargers, media players and PDAs. Alternatively, the local conventional electricity tariff is USD 2 kW h.

However, for the large-scale production of electronic devices, the cost of methanol will be significantly lower. Moreover, the electricity tariff is expected to increase due to the constraints of fossil fuel resources and pollution. As a result, DMFCs will become competitive with conventional power sources. Operation characteristic analysis of a direct methanol fuel cell system using the methanol sensor-less control method. Chen, C. The application of methanol sensor-less control in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC system eliminates most of the problems encountered when using a methanol sensor and is one of the major solutions currently used in commercial DMFCs.

Notably, the influence of the dispersion of the methanol injected on the behavior of the system is investigated systematically. In addition, the mechanism of the methanol sensor-less control is investigated by varying factors such as the timing of the injection of methanol , the cathode flow rate, and the anode inlet temperature. These results not only provide insight into the mechanism of methanol sensor-less control but can also aid in the improvement and application of DMFC systems in portable and low-power transportation.

KGaA, Weinheim. A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell. The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst.

As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion. Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium.

However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the.

Novel crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly ether ether ketone for direct methanol fuel cells. Performance evaluation of direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications. Rashidi, R. This study examines the feasibility of powering a range of portable devices with a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The analysis includes a comparison between a Li-ion battery and DMFC to supply the power for a laptop, camcorder and a cell phone. A parametric study of the systems for an operational period of 4 years is performed.

However, by the end of 4 years of operational time, the DMFC system would cost less. The weight and cost comparisons show that the fuel cell system occupies less space than the battery to store a higher amount of energy. The weight of both systems is almost identical. Development of an electrode for direct methanol fuel cell. The platinum and ruthenium nano-particles were in a ratio of 3.

One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is the high cost of the catalyst. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition.

Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode. Fletcher, James H. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing.

This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing.

UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density.

The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC , methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness.

The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

This cathode structure is intended particularly to afford better cell performance at a low airflow rate. The aforementioned layers are then dried and hot-pressed together. The need for an improved cathode structure arises for the following reasons: In the design and operation of a fuel-cell power system, the airflow rate is a critical parameter that determines the overall efficiency, cell voltage, and power density.

It is desirable to operate at a low airflow rate in order to obtain thermal and water balance and to minimize the size and mass of the system. Methanol crossover increases the required airflow rate. Hence, one way to reduce the required airflow rate is to reduce the effect of methanol crossover.

Improvement of the cathode structure - in particular, addition of hydrophobic particles to the cathode - has been. Direct observation of deformation of nafion surfaces induced by methanol treatment by using atomic force microscopy. We successfully characterized the effect of methanol treatment on the nanoscopic structures of a nafion film, which is widely used in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs.

Atomic force microscopy AFM was used to repetitively image a particular region of a nafion sample before and after methanol solutions were dropped onto the nafion film and dried in air. The number of nanopores increased when the sample was treated twice or thrice. By repetitive AFM imaging of a particular region of the same sample, we found that the shapes of the nanopores were deformed by the repeated methanol treatment, although the size of the nanopores had not significantly changed.

The creation of the nanopores was affected by the concentration of methanol. Our results directly visualized the effects of methanol treatment on the surface structures of a nafion film at nanoscale levels for the first time. A simple simulation of chemical species movement is presented.

The species traverse a Nafion membrane in a fuel cell. Three cells are examined: direct methanol , direct ethanol, and direct glucose. The species are tracked using excess proton concentration, electric field strength, and voltage.

The Matlab computer code is provided. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation Adding Cu to a Pt surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts Nano-engineered catalysts, and a method of fabricating them, have been developed in a continuing effort to improve the performances of direct methanol fuel cells as candidate power sources to supplant primary and secondary batteries in a variety of portable electronic products.

In order to realize the potential for high energy densities as much as 1. High performance can be achieved when catalyst particles and electrode structures have the necessary small feature sizes typically of the order of nanometers , large surface areas, optimal metal compositions, high porosity, and hydrophobicity. Unlike some prior methods of making fine metal catalysts, this method does not involve processing at elevated temperature; all processing can be done at room temperature.

In addition, this method involves fewer steps and is more amenable to scaling up for mass production. Alumina nanotemplates are porous alumina membranes that have been fabricated, variously, by anodizing either pure aluminum or aluminum that has been deposited on silicon by electronbeam evaporation. The diameters of the pores 7 to nm , areal densities of pores as much as 7 x 10 exp 10 sq cm , and lengths of pores up to about nm can be tailored by selection of fabrication conditions.

The dimensions of the pores, together with the electrodeposition conditions. Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells.

Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

Pt-based binary or ternary catalysts containing Rh for use as anodes in direct methanol fuel cells DMFC were synthesized by borohydride reduction method combined with freeze-drying. X-ray diffraction XRD patterns indicated that the catalysts were well alloyed and the average size of alloy catalysts was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy TEM.

Manufacturing technologies for direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs. Fuel cell research is focussing on increasing power density and lifetime and reducing costs of the whole fuel cell system. In order to reach these aims, it is necessary to develop appropriately designed components outgoing from high quality materials, a suitable manufacturing process and a well balanced system.

To make use of the advantages that can be obtained by developing production technology, we are mainly improving the coating and assembling techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cells DMFCs.

Coating is used for making fuel cell electrodes as well as highly conductive contacts. Assembling is used to join larger components like membrane electrode assemblies MEAs and bipolar units consisting of flow fields and the separator plate, as well as entire stacks. On the one hand a reproducible manufacturing process is required to study fine differences in fuel cell performance affected by new materials or new designs.

On the other hand a change in each parameter of the manufacturing process itself can change product properties and therefore affect fuel cell performance. As a result, gas diffusion electrodes GDEs are now produced automatically in square-meter batches, the hot-pressing of MEAs is a fully automated process and by pre-assembling the number of parts that have to be assembled in a stack was reduced by a factor of These achievements make DMFC manufacturing more reproducible and less error-prone.

All these and further developments of manufacturing technology are necessary to make DMFCs ready for the market. Yildirim, M. All composite membranes have indeed. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization. Wang, C. New polymeric electrolyte membranes based on proton donor proton acceptor properties for direct methanol fuel cells.

In order to reduce the high methanol permeability of membranes in a direct methanol fuel cell application new and better materials are still required. Existing polymer electrolyte membranes PEMs applied for hydrogen fuel cells are frequently not suitable for direct methanol fuel cells due to the high methanol permeability. Therefore, new materials are required and in order to avoid laborious fuel cell experiments with a so-called. Enhancing the methanol tolerance of platinum nanoparticles for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells through a geometric design.

Mastery over the structure of nanoparticles might be an effective way to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design of cage-bell nanostructures to enhance the methanol tolerance of platinum Pt nanoparticles while remaining their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell-shell nanoparticles with Pt and silver Ag residing respectively in the core and inner shell regions, which are then agitated with saturated sodium chloride NaCl solution to eliminate the Ag component from the inner shell region, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a metal shell with nano-channels, which exhibit superior methanol -tolerant property in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction due to the different diffusion behaviour of methanol and oxygen in the porous metal shell of cage-bell structured nanoparticles.

In particular, the use of remarkably inexpensive chemical agent NaCl to promote the formation of cage-bell structured particles containing a wide spectrum of metal shells highlights its engineering merit to produce highly selective electrocatalysts on a large scale for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells. Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study.

In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs , Pt modified tungsten carbide WC materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity. In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs.

The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association.

The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data. It has been found that the bi-layer Pt-modified WC catalysts may provide a good reactivity and an onset oxidation potential comparable to pure Pt and serve as promising electrocatalysts for DMFCs with a significant decrease in Pt usage. A novel method of methanol concentration control through feedback of the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations for direct methanol fuel cells.

This study proposes a novel method for controlling the methanol concentration without using methanol sensors for DMFC direct methanol fuel cell systems that have a recycling methanol -feed loop. This method utilizes the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations of DMFC as a feedback parameter to control the methanol concentration.

The relationship between the methanol concentrations and the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations is correlated under various operating conditions and, based on the experimental correlations, an algorithm to control the methanol concentration with no sensor is established. It is demonstrated that the sensor-less controller is able to control the methanol -feed concentration precisely and to run the DMFC systems more energy-efficiently as compared with other control systems.

Survey report for fiscal Achievement report on research and development of direct methanol fuel cell; nendo direct methanol nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Research and development has been performed on a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC to generate electric power through direct chemical reaction of methanol not being given modification as a fuel cell to be used for automotive engines.

This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal In the research of the membranes to conduct ions for the DMFC, an ion conduction membrane which introduces POSS group as the methanol eliminating functional group was prepared to achieve enhancement in tensile strength, heat resistance, and ion conductivity. In the power generation characteristics of the DMFC, verification was given on power generation performance with as high main power density as 0.

The characteristics showed effectiveness of the DMFC as the electric power supply source. In addition, fundamental findings were obtained on factors affecting the power generation characteristics of the DMFC as a result of generating power under different conditions. Research and development was given also on the water- methanol -ion exchange polymeric membrane, ion exchange membranes provided with lipophilic and water repellent electrolyte, solid polymeric membranes having high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability, and a new micro-porous filling type polymeric membrane.

A high selectivity quaternized polysulfone membrane for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Full Text Available polysulfone membrane for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells Graciela C. Abuina, Esteban A. Franceschinib, Patrick Nonjolac, Mkhulu K. Mathec, Mmalewane Modibedic, Horacio R.

Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol over Zirconia and ceria-based catalysts were most effective A small mono-polar direct methanol fuel cell stack with passive operation. A passive direct methanol fuel cell DMFC stack that consists of six unit cells was designed, fabricated, and tested. The stack was tested with different methanol concentrations under ambient conditions. It was found that the stack performance increased when the methanol concentration inside the fuel tank was increased from 2.

The improved performance is primarily due to the increased cell temperature as a result of the exothermic reaction between the permeated methanol and oxygen on the cathode. Moreover, the increased cell temperature enhanced the water evaporation rate on the air-breathing cathode, which significantly reduced water flooding on the cathode and further improved the stack performance. The seagull display kit can continuously run for about 4 h on a single charge of 25 cm 3 4.

Acidic and neutral Nafion[reg] perfluorosulphonate membranes have been modified by in situ polymerization of pyrrole using Fe III and H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agents, in order to decrease methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. Improved selectivities for proton over methanol transport and improved fuel cell performances were only obtained with membranes that were modified while in the acid form.

Use of Fe III as the oxidizing agent can produce a large decrease in methanol crossover, but causes polypyrrole deposition on the surface of the membrane. This increases the resistance of the membrane, and leads to poor fuel cell performances due to poor bonding with the electrodes. Surface polypyrrole deposition can be minimized, and surface polypyrrole can be removed, by using H 2 O 2.

The use of Nafion in its tetrabutylammonium form leads to very low methanol permeabilities, and appears to offer potential for manipulating the location of polypyrrole within the Nafion structure. For direct methanol fuel cell, blends of vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer P VdF-co-HFP and Nafion were prepared the different equivalent weight of Nafion.

The investigations of the blend morphology were performed by means of permeability test, uptake measurement, differential-scanning calorimetry DSC , and scanning electron microscopy. In the blend membranes, many pores were created as the content of Nafion in blend increased. Then, the methanol uptake was sharply increased. But the methanol permeability was not sharply increased because the methanol permeation through blend membranes is diffusion-controlled process. The methanol permeability of N10 low equivalent weight series was similar to that of N11 series high equivalent weight.

The proton conductivity of N10 series was around one and a half times higher than that of N11 series. The cell performance of the blend was much enhanced when the equivalent weight of Nafion was Emerging methanol -tolerant AlN nanowire oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell. Replacing precious and nondurable Pt catalysts with cheap materials is a key issue for commercialization of fuel cells. In the case of oxygen reduction reaction ORR catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell DMFC , the methanol tolerance is also an important concern.

We find it is electrochemically stable in methanol -contained alkaline electrolyte. This novel material exhibits pronounced electrocatalytic activity with exchange current density of about 6. The single cell assembled with AlN nanowire cathodic electrode achieves a power density of After being maintained at mA cm -2 for 48 h, the AlN nanowire-based single cell keeps This discovery reveals a new type of metal nitride ORR catalyst that can be cheaply produced from crystal growth method.

Analysis and design of power efficient semi-passive RFID tag. The analysis and design of a semi-passive radio frequency identification RFID tag is presented. By studying the power transmission link of the backscatter RFID system and exploiting a power conversion efficiency model for a multi-stage AC-DC charge pump, the calculation method for semi-passive tag's read range is proposed.

According to different read range limitation factors, an intuitive way to define the specifications of tag's power budget and backscatter modulation index is given. A test chip is implemented in SMIC 0. The main building blocks are the threshold compensated charge pump and low power wake-up circuit using the power triggering wake-up mode.

It has a compact chip size of 0. Characterisation of micro direct methanol fuel cells with silicon plate supported integrated ionomer membranes. They are investigated as a possible alternative for zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids.

In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries such as lithium Using a liquid fuel also allows refueling, which can be achieved much faster than battery Development and characterisation of a portable direct methanol fuel cell stack. This thesis deals with the development and characterisation of a portable direct methanol fuel cell stack.

In addition, calculations of the transport of methanol and water in the membrane are compared with experimentally determined values. It also includes investigations of the behaviour of single-cells and some of its components, as the anode gas diffusion layer and the anode flow-field. For the addition of methanol to the anode feed loop, a passive concept based on a permeable tube was developed and verified by both experiments and simulations.

The development of a durable and methanol tolerant electrocatalyst with a high oxygen reduction reaction activity is highly important for the cathode side of direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we describe a simple and novel methodology to fabricate a practically applicable electrocatalyst with a high methanol tolerance based on poly[2,2'- 2,6-pyridine -5,5'-bibenzimidazole]-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes, on which Pt nanoparticles have been deposited, then coated with poly vinylphosphonic acid PVPA.

Meanwhile, the peroxide generation of the PVPA coated electrocatalyst was as low as 0. Such a high methanol tolerance is very important for the design of a direct methanol fuel cell cathode electrocatalyst with a high performance. Thiam, H. The performance of a membrane electrode assembly MEA with fabricated composite membrane was evaluated through a passive air-breathing single cell direct methanol fuel cell DMFC.

The limiting crossover current density was measured to determine the methanol permeation in the DMFC. The effects of membrane annealing temperature and casting solvent of composite membrane on the cell performance were investigated and are discussed here. A maximum power density of The experimental results showed that the Pd—SiO 2 fibre as inorganic fillers for Nafion could effectively reduce methanol crossover and improve the membrane performance in DMFC applications.

Direct methanol fuel cells DMFC could act as a replacement for batteries in low power electronics. Cells Bull. Direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs hold great promise for applications ranging from portable power for electronics to transportation. However, apart from the high costs, current Pt-based cathodes in DMFCs suffer significantly from performance loss due to severe methanol crossover from anode to cathode.

The migrated methanol in cathodes tends to contaminate Pt active sites through yielding a mixed potential region resulting from oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction. Therefore, highly methanol -tolerant cathodes must be developed before DMFC technologies become viable. The newly developed reduced graphene oxide rGO -based Fe-N-C cathode exhibits high methanol tolerance and exceeds the performance of current Pt cathodes, as evidenced by both rotating disk electrode and DMFC tests.

At feed concentrations greater than 2. This work will open a new avenue to use nonprecious metal cathode for advanced DMFC technologies with increased performance and at significantly reduced cost. Review on utilization of the pervaporation membrane for passive vapor feed direct methanol fuel cell. The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell DMFC is a promising portable power source for mobile electronic devices because of its advantages including easy fuel storage, high energy density, low temperature operation and compact structure.

In DMFC, methanol is used as a fuel source where it can be fed in liquid or vapor phase. However, the vapor feed DMFC has an advantage over the liquid feed system as it has the potential to have a higher operating temperature to increase the reaction rates and power outputs, to enhance the mass transfers, to reduce methanol crossover, reliable for high methanol concentration and it can increase the fuel cell performance.

Methanol vapor can be delivered to the anode by using a pervaporation membrane, heating the liquid methanol or another method that compatible. Therefore, this paper is a review on vapor feed DMFC as a better energy source than liquid feed DMFC, the pervaporation membrane used to vaporize methanol feed from the reservoir and its applications in vapor feed DMFC. Influencing parameters of water and methanol transport in a big direct methanol fuel cell; Einflussgroessen auf den Wasser- und Methanoltransport einer groesseren Direkt- Methanol Brennstoffzelle.

As water is consumed during the electrochemical reaction on the anode while more water is produced on the cathode, the difference must be removed via the air. Any further water produced on the cathode must be condensed and recirculated to the anode. With increasing ambient temperature, the air volume flow must be reduced because otherwise more water would be removed than is acceptable.

Low air volume flow on the cathode causes unstable cell voltage, which is also assumed to be caused by excess water production. For this reason, an attempt was made to prevent excess water production on the cathode by a system engineering approach. It was found that at the low air volume flow required for water autonomy, water permeation through the membrane-electrode aggregate MEA depends on the uptake capacity and on the time of residue of air over the cathode and less on the cathode material.

Water permeation stops when the concentration gradient is balanced. This is an active transport mechanism that can also work against a concentration gradient. It could be shown that the EOD can be reduced by using water-impermeable materials for the gas diffusion layer on the anode.

This will reduce the water volume that reaches the membrane, i. On the other hand, there was no measurable effect of the cathode design on water or methanol transport. The electrochemical performance of the membrane-electrode units under investigation was robust in case of many influencing parameters, e. Mixtures of methanol and 2-propanol as a potential fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells.

It was confirmed that the oxidation of 2-propanol commences at less positive potentials than that of methanol and exhibits significantly higher oxidation current densities at low potentials. When both methanol and 2-propanol were present in the solution, the onset of the oxidation current was the same as for the oxidation of pure 2-propanol. Although both alcohols inhibit the oxidation reaction of each other to a certain extent, steady-state polarization measurements showed that their mixture provides higher current densities than single alcohols over the entire potential region from the hydrogen region to oxide formation on the Pt surface.

This implies that the addition of 2-propanol into the fuel may extend the operational range of direct methanol fuel cells. Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell. Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions.

In particular, the ternary Au Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction MOR selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction ORR at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles.

The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode. Combinatorial discovery of new methanol -tolerant non-noble metal cathode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

Combinatorial synthesis and screening were used to identify methanol -tolerant non-platinum cathode electrocatalysts for use in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs. Oxygen reduction consumes protons at the surface of DMFC cathode catalysts. In combinatorial screening, this pH change allows one to differentiate active catalysts using fluorescent acid-base indicators.

Combinatorial libraries of carbon-supported catalyst compositions containing Ru, Mo, W, Sn, and Se were screened. Physical characterization of the most active catalysts by powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the predominant crystalline phase was hexagonal close-packed hcp ruthenium, and showed a surface mostly covered with oxide. The best new catalyst, Ru 7. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell.

Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution.

Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME- methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions.

Other output characteristics are also discussed. Effect of operating conditions on energy efficiency for a small passive direct methanol fuel cell. Energy conversion efficiency was studied in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC with an air-breathing cathode using Nafion as electrolyte membrane. The effect of operating conditions, such as methanol concentration, discharge voltage and temperature, on Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies was analyzed under constant voltage discharge with quantitative amount of fuel.

Both of Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies decrease significantly with increasing methanol concentration and environmental temperature. The Faradic conversion efficiency can be as high as C under constant voltage discharge at 0. Although higher temperature and higher methanol concentration can achieve higher discharge power, it will result in considerable losses of Faradic and energy conversion efficiencies for using Nafion electrolyte membrane.

Development of alternative highly conductive membranes with significantly lower methanol crossover is necessary to avoid loss of Faradic conversion efficiency with temperature and with fuel concentration. Combinatorial experiments have led to the discovery that a nanophase alloy of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Zr is effective as an anode catalyst material for direct methanol fuel cells.

Heretofore, the high cost of Pt has impeded the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. By making it possible to obtain a given level of performance at reduced Pt content and, hence, lower cost , the discovery may lead to reduction of the economic impediment to commercialization. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of anode exhaust of direct methanol fuel cells without isotope enrichment. Fuel cells are devices that electrochemically convert the chemical energy of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and methanol , into electricity.

Fuel cells can be distinguished from one another by their electrolytes. Among the various direct alcohol fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs have been developed most. However, DMFCs have several practical problems such as methanol crossove r from an anode to a cathode and slow methanol oxidation reaction rates. Therefore, understanding the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of DMFCs may provide clues to solve these problems, and various analytical methods have been employed to examine these mechanisms.

However, the low sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy hindered our efforts to detect minor reaction intermediates. It accounts for the presence of micro porous layers, non-equilibrium phase change, and methanol and water uptake In order to verify the models ability to predict methanol crossover, simulation results are compared with experimental measurements under different current densities along with air and methanol stoichiometries Methanol crossover is indirectly measured based on the combined anode and cathode exhaust CO2 mole fraction and by accounting for the CO2 production at the anode as a function of current density.

This approach is simple and assumes that all crossed over methanol is oxidized. Moreover, it takes CO Reduction of methanol crossover by thin cracked metal barriers at the interface between membrane and electrode in direct methanol fuel cells. Remarkably, the membrane electrode assembly with the thin metal crack exhibits comparable ohmic resistance as well as reduction of methanol crossover, which enhanced the device performance.

Sensor-less control of the methanol concentration of direct methanol fuel cells at varying ambient temperatures. The methanol concentration is controlled indirectly by controlling the temperature of the DMFC stack, which correlates well with the methanol concentration. Depending on the ambient temperature relative to a preset reference temperature, two different strategies are used to control the stack temperature: either reducing the cooling rate of the methanol solution passing through an anode-side heat exchanger; or, lowering the pumping rate of the pure methanol to the depleted feed solution.

The DMFC system includes a sensor-less methanol controller that is operated using a LabView system as the central processing unit. The algorithm is experimentally confirmed to precisely control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature at target values under an environment of varying ambient temperatures.

We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by automatically computing critical paths in the software of an industrial lithography scanner to identify Timing bottlenecks. The afternoon Digital Industry session will be lead by Knut Hufeld and consists of the following presentations:. The morning Digital Industry session will be lead by Andreas Eckel and consists of the following presentations:. Located in the middle of the Amsterdam Houthavens, the structure offers an experience with a spectacular view.

A dedicated bus will depart from the event venue at hrs, and will arrive back at the event venue at hrs. The AutoDrive session will be lead by Reiner John and consists of the following presentations. The presenters are the research leader in AutoDrive for this area. Please be advised that our free airport shuttle service is located at the bus stop number A9. Directly outside the arrivals at Schiphol Airport on the right hand side.

You just have to follow the yellow sign with "Hotel Shuttle Bus Stops" and you will end up at the right Bus stop, named Steigenberger. From the hotel to Schiphol Airport the first shuttle departs at am and the last shuttle will depart at pm. From Schiphol Airport to the hotel the first shuttle departs at am and the last shuttle will depart at pm.

If you would like to have any further information regarding our shuttle bus time table, please ask our reception desk for help. Please note that paying the Variable project fee by signing a DoA does not mean you are a member of an industry association.

Public Login. About the event European industry is facing challenges that need deep technological solutions. Tuesday 16 April Registration Room: Sequoia State of affairs, implications and directions forward in a new era of society scale cyber-physical systems. ABSTRACT Inspired by a recent modular four month sabbatical in the US, multiple exchanges with Silicon valley, and an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of Cyber-Physical Systems CPS , this talk assesses the current state of affairs, implied opportunities and challenges, and discusses what might make sensible directions forward for Europe.

Digital Twinning for the analysis of timing bottlenecks in large-scale component-based software. Digital Twinning for the analysis of timing bottlenecks in large-scale component-based software - by Jeroen Voeten of ESI TNO and the Technical University of Eindhoven In this presentation we introduce a new measurement-based approach to get insights in timing bottlenecks of existing large-scale component-based software systems.

Digital Industry. Provisioning verified data and applying trusted computing for smart contract execution - by Mateusz Bonecki DAC. Pick-up at Schiphol Airport Please be advised that our free airport shuttle service is located at the bus stop number A9. Transfer times From the hotel to Schiphol Airport the first shuttle departs at am and the last shuttle will depart at pm. Registration The registrations deadline is - subject to availability. Membership Please note that paying the Variable project fee by signing a DoA does not mean you are a member of an industry association.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.

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Home based jobs without investment in mysore silk The goal of Designing Urban Experience is to design the city in such a way that people have action perspectives. The cell voltage is near 0. Membranes, containing different additives, are assessed with regard to their conductivity and methanol permeation rate. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode. Defining predictive factors for reproductive output in captive common marmosets Callithrix jacchus.
Nieuwenhuijs investment bennekom assembly hall Massen, J. However, apart from the high costs, current Pt-based cathodes in DMFCs suffer significantly from performance loss due to severe methanol crossover from anode to cathode. Jo Coenen argued in favour of an explicit and educationally formulated practical curriculum. Kollias, G. Heeney, J. Arnot, A.
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Nieuwenhuijs investment bennekom assembly hall Petersdorf, T. Sanders, E. The as-prepared catalyst wa Young children who intervene in peer conflicts in multicultural child care centers. Influenza Other Respir Viruses The anode and cathode current collectors are made of stainless steel using thermal stamping die process.
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If you use a car, the major highways A12, A30 are a mere 3 km away, which brings you from our house to Amsterdam by car within the hour. We can provide one or two cars if that is preferred. And of course, in The Netherlands many things can be done by bike and biking infrastructure is very good. Not in the pictures, but the small wooden garden house 4th picture offers a basic extra accommodation for two adults: A bunk bed, wooden floor, simple chair and table, etc.

Tidy and clean, very basic in nature but finely suited for the summer, offering two extra beds. Small town charm in the beautiful village of Bennekom, while very centrally situated close to the major highlights that are all easily reachable by car or public transport. Located within the green "Veluwe" area and national park "Hoge Veluwe" at a few kms. A bus to bring you to that station stops at m at the end of our street. In The Netherlands a lot of things can be done by bike.

We will provide you with the bikes you need if you prefer! A car is also available if needed. There is so much to see and do nearby. Some nice things to do are already in the photos and in the links down here are some nice suggestions. We will provide our guests with a to-do list. Our house is perfectly located to explore really the best parts of The Netherlands: traveling to the west, you will find all the well-known and large Dutch cities and activities easy reachable within an hour by car or train, while on the East and North-East you will find the greenest and most nature-filled part of the country ; the largest Dutch national Park "The Hoge Veluwe" can be found within a few km's with all its activities and touristic visitor centers or quietness if you prefer that.

Biking, walking, hiking can all be done directly from our home. We will leave your house clean and tidy. We will live in your house as it were our own. We adults and we teach our children the same find it important to take care of our own things and of the things of others. If you can relate to a kind of similar attitude then you are very welcome in our house! Terug naar resultaten. Wij zijn 2 3. Contact opnemen We are a family of five total: Two adults , Ton and Suzanne 39 and 37 years old and three young boys aged 9, 6 and 4.

Breda, Noord-Brabant, Nederland. Spacious house with garden in central Bxl. We stayed at Suzannes and Tons house in the Netherlands around new year Coming from Brussels, it was exactly what we were looking for. We can recommend an exchange with them: everything was as it should be.

A nice house not big, but still very comfortable for our family of 5 , a warm welcome and - not to forget - a great location. Take care! Vervolg van ons gastenboek. Toon details Verberg details. Nice built family house. Quiet and green neighborhood. Spacious garden with lots of space for children. A nice green place with lots of privacy m2.

During fall. A small pool might be available. Living room as seen from the kitchen. Family board games, toy-cars, etc available.

KALRA INVESTMENTS JALANDHAR CITY

These are daydreams, of course; it would take an ingenious deep fake to make Mark Rutte give a speech about climate change that is as penetrating as the one he gave on the corona crisis. We of the design disciplines literally need to know our place. Each domain has its own rules of play. Of course we need facts in all these domains.

Bruno Latour identified a gradient running from matters-of-fact data, information to matters-ofconcern involving the commitment that has to play a part in the political domain. Our design niche is on the side of commitment and engagement. On the side of free will, on the side of normative plans, on the side of the narrative. This is where we can make an essential contribution — through research by design, for example — to the debate about ways to organize the country in the post-corona era.

The fact that architecture and urbanism have always been eager to internalize the latest philosophical and scientific trends is too easy an explanation. Modernism is on its last legs. The message is clear: fixating on data is not the answer. Ulrich et al. Coveney, Edward R. Dougherty and Roger R. For Covid it is estimated to be between 2 and 3 at the time of writing.

It is the best place for it on the premises. Libraries are key to research. What does the academy library have to offer? First, there is the physical collection of books, maps, DVDs and periodicals, all of them on architecture, urbanism and landscape architecture. The collection consists of quality pieces of information produced in the field of spatial design disciplines. The rustle of crisp paper, the mild, sweet smell of printing ink and the tactility of spines and covers are simply too appealing.

Hold me and read me, whispers the book. But there is more. Beyond the world of paper lies the domain of digital information. The Amsterdam University of the Arts opens up this world, too, with the Academy library in the vanguard. Via CatalogusPlus, located on the MyAHK library page, students and lecturers can use dozens of databases that provide access to many millions of articles. This number can be pared down by searching by project or theme. She talks about the setup and purpose of this initiative.

Although the event was cancelled — like most other meetings planned in this period — the website has been open to visitors since. What precisely does the Chief Science Officer of the city of Amsterdam do? An incredible amount of research is done in this city. Their research is often relevant to the city. Many of the collaborations between the city government and science are based on personal contacts.

In order to steer this in a better direction, the Board of Mayor and Aldermen and the Executive Boards of the knowledge institutes decided to build a sustainable knowledge infrastructure: openresearch. There are now 17 academic workshops in which scientists and policymakers work together on a structural basis.

Once a month or once every two months policy officials and researchers meet. In another, research is conducted in the field of urban. The Sarphati Institute, which was established as a result of these, is conducting a long-term study that is monitoring a cohort of children for 30 years. Quite a few of the workshops still take place at the GGD municipal health services.

These focus on subjects ranging from loneliness to obesity. The questions, the methods, the time frames: everything is different. Which makes it easier to work together. The rat problem in Amsterdam-Oost, for example, is being investigated by the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics of the University of Amsterdam. Do you do that personally? Other collaborations have been initiated by me. I orchestrated Urban Ecology and Food, for example. Officials are often specialists themselves.

I for my part constantly introduce people to each other. I make sure that the collaborations are less dependent on individuals. They always will be to a certain extent, because good research stems from personal interest. The openreseach. We have over a hundred editors and 1, participants. Over 3, papers have already been posted. The first day, we had a thousand page views. That was unexpected. I was totally surprised. The workshops also provide all kinds of new insights.

We apply for European subsidies a lot, the city has a separate office for this. Part of it is cultural programming. Their employer gives them two days a week to do this. Eight of them are now working on their PhD and another four will start very soon. There was hardly any infrastructure.

If you want to know which energy transition studies take place in Amsterdam, for example, you can visit this website. Someone who works on electric charging stations can see at a glance who else is working on the same subject. People mostly focus on their own field. Some are applied, some are fundamental. Some are scientific, some are design-based. Generally speaking, there are no direct connections between the different fields. Look at the energy transition: it has all of those four layers.

How do we make batteries that can store a lot of energy and take up little space at the same time? Inside the dwelling, where do we put them? Those batteries come with new monitoring systems. We need new business models to balance the payment of the energy supplied to the user. But we are also going to cook in a different way and tell stories in a different way.

The energy transition touches on all of those areas. Every social challenge is integrated and transdisciplinary. This complexity is part of every task. I hope that openresearch. The city is organized in pillars and so is science. Architecture is a discipline that is naturally accustomed to collaborating with other disciplines, but architects nevertheless hardly make use of the social sciences — my personal background — at all.

Subjects such as politics and urban power relations, speculation and gentrification have a huge effect on the city, but students learn very little about these subjects, at least in Delft, where I worked for seven years as an associate professor. Students are told about them, but never learn to deal with them differently.

Architecture and urbanism are disciplines in their own right. This applies to all challenges. In the courses, students ought to learn to join forces with other disciplines more often. Students of all disciplines can earn that notation on their diploma. I met students from all faculties. It turned out that students are often brilliant in their own fields, but never learn to collaborate with students from other courses, not even in Delft.

If you bring a Delft engineer, someone from Leiden University and a business school student together, they can exchange ideas. What kind of questions do you ask? What kind of questions do I ask? How does my knowledge compare to yours? At what point is exchange important? Richard Sennett described the importance of this excellently in his book Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City. La ville is the infrastructure.

There is no alternative. Just like all other ways of doing this, you have to be very careful that you do it with integrity and correctly and consistently. You can use data to prove anything you like. Really anything. You can use data to prove that the sky is green, if you want to. Finding a good proxy and a good dataset on the right scale, assessing the combination of the datasets, the importance of privacy: these are all major new subjects.

Data can only be read using visualizations. I have a colleague who can read very long rows of data. But most mortals do. But a visualization is also an interpretation. It can be questioned. Again, you see that interdisciplinarity is very important. The most significance is found where the data and the physical world are combined. Most of the reports about waste in a certain area turned out to come from a clean building, rather than from one that was dirty.

The people in the dirty building see the clean building. So some things turn out to be exactly the other way around than you would assume on the basis of just the data. It makes me very happy. But I always work interdisciplinary. If, for. CN Yes, and with the dataset you choose, the scale of your. You can see that happening to corona today. He makes very precise, subtle models, but nobody is interested. But science produces progressive insights. The same goes for a news item on television.

So what can you do? We need to think about this. It has to be possible. Urban Experience at the University of Amsterdam. What are you studying there? People — and nature in general — are rhythm-based. If you look at urban issues from the perspective of rhythm, you suddenly see other solutions.

That works very well. This involves millions worth of unused facilities. It turned out that the mothers were unable to visit at all during the hours the services were offered. As a result of our research, a number of things changed. There were buurtkamers small community centres in the area where children could play and these were popular.

So we advised the city to not make individual arrangements for small groups of people, but to support the community centres. The goal of Designing Urban Experience is to design the city in such a way that people have action perspectives. There is no link to the repository service SurfSharekit, from where data can be uploaded to other knowledge bases. There is no link to ResearchGate, where most researchers post their papers, either.

How do you prevent people from having to do everything twice? And yes, at the moment it does take quite some time to upload all of the existing research. If you take the time to check out new research once a month, it will be up there in an hour. What exactly are the research questions? The research networks introduce themselves. The linear economy of our society is changing into a circular economy.

The irresponsible risk of this model has become clear to the general public only relatively recently. In a circular economy there is no such thing as waste; raw materials are used over and over again. In the construction sector, the transition to a circular economy must come with a fundamental transformation right across the width of the field: from design to completion. It focuses on architectural implications rather than on research into new or existing materials.

The development of this repertoire is linked to three themes. What will the typological and aesthetic vocabulary of such a new architecture look like? The theme Social Challenges examines whether circular design can meet existing social challenges, not only in the context of the climate agenda, but also and above all in that of directly perceptible tasks.

Cities are growing and will continue to do so. The research focuses on the level of the region, the city and the street respectively and takes place in coalitions of citizens, businesses and governments. In this context the Future Urban Regions Research Group distinguishes four research trajectories that each use their own research method.

This not only yields knowledge, but also products that are easy to share with a wide audience. Studio research focuses on the examining of design assignments through studio training at the Academies of Architecture. The Amsterdam Academy chairs the Research Group. It is evident that an attempt to stabilize the global climate is necessary and that a solution can be found in the measure to reduce the global use of fossil fuels, among other things.

The Paris Climate Agreement of includes the arrangement that global warming must be limited to 1. What will the energy transition actually be like? What can designers do to meet this challenge? The latter question is not addressed in current discussions, while conceptualizing and visualizing such images for the future is what any Academy of Architecture does best.

In addition, the Academies of Architecture consider it very important that the current generation of students becomes aware of the urgency of the subject of energy transition. A PhD researcher whose research concerns the design of energy landscapes is attached to this Research Group.

The research aims to develop a framework for designers in the field as well as students that can be used for research into alternative futures for energy landscapes, using sustainability criteria. In addition, a postdoc is attached to this Research Group. The training includes lectures, workshops and master classes. The tasks addressed are focused on Amsterdam. He presented his inaugural speech at Pakhuis de Zwijger on 12 December After nine days of use, all materials were returned to the owners in one piece and undamaged.

The lifespan of materials in a circular economy consists of a fascinating interaction between material, humankind and use in the case of building materials. Hardly the logical place to launch an architectural research network, one would think.

But on this occasion, as it turns out, logic is mainly a cage to rattle. The drawings from the book show the protagonist, Lemuel Gulliver. Why start a war over such a silly matter?! As he continues his journey Lemuel goes from one surprise to the next. In the end he concludes that every culture has its own social logic, however nonsensical this may seem to outsiders.

The matter is topical. Our treatment of the planet and its wealth of raw materials is hardly sustainable. If we continue in the same vein, raw materials will be exhausted and the earth extremely polluted before long. If we want to live in a world that is healthy and pleasant, we will have to change our behaviour radically. This requires a different way of thinking. Van Assche has prepared a large number of these questions. Why do we drink soda from a metal can, only.

Our brief use of them is disproportionate to the effort and attention devoted to the making of the object. Or take, for example, the mountain of waste produced by the activity of building, the profession to which architecture is so closely related. Why do we continue to make new designs if we know that an important side effect is an ever-growing mountain of waste? Reflecting on our habits, they often look as strange as those of the eccentric peoples Gulliver visits.

The non-architects in the audience had expected the brand-new lecturer to present some professional and technical talk. Something about something complicated: circularity. On the contrary, circular thinking invites us to rethink very ordinary daily routines. Why are we so accustomed to throwing away products, only to buy them again on the cheap, whether it is cans or buildings?

What objects do I use? What is of value to me and why? And how new is this circular thinking, really? Before the Industrial Revolution, it was quite customary. After all, circular thinking is better suited to the logic underlying the ecological systems of the planet Earth of which we are part. But logic is not static at all! Van Assche is used to that idea by now. In mathematics, logic is always different, depending on the paradigms one sets.

It is a way of thinking that is not necessarily common practice in architecture and building. However, it is very promising at a time when we are questioning our behaviour towards the planet. Anyone who wants a circular economy, a world in which raw materials,. The industry focuses on making many and especially exactly the same products quickly. Build your own factory.

This allowed the designers to show how beautiful and meaningful the material is. As a result, a Belgian manufacturer took on the challenge to take the slate into production. This pioneering mentality calls for creativity. He will not be alone; he is undertaking this adventure together with research fellow Gerjan Streng. They make a strong duo, together with students and a growing network of experts, researchers and makers, to identify and test a new architectural repertoire for a circular society in the coming years.

FUR II continued to use the studios as part of the research. The joint effort by the Academies of Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Groningen to explore the future of Zeeland roughly accounts for half of all of the studios and projects. For sure, the highlights of these studios were the joint field trip and the communication master class in Zeeland.

Other studios designed new food typologies Arnhem , worked with residents on increasing the sustainability of the monumental Peperklip building Rotterdam , explored the transformation of vacant farms for regional economy and ecology Tilburg and reimagined the Euregion Maastricht.

Besides the designs themselves, another result was the tools for research by design tested in the studios. Especially the conversation models like the Parliament of Things and the Socratic Conversation turned out to be very fruitful to reflect on research and design. Altogether, the body of work produced by the students map the full spectrum of research by design. It touched topics and developed views that we would never have touched ourselves.

Our job now is to translate the richness of all this work into a publication. Where the first FUR book tried to define the basic elements of research by design, the upcoming book, due in , is about exploring the outer boundaries of our profession. The student projects show the first hints of what can be expected.

Dirk Oudes and Sven Stremke discuss how landscape architecture researchers and designers can contribute to the understanding and implementation of solar fields. In our field, participation, for example, formally refers to — it denotes — the taking part of stakeholders in a design process.

For some it refers to a genuine collaboration with stakeholders, while others immediately think of a dreadful and weary process that decreases the quality of the design. In this essay, we will argue that in the case of solar fields, too, there is a variety of associated meanings, of connotations. More importantly, we will show how both landscape architecture researchers as well as designers can contribute to the understanding and implementation of solar fields.

Solar fields are a relatively new phenomenon in the Netherlands. Together with wind turbines, heat networks, hydropower plants and energy saving interventions in buildings, they support a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. Farm, garden or landscape: all terms refer to a concept previously not linked to powergenerating systems. Especially terms like park and garden seem to refer to something that is carefully conceived, or designed, while this is certainly not always the case for solar fields.

The purpose of this framing is to transfer the existing connotations of garden and park to a solar field. Fortunately, a number of designed solar fields have been constructed in recent years. In , we visited and analysed over ten solar fields in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Advancing earlier research, we specifically looked at which functions besides electricity production were added and how the solar fields responded to the character of the surrounding landscape.

We identified a great variety of functions. Efforts are made to retain water, new habitats are created and fruit trees or olive groves are planted. Water run-off from solar field Monreale Sicily, Italy is collected in a basin and consequently used for the olive grove that is part of the solar field. In some cases, the existing parcellation was replaced by the new one from the solar field.

In other cases, the PV patches are carefully fitted into existing parcellation patterns, often to ensure a reversibility of the temporary intervention. Solar fields can influence the connectivity of the landscape for both humans and animals, by adding, changing or removing linear infrastructures. So far, we have only identified this at Solarpark De Kwekerij.

Although at the time of writing this research is still ongoing, it seems scale, connectivity, accessibility and function are important features to distinguish between different types of solar fields. For obvious reasons, scale distinguishes between a solar garden and a solar landscape: a solar garden of hectares seems misnamed.

On the other hand, deliberately inaccessible for humans solar fields aiming for high biodiversity and natural values still seem without a proper term. Furthermore, common park functions such as meeting, walking, wandering and resting can also be transferred to solar parks. Increasing clarity in the terms used for solar fields supports the debate on what type of solar field is required in a certain landscape. We have encountered a number of solar fields that have been designed in the last two decades.

The use of a discontinuous hedgerow at Solarfeld Gansdorf aims to reduce the visibility of the solar field and at the same time mimic the appearance of the surrounding landscape structure. Glossary of keywords from Nieuwendammerham. They were tutored by Charlie Clemoes.

Floor Space Index 3. We were excited to get the opportunity to develop it. Overall, collaborations between the students and the researchers-instructors showed again that spatial research is about so much more than ticking the box of getting a quick vox pop or statistical overview. How is power spatially distributed, and how can we relate to that?

How can social, political and other aspects be taken into account? It was interesting to see some of the students already making critical changes in the parallel design course as a result of their research outcomes. It is, however, only by learning to master a wide variety of tools, their potential and their ethics that research can really make a difference.

In this day and age, with the world being rapidly redesigned by mankind, we might want to take it one step further. Sven Stremke conducts research into sustainable energy landscapes. As a resident of Amsterdam, he has been involved in the preparation of the Amsterdam Energy Strategy. How are the cities that want to generate sustainable energy faring? This means that people who live in cities face a big responsibility to do something about those emissions, because continuing in this vein will do huge damage.

Most sustainable energy has to be produced in rural areas nevertheless. We have to make it clear that the cities are also making the effort. Yes, you could compare that with earning indulgences. Our attitude is very positive.

We want to make the city better. We also want to try to solve other problems. In the Green Heart, we are involved in a project to reintegrate a former rubbish dump into the landscape. We want to use such tricks in the city as well. Money has to be earmarked to create good-looking solutions.

But in order to. And like I said, people who live in cities have to show that they are making the effort. Renewable energy also has great advantages for a city. At this time a lot of energy money goes abroad: for coal, oil and gas. Soon, all that money will stay at home. That means: a lot of jobs. That power station is now closed. That means that we can use that site to generate energy for another 30 years. At the same time, we can plant the site to improve the polluted soil.

In Havenstad, for example, a district under development in the harbours of Amsterdam, the position of the houses optimizes the use they can make of solar energy. So sure, the city will change. And there will be solar panels everywhere. Infrastructure will follow suit. We can attach them to noise barriers. Thousands of people are busy making plans to solve all this. We do face problems. Amsterdam Academy of Architecture. The Amsterdam Agenda: 12 Good Ideas for the Future of Cities Daan Roggeveen, Michiel Hulshof, Frances Arnold, nai From climate change to migration, all across the world cities are having to come to terms with contemporary challenges for which there are few easy answers.

Be it the repercussions of over-tourism, alternative forms of civic engagement or incorporating new technologies into existing infrastructure, these are urgent issues with global impact. Never before have urban residents been better equipped to have an informed opinion on the development of their cities and surroundings. Researcher Menno van der Veen asks how planners can apply new models for urban development in the age of decentralized information and decisionmaking.

In the Netherlands, an upcoming amendment to the Environment and Planning Act, or Omgevingswet, is nudging this issue further into the spotlight. Although specific details are not yet known, it will impact existing practices of citizen participation and initiatives in the built environment. For this reason, a review of citizen engagement, its benefits, pitfalls, and consequences is timely, according to Menno van der Veen, researcher at the University of Amsterdam and partner at Tertium, a consultancy with a particular focus in spatial planning, local democracy and decisionmaking.

They work in small, partly interdisciplinary groups and are supervised by a select group of practising fellow professionals. There is a wide range of options within the programme so that students can put together their own trajectory and specialization. Together with Brodsky, firstand second-year students worked tirelessly from 14 to 25 January to collectively build an imaginary city of clay.

It took us on an architectural tour through history from ancient Rome to future Amsterdam. Then left to the Dutch elements for six weeks, the city started to disintegrate. Clay City reflects on the Winter School.

Not only because the people are 15 centimetres tall, but in particular because they worry about matters that appear trivial to him. Swift thought up the egg question as a parody of the English religious war surrounding the court of George I. The writer also pokes fun at other disputes: for example, in his story he translates the quarrels between the English political parties the Tories and the Whigs into a fight about wearing high or low heels. However, the book is more than satire.

Each of the four worlds that Gulliver visits turns out to have its own — not all too friendly — morality. Our hero learns that each culture follows its own societal logic, however absurd that may be to an outsider. His experiences made him a misanthrope for the rest of his life. To our 21st-century ears, the disputes about high or low heels may sound like nonsense, but when we discuss whether or not you are allowed to wear a headscarf, that suddenly becomes a serious matter.

Each social discussion exists by the grace of a series of unspoken, mostly subconscious, assumptions about what is meaningful and what not. It is usually these assumptions that drive agreements about what is and what is not appropriate and determines the logic thereof.

Not to return as a misanthrope, but rather to formulate a new logic for our society. By examining and questioning the implicit assumptions in our thinking, I hope to chance upon a system logic that is better equipped. The island of Lilliput is one of the four worlds that Gulliver visits. Iedere wereld blijkt zijn eigen — niet al te vriendelijke — logica en moraal te hebben.

In de eerste vertelling van De reizen van Gulliver1 , de klassieker van Jonathan Swift uit , spoelt de hoofdpersoon aan op het eiland van de Lilliputters. Lemuel Gulliver, zoals onze held voluit heet, is een gestudeerd man, maar de wereld van de Lilliputters is hem vreemd. Niet alleen doordat de mensen maar 15 centimeter groot zijn, maar vooral omdat ze zich druk maken over zaken die hem triviaal voorkomen.

Swift bedacht de ei-kwestie als parodie op de Engelse godsdienststrijd rond het hof van George I. De schrijver drijft ook de spot met andere disputen: zo vertaalt hij in zijn verhaal de twisten tussen de politieke partijen Tories en de Whigs in een ruzie tussen het dragen. Het boek was na publicatie in meteen een succes en is sindsdien populair gebleven, zij het vooral in de gekuiste vorm als kinderboek.

Gullivers reizen hebben niets aan actualiteit ingeboet; met de ongenuanceerde stammenstrijd tussen Brexiteers en Remainers had Swift wel raad geweten. Maar het boek is meer dan satire. Ieder van de vier werelden die Gulliver bezoekt blijkt zijn eigen — niet al te vriendelijke — moraal te hebben. Onze held leert dat iedere cultuur zijn eigen maatschappelijke logica voert, hoe onzinnig die voor een buitenstaander ook moge zijn. Zijn ervaringen maakten hem de rest van zijn leven tot misantroop.

The Noorderparkbar is completely constructed from materials from Dutch website for second-hand products Marktplaats. The origin and previous use of each material is described. The pavilion is not only a collection of used materials, therefore, but also consists of a collection of stories. Van iedere materiaal is de herkomst en het vorige gebruik beschreven. Het paviljoen is daarmee niet alleen een collectie gebruikte materialen, maar bestaat ook uit een verzameling verhalen. However, work-around solutions from all sides have proven either impossible to enforce, or logistically unfeasible.

However, as groups get increasingly large, their independence from traditional developer models becomes difficult to sustain. Network of courtyards. By adding a new public space to the neighbourhood and introducing three gates, the project encourages the understanding of the Spaarndammerbuurt as a spatial sequence of rooms.

At the same time, and cognisant that new housing developments are beyond the financial means of many, the municipal government has sought to cap rising rents and curtail short-term Airbnb rentals, as well as other similarly difficult-to-enforce regulations. A push-pull struggle with no clear winners, an alternative, more flexible solution to housing is urgently needed for the city to manage growth. Digitalization can facilitate the adaptability of the built environment, how we navigate cities, and how buildings are used.

Extending beyond possibilities for remote working, e-learning, and new forms of recreation, connectivity already actively influences programming. Take the rise and rise of temporary pop-up businesses in unexpected or even hidden locations, for example. Oftentimes promoted exclusively via social media, their success demonstrates how Niet om als misantroop terug te keren, maar juist om een nieuwe logica voor onze samenleving te formuleren.

Door het onderzoeken en bevragen van de impliciete aannames in ons denken, hoop ik op een systeemlogica te stuiten die beter uitgerust is voor de problemen van nu en de toekomst dan traditionele modellen. Nieuwe systeemlogica gaat ons helpen betere manieren te vinden voor. Iedere maatschappelijke discussie bestaat bij de gratie van een reeks onuitgesproken, meestal onbewuste, aannames over wat betekenisvol is en wat niet. Het zijn veelal deze aannames die afspraken over wat wel en niet hoort sturen en de logica ervan bepalen.

The entrance from the garden. The third entrance, in continuation of the existing gate, gives access to the courtyard that provides the key to the organisation of the entire building. The ever-evolving transformative impact of digitalization and hyperconnectivity mean the requirements of our built environments are in a state of constant flux. Here lies potential, argues Berlinbased Marc Schmit of international architecture firm, playze, to build for flexibility and resilience.

The courtyard. The courtyard is considered as an urban interior, an intimate room with strong boundaries that contributes to the collective character of its immediate environment. In the past 40 years, an increasingly heterogeneous society has seen the country seek ways to facilitate social cohesion and discourage marginalization through inspraak, or involvement of the public. In the Layered Building Model of Stuart Brand and Frank Duffy, buildings are described as a composition of layers with different transformation lengths.

The building installation will always last less long, for example, than the load-bearing structure. By taking this into consideration in the design of the building, later transformation is easier to achieve. De installatie van een gebouw gaat bijvoorbeeld altijd minder lang mee dan de hoofddraagconstructie. Door hier in het ontwerp al rekening mee te houden is latere transformatie beter mogelijk.

A masterplan of the selected location transformation of Pelcowizna district , which is proof that you can densify the city with blue, green and red structures. It is subsequently remelted into a new steel section, which is used to build a school. The use of steel in this example is based on use and reuse, but the processes that make the varied lifespan of the steel section possible are still far from optimal. If we relate the life history of the steel section with the path of other materials, and place that next to the use of all those materials, we get a fascinating complex whole of interaction of material, humankind and usage.

An example in which the lifespan of materials was poetically imagines is the Noorderparkbar of bureau sla and Overtreders W. The project concerns a small coffee bar in a park in Amsterdam-Noord Amsterdam North , which was entirely constructed from materials from the Dutch website for second-hand products Marktplaats.

The origin of all materials used was documented by briefly interviewing and photographing the previous owner, the seller on Marktplaats. In this way, the coffee bar not only became a sublimated composition of second-hand materials, but it also consists of a collection of material stories.

Circular thinking clashes with traditional processes in the building and design world. It unavoidably leads to new system logic, which challenges and calls existing opinions into question. The new system logic gives tangible substance to the circles that occur in all models of circular thinking. Until recently, all efforts in a building process were focused on creating an object: the building.

With the delivery of the object, the building process ended. In a circular logic, attention and effort is not devoted to the object, but to the lifespan of the object. Design and construction account in all ways for the fact that all components from which an object is built have a lifespan that exceed the existence of the object. Traditional construction, in which all responsibility for the object stops on delivery, is lazy in this context. The traditional construction industry behaves like Betty Draper in Mad Men: after using the material, you simply throw away what you no longer need.

There is sure to be someone who tidies it up. In order to give tangible substance to circular building, an impressive series of methods and storylines have been developed in recent years. The Wetland Forest, Fontainas Park.

The Wetland Forest Park lies in the lowest part of Brussels; it is a mosaic of wet habitat to be found in the plain, the valley and the wet fringe. The Hill Forest, Anneessens Square. The Hill Forest Square can be found at the edge between the valley and higher land; a gradient of moisture defines a specific habitat where Tilia cordata is the key community species.

The Mountain Forest Towers is a vertical and contrasted territory where very specific tree communities can survive. The Canyon Forest, Anspach Boulevard. Contrasted seasonal changes from flood to extreme drought, green walls, open perspective, clumps and open understory define the Canyon Forest Boulevard. Als we de levensgeschiedenis van het stalen profiel in relatie brengen met het pad van andere materialen, en daar het gebruik van al die materialen bij zetten, krijgen we een fascinerend complex geheel van interactie van materiaal, mens en gebruik.

Juxtaposition of spatial strategies for the city, created in order to make it more compact and integrated. The ridge and the river as a link between separated districts. Between and , almost 2, Lustron houses were built in the US. Five builders were able to assemble a Lustron house in less than a week. Vijf bouwvakkers konden in minder dan een week een Lustron huis assembleren. Het project behelst een kleine koffiebar in een park in Amsterdam-Noord, die geheel is opgebouwd uit materialen van Marktplaats.

Van alle gebruikte materialen is de herkomst gedocumenteerd door de vorige eigenaar, de verkoper op Marktplaats, kort te interviewen en te fotograferen. De koffiebar werd zo niet alleen een gesublimeerde samenstelling van tweedehands materialen,. Circulair denken botst met traditionele processen in de bouw- en ontwerpwereld. Het leidt onherroepelijk tot nieuwe systeemlogica, die bestaande opvattingen bevraagt en ter discussie stelt. De nieuwe systeemlogica geeft handen en voeten aan de cirkels die in alle modellen van circulair denken voorkomen.

Tot voor kort waren alle inspanning in een bouwproces gericht op het realiseren van een object: het gebouw. Met de oplevering van het object eindigde het bouwproces. In een circulaire logica gaan aandacht en inspanning niet naar het object, maar naar de levensloop van het object. Ontwerp en bouw geven zich op alle manieren rekenschap van het feit dat alle componenten waarmee een object is opgebouwd een. Traditioneel bouwen, waarin alle verantwoordelijkheid bij oplevering van het object stopt, is in deze context gemakzuchtig.

De traditionele bouwwereld gedraagt zich als Betty Draper in Mad Men: na gebruik van het materiaal gooi je gewoon weg wat je niet meer nodig hebt. Er is vast wel iemand die het opruimt. Om handen en voeten te geven aan circulair bouwen is er in de afgelopen jaren een indrukwekkende reeks methoden en verhaallijnen ontwikkeld. De architect Thomas Rau en econome Sabine Oberhuber werkten een methode uit waarin bezit irrelevant wordt; het product is geen ding, maar een service.

In the Annual Newspaper, the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture looks back on the education and research carried out in the preceding academic year. It allows the Academy to share what was taught, studied, drawn, written, made, built, discussed, organized and exhibited. This edition features a centrefold poster that shows the result of the hard work by Alexander Brodsky and over first- and second-year students during the Winter School.

But what is the significance of practice-oriented research in the context of design education? The panels consist of a chair, a secretary and a number of authoritative peers. The research conducted by the research networks over the past years was assessed on the basis of five subjects: content, organization, quality, impact and evaluation system. First of all, it is important that the new generation of designers learns research skills as well as design skills.

Although lecturers flesh out the research network entrusted to them in their own way, they all share a focus on practice-oriented research. Each of these disciplines has its own research tradition and uses its own research methods, which differ greatly. Research at the Academy of Architecture is mainly practice oriented. This article aims to provide the concepts concerned with a short theoretical basis and summarize current insights in this field.

This conference, which is seen as one of the first attempts to take a systematic approach to this subject, essentially developed into an biennial event that has taken place 22 times since with a few interruptions, most recently in This starts with the research question: a scientific hypothesis is of a completely different nature than a programme of requirements that forms the starting point of a design process. Over the past decades the insight nevertheless emerged that the design process is a valuable, independent form of coherent knowledge production that, although it has other characteristics than scientific knowledge, is on an equal footing with it.

This does not only concern the amassing of knowledge during a single design process, but also the accumulation of knowledge that takes place during several design processes, in a single office or even in various offices. In , Christopher Frayling refined this division even further, into the three variants that are so often cited in the context of this subject. The reason for this type of research is often the need to answer a technical question in the field of, for example, materials science and the objective is primarily a communicable result that is universally valid.

Research into Design and Research through Design usually take place in the context of set scientific frameworks and therefore pose fewer problems than the design process in the case of evaluation. Academies of Architecture, however, mainly facilitate Research for Design and it is here that the development of an objective evaluation framework for this type of research is most urgent.

A widely used and authoritative definition can be found in the glossary of the appendix to the Dublin Descriptors adopted by ministers from European member states at the Bologna Bergen Conference in , which describe the final attainment levels of three education cycles: Bachelor, Master and Doctorate. Christopher Jones, D. Thornley et al. This reaffirmed that the curriculum is in line with the Dublin Descriptors.

They used these to put together 22 walls that, after being configured in the courtyard, formed eight enclosed patios. What all this was about became clear on the next day, 30 August. Pieter Vermeersch, finally, paints walls in beautiful, gradually changing colour gradients. The latter did not fall on deaf ears. The students were supervised by buddies senior students and by artists Pim Palsgraaf and Bart Eysink Smeets.

Give each other a big hug. And remember: love is the most important thing in the world. In the week following 15 March, teaching and learning moved online. Despite the challenges, we should harness our experiences in the virtual world as a source of innovation, argues head of urbanism Markus Appenzeller.

Like many other schools, the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture had to switch its teaching and learning to online environments. We were wrong. Theatre is different than a TV show. Real threedimensionality had to make room for the confines of a two-dimensional screen. What have we learned so far? Online teaching and learning lack the informal. Online teaching and learning are exhausting.

The eversimilar perspective and the repetitive nature of the same format provide little incentive to mentally stay engaged. Online teaching and learning are demanding. We are all beginners in this new learning environment. After all architecture, urbanism and landscape architecture are disciplines that explore spatial concepts for specific places.

Both space and place are not easily replicable in a virtual world. What to do with that insight? But that would be a missed opportunity. There are many things that are worth rethinking and developing, since they offer an extension of our methods of teaching and learning and of our three professions.

One could contemplate a toolbox that can help us reconnecting with the avant-garde that we claimed to represent years ago but since have fallen behind — certainly when it comes to the use of cutting-edge technology. But it can be more. There are advantages to being physically together: one can have an interactive conversation around a design proposal. Imagine a studio where you can do both — interact and focus — and switch back and forth between the two.

Adding an online component to a studio could help to solve this problem. It would also allow roles to be defined: an online lecturer for the strategic questions, an offline lecturer for the tactical and spatial ones. Her project, titled Re-Space, was about working and learning spaces for people who have moved to a new city, with half of the users being refugees and the other half local people. The project location was in Vilnius, Lithuania.

This often takes place in the form of lectures — with varying success and with fluctuating attention of the audience. Lectures, on the other hand, are still the same, except for the usual slide hiccups having been replaced by the usual PowerPoint failure. Besides watching, listening and saving questions to the very end, chat channels can be used to answer questions or discuss what has been said.

Links to other resources can be explored and guests or co-presenters can easily be involved. And while nothing replaces the personal experience, it is now clear that we can learn a lot about a location by using the Internet. This delivers a different understanding of the context we design for. The benefit: our professions learn to communicate in new ways that can help us escape our ivory towers and make what we do more understandable to new and wider audiences.

In order to evolve further, it needs to become spatial again. It requires changes to the physical makeup of the city. At the moment of writing, community gatherings cannot take place. They have been replaced by all kinds of other forms of interaction. What used to be a rather static exercise has become a field of exploration and innovation.

If we want to combine the virtual and the real in new ways, we need to learn to work with this material as we do with wood, steel or concrete. Coding should have a place in our curriculum. They are challenging our world, our professions, and the way we learn and teach. These are times for writing manifestos. They are times to invent, to adjust and to try out — the very foundations of any avant-garde. Time and again we struggle with the limitations of that space.

Therefore, it has never moved beyond bits and bytes or — in the best case — skeuomorph copies of the physical world. In recent years, with the success of mobile communication in our pockets, we have seen a profound change in how we use cities. Google Maps guides us, Uber moves us and Deliveroo feeds us. Additionally, traditional urban infrastructures greatly extended their services into the virtual world.

Power meters tell us how to save energy. Parking fines are issued by mobile parking scanners. Parking fees are paid using apps. Students celebrate the successful completion of the practical experience assessments on Teams. On Wednesday evening 15 April, students presented their work to 26 committees, consisting of 52 assessors.

On Thursday evening 16 April, students presented their work to 25 committees, consisting of 50 assessors. Jansen and Schuitemaker have been working at the Marineterrein since August Time for a more extensive introduction.

What did you study and what did you do for a living before you joined the Amsterdam University of the Arts? Next I worked at various design offices and design divisions, for example at pram manufacturer Bugaboo and at Studio Joris Laarman. I create design objects at the intersection of art and technology under the name voronoi. At one point during the test drives, we discovered that the strength of a properly designed prototype would match that of the intended end product.

From this I concluded that 3D printing as a production technique had matured to such an extent that for the first time you could also use it to make end products, not just models or visual prototypes. That was an aha-moment for me. After that I started to focus more on 3D printing. BJ What I like a lot is to see students being amazed, happy and proud when their results turn out better than they expected. But every day we get to make some nice models or objects is a real treat.

Students also sometimes ask us if we have a printer they can use. But after a few years I stayed on at the Fiction Factory. The Fiction Factory is a company that makes interiors, furniture, decors and art objects. We once came up with the idea of organizing a scrapheap challenge. Herein, methanol decomposition on Pt3Sn was systematically investigated using periodic density functional theory and microkinetic modeling. The geometries and energies of all of the involved species were analyzed, and the decomposition network was mapped out to elaborate the reaction mechanisms.

The competitive methanol decomposition started with the initial O-H bond scission followed by successive C-H bond scissions, i. Microkinetic modeling confirmed that the vast majority of the intermediates and products from methanol decomposition would escape from the Pt3Sn surface at a relatively low temperature, and the coverage of the CO residue decreased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in partial methanol pressure.

The development of a Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration.

The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power.

The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization.

In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates also called biplates , which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants methanol and air. The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance.

However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low. They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries In this Ph.

The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed.

The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance. A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint.

A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode.

Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region. Narayanan, S. Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed, direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant.

Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants.

DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices. A direct methanol fuel cell DMFC having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly MEA formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

Integrated anode structure for passive direct methanol fuel cells with neat methanol operation. A microporous titanium plate based integrated anode structure Ti-IAS suitable for passive direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs fueled with neat methanol is reported. This anode structure incorporates a porous titanium plate as a methanol mass transfer barrier and current collector, pervaporation film for passively vaporizing methanol , vaporous methanol cavity for evenly distributing fuel, and channels for carbon dioxide venting.

In the meantime, the required water for methanol -oxidation reaction at the anode can also be fully recovered from the cathode with the help of the highly hydrophobic microporous layer in the cathode. Importantly, no obvious performance degradation of the passive DMFC system is observed after more than 90 h of continuous operation. Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol , liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane PEM fuel cell The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte PEM design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design.

These include A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol. Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel.

However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management , we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

A selective electrocatalyst—based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol. Towards neat methanol operation of direct methanol fuel cells: a novel self-assembled proton exchange membrane. We report here a novel proton exchange membrane with remarkably high methanol -permeation resistivity and excellent proton conductivity enabled by carefully designed self-assembled ionic conductive channels.

A direct methanol fuel cell utilizing the membrane performs well with a 20 M methanol solution, very close to the concentration of neat methanol. Until the early 's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application. The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion THD spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment.

Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane. A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX The overall objective of this work is to extend Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system.

Inventor ; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics.

A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering. Modelling and experimental studies on a direct methanol fuel cell working under low methanol crossover and high methanol concentrations. Oliveira, V. A number of issues need to be resolved before DMFC can be commercially viable such as the methanol crossover and water crossover which must be minimised in portable DMFCs.

The main gain of this work is to systematically vary commercial MEA materials and check their influence on the cell performance of a direct methanol fuel cell operating at close to room temperature. Tailored MEAs membrane-electrode assemblies , with different structures and combinations of gas diffusion layers GDLs , were designed and tested in order to select optimal working conditions at high methanol concentration levels without sacrificing performance.

The experimental polarization and power density curves were successfully compared with the predictions of a steady state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC recently developed by the same authors. The influence of the anode gas diffusion layer media, the membrane thickness and the MEA properties on the cell performance are explained under the light of the predicted methanol crossover rate across the membrane.

A tailored MEA build-up with the common available commercial materials was proposed to achieve relatively low methanol crossover, operating at high methanol concentrations. The use of adequate materials for the gas diffusion layers carbon paper at the anode GDL and carbon cloth at the cathode GDL enables the use of thinner membranes enhancing the water back diffusion which is essential to work at high methanol concentrations. Carson, Stephen [Arkema Inc. Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF.

The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance.

We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell. E-mail: andrea. E-mail: PGrassini seal. E-mail: renzo. Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances.

It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty.

In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization.

The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature. Design issues for semi-passive optical communication devices. Optical smart cards are devices containing a retro-reflector, light modulator, and some computing and data storage capabilities to affect semi-passive communication. They do not produce light; instead they modulate and send back light received from a stationary unit.

These devices can replace contact-based smart cards as well as RF based ones for applications ranging from identification to transmitting and validating data. Since their transmission is essentially focused on the receiving unit, they are harder to eavesdrop than RF devices, yet need no physical contact or alignment. In this paper we explore optical design issues of these devices and estimate their optical behavior. Specifically, we analyze how these compact devices can be optimized for selected application profiles.

Some of the key parameters addressed are effective light efficiency how much modulated signal can be received by the stationary unit given the amount of light it transmits , range of tilt angles angle between device surface normal to the line connecting the optical smart card with the stationary unit through which the device would be effective, and power requirements of the semi-passive unit.

In addition, issues concerning compact packaging of this device are discussed. Finally, results of the analysis are employed to produce a comparison of achievable capabilities of these optical smart cards, as opposed to alternative devices, and discuss potential applications were they can be best utilized.

Reactivity descriptors for direct methanol fuel cell anode catalysts. For the direct mechanism, we find that, because of CO poisoning, only a small current will result on all non We have investigated the anode reaction in direct methanol fuel cells using a database of adsorption free energies for 16 intermediates on 12 close-packed transition metal surfaces calculated with periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory DFT-GGA. This database, combined with a simple In addition, by using linear scaling relations between Incorporation of both reduced GO rGO and PPy will form a good composite which have advantages from both materials such as good mechanical strength and excellent electrical conductivity.

These composite would be very suitable in fabrication of methanol sensor in direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density.

Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density GFED demands a complex balance-of-plant BOP that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol to the anode catalytic layer to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode i.

Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers IFDLs will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

From intro. This type of direct oxidation cell is fuel versatile and offers significant advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operation The present study focuses on the results of a phenomenological model based on current understanding of the various processed operating in these cells. Recent progresses in materials for the direct methanol fuel cell. Research programs are being conducted worldwide to develop a clean, zero emissions electric vehicle. Only fuel cells which can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy can compete with internal combustion engines.

This paper reviewed the recent progress made in the development of a direct methanol fuel cell using the concept developed for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC. It was noted that the electrode materials, at the methanol anode and oxygen cathode need to be improved by using multifunctional electrocatalysts. The development of new temperature resistant proton exchange membranes with good ionic conductivity and low methanol cross-over, which resulted from the need to increase operating temperatures above degrees C was also reviewed.

The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications.

Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells. Direct methanol fuel cells DMFC have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells.

Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water.

Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance.

Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem.

In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics V-I curves is measured depending on the process parameters temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc. The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied.

The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane.

The studies suggest that Nafion EW is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW for direct methanol fuel cells. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change. Leo, T. Quimicas, Univ. Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications.

In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell DMFC to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either or duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells.

Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established.

The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent opera Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs.

The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content 1 wt. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane.

Electric cars are the vehicles of the future, and there is a proven hybrid system for extending their mileage. Direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs provide safe, lightweight, onboard battery charging that can free car owners from worry about running out of power.

The hybrid system includes a DMFC fuel cell, fuel cell cartridge and electric vehicle batteries. The fuel cell operates almost silently with virtually no exhaust, it is immune to extreme weather and the convenient fuel cartridges featu Direct methanol feed fuel cell with reduced catalyst loading. Improvements to direct feed methanol fuel cells include new protocols for component formation. Catalyst-water repellent material is applied in formation of electrodes and sintered before application of ionomer.

A membrane used in formation of an electrode assembly is specially pre-treated to improve bonding between catalyst and membrane. The improved electrode and the pre-treated membrane are assembled into a membrane electrode assembly. Effect of sorbed methanol , current, and temperature on multicomponent transport in nafion-based direct methanol fuel cells. The CO2 in the cathode exhaust of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC has two sources: methanol diffuses through the membrane electrode assembly MEA to the cathode where it is catalytically oxidized to CO2; additionally, a portion of the CO2 produced at the anode diffuses through the MEA to the cathode.

The potential-dependent CO2 exhaust from the cathode was monitored by online electrochemical mass spectrometry ECMS with air and with H2 at the cathode. The crossover of CO2 initially increases linearly with the Faradaic oxidation of methanol , reaches a temperature-dependent maximum, and then decreases. The crossover maximum occurs when the current dependence of the diffusion coefficients and membrane CO2 solubility dominate over the Faradaic production of CO2.

The plasticizing effect of methanol is corroborated by measurements of the rotational diffusion of TEMPONE 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidone N-oxide spin probe by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A linear inverse relationship between the methanol crossover rate and current density confirms the absence of methanol electro-osmotic drag at concentrations relevant to operating DMFCs.

The purely diffusive transport of methanol is explained in terms of current proton solvation and methanol -water incomplete mixing theories. A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells. This method includes four steps, i.

The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.

Update on status of direct methanol fuel cells. This report reviews the progress in direct methanol fuel cell DMFC technology since and examines the opportunities for this technology in various market sectors. The report is divided into two parts. Part A describes the state-of-the-art of DMFC technology, developments in electrocatalysis relevant to DMFCs, single cell and stack performance, and polymer electrolyte membranes.

Part B discusses the viability of current DMFCs for portable and automotive applications, and examines some niche markets, eg for remote power applications. Market opportunities, technical issues, applications and competing technologies are summarised. The report draws attention to the outstanding technical issues and recommends further development in a number of areas eg inexpensive membranes with lower rates of methanol crossover, membranes with lower rates of water permeation, improved power density and methods to ensure solutions do not freeze in cold climates.

New ETFE-based membrane for direct methanol fuel cell. The films were made proton conductive by means of irradiation treatment followed by sulfonation. These membranes have exceptionally low water uptake and excellent dimensional stability. The new membranes are investigated widely in a laboratory-scale direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The temperature range used in the fuel cell tests was bar o C and the measurement results were compared to those of the Nafion R membrane. Methanol crossover was reported to decrease when the thickness of the membrane increases, so the ETFE-based membrane compares favourably to Nafion R membranes.

Chemical and mechanical stability of the ETFE-based membrane appeared to be promising since it was tested over bar h in the DMFC without any performance loss. A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques.

A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading.

A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru.

Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel Ni and iron Fe. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Cyclic voltammetry CV is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry CA tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction MOR.

The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. However, when operated in an autonomous oscillatory regime, the overall voltage loss decreases due to a self-cleaning mechanism. Another molecule, also widely used as feed in the fuel cell and susceptible to kinetic instabilities, is methanol.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on autonomous voltage oscillations in the direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The purpose of this work was to explore if such instabilities also occur in the DMFC system. Initially, half-cell experiments with a gas diffusion electrode were performed. Then, a DMFC was operated under current control and studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell measurements revealed that the induction period for oscillations depends on the mass transfer conditions, where on stagnant electrode the induction time was shorter than in the case of forced convection.

The DMFC showed also autonomous voltage oscillations above a certain threshold current. The results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy give evidence of a negative differential resistance in the fuel cell, hitherto not described in the literature, which can be related to the appearance of oscillations during galvanostatic methanol electro-oxidation.

These results open the possibility to evaluate the performance of low-temperature fuel cells fed with carbon-containing fuels under oscillatory operating conditions. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells. Passive direct methanol fuel cells for portable electronic devices.

Due to the increasing demand for electricity, clean, renewable energy resources must be developed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to develop a passive direct methanol fuel cell DMFC for portable electronic devices. The DMFCs were evaluated as a power source for mobile phone chargers and media players. The results indicated that the open circuit voltage of the DMFC was between 6.

The fuel cell was tested on a variety of cell phone chargers, media players and PDAs. Alternatively, the local conventional electricity tariff is USD 2 kW h. However, for the large-scale production of electronic devices, the cost of methanol will be significantly lower. Moreover, the electricity tariff is expected to increase due to the constraints of fossil fuel resources and pollution.

As a result, DMFCs will become competitive with conventional power sources. Operation characteristic analysis of a direct methanol fuel cell system using the methanol sensor-less control method. Chen, C. The application of methanol sensor-less control in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC system eliminates most of the problems encountered when using a methanol sensor and is one of the major solutions currently used in commercial DMFCs.

Notably, the influence of the dispersion of the methanol injected on the behavior of the system is investigated systematically. In addition, the mechanism of the methanol sensor-less control is investigated by varying factors such as the timing of the injection of methanol , the cathode flow rate, and the anode inlet temperature.

These results not only provide insight into the mechanism of methanol sensor-less control but can also aid in the improvement and application of DMFC systems in portable and low-power transportation. KGaA, Weinheim. A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell.

The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst. As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion.

Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium.

However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the. Novel crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly ether ether ketone for direct methanol fuel cells. Performance evaluation of direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications.

Rashidi, R. This study examines the feasibility of powering a range of portable devices with a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC. The analysis includes a comparison between a Li-ion battery and DMFC to supply the power for a laptop, camcorder and a cell phone. A parametric study of the systems for an operational period of 4 years is performed.

However, by the end of 4 years of operational time, the DMFC system would cost less. The weight and cost comparisons show that the fuel cell system occupies less space than the battery to store a higher amount of energy. The weight of both systems is almost identical. Development of an electrode for direct methanol fuel cell.

The platinum and ruthenium nano-particles were in a ratio of 3. One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is the high cost of the catalyst. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes.

Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode. Fletcher, James H. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge.

Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications.

PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing.

UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements.

Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC , methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber.

This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate.

This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. This cathode structure is intended particularly to afford better cell performance at a low airflow rate. The aforementioned layers are then dried and hot-pressed together.

The need for an improved cathode structure arises for the following reasons: In the design and operation of a fuel-cell power system, the airflow rate is a critical parameter that determines the overall efficiency, cell voltage, and power density.

It is desirable to operate at a low airflow rate in order to obtain thermal and water balance and to minimize the size and mass of the system. Methanol crossover increases the required airflow rate. Hence, one way to reduce the required airflow rate is to reduce the effect of methanol crossover. Improvement of the cathode structure - in particular, addition of hydrophobic particles to the cathode - has been.

Direct observation of deformation of nafion surfaces induced by methanol treatment by using atomic force microscopy. We successfully characterized the effect of methanol treatment on the nanoscopic structures of a nafion film, which is widely used in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs. Atomic force microscopy AFM was used to repetitively image a particular region of a nafion sample before and after methanol solutions were dropped onto the nafion film and dried in air.

The number of nanopores increased when the sample was treated twice or thrice. By repetitive AFM imaging of a particular region of the same sample, we found that the shapes of the nanopores were deformed by the repeated methanol treatment, although the size of the nanopores had not significantly changed. The creation of the nanopores was affected by the concentration of methanol. Our results directly visualized the effects of methanol treatment on the surface structures of a nafion film at nanoscale levels for the first time.

A simple simulation of chemical species movement is presented. The species traverse a Nafion membrane in a fuel cell. Three cells are examined: direct methanol , direct ethanol, and direct glucose. The species are tracked using excess proton concentration, electric field strength, and voltage.

The Matlab computer code is provided. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation Adding Cu to a Pt surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts Nano-engineered catalysts, and a method of fabricating them, have been developed in a continuing effort to improve the performances of direct methanol fuel cells as candidate power sources to supplant primary and secondary batteries in a variety of portable electronic products.

In order to realize the potential for high energy densities as much as 1. High performance can be achieved when catalyst particles and electrode structures have the necessary small feature sizes typically of the order of nanometers , large surface areas, optimal metal compositions, high porosity, and hydrophobicity. Unlike some prior methods of making fine metal catalysts, this method does not involve processing at elevated temperature; all processing can be done at room temperature.

In addition, this method involves fewer steps and is more amenable to scaling up for mass production. Alumina nanotemplates are porous alumina membranes that have been fabricated, variously, by anodizing either pure aluminum or aluminum that has been deposited on silicon by electronbeam evaporation. The diameters of the pores 7 to nm , areal densities of pores as much as 7 x 10 exp 10 sq cm , and lengths of pores up to about nm can be tailored by selection of fabrication conditions.

The dimensions of the pores, together with the electrodeposition conditions. Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance.

It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance. Pt-based binary or ternary catalysts containing Rh for use as anodes in direct methanol fuel cells DMFC were synthesized by borohydride reduction method combined with freeze-drying.

X-ray diffraction XRD patterns indicated that the catalysts were well alloyed and the average size of alloy catalysts was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy TEM. Manufacturing technologies for direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs. Fuel cell research is focussing on increasing power density and lifetime and reducing costs of the whole fuel cell system. In order to reach these aims, it is necessary to develop appropriately designed components outgoing from high quality materials, a suitable manufacturing process and a well balanced system.

To make use of the advantages that can be obtained by developing production technology, we are mainly improving the coating and assembling techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cells DMFCs. Coating is used for making fuel cell electrodes as well as highly conductive contacts. Assembling is used to join larger components like membrane electrode assemblies MEAs and bipolar units consisting of flow fields and the separator plate, as well as entire stacks.

On the one hand a reproducible manufacturing process is required to study fine differences in fuel cell performance affected by new materials or new designs. On the other hand a change in each parameter of the manufacturing process itself can change product properties and therefore affect fuel cell performance.

As a result, gas diffusion electrodes GDEs are now produced automatically in square-meter batches, the hot-pressing of MEAs is a fully automated process and by pre-assembling the number of parts that have to be assembled in a stack was reduced by a factor of These achievements make DMFC manufacturing more reproducible and less error-prone. All these and further developments of manufacturing technology are necessary to make DMFCs ready for the market.

Yildirim, M. All composite membranes have indeed. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization.

Wang, C. New polymeric electrolyte membranes based on proton donor proton acceptor properties for direct methanol fuel cells. In order to reduce the high methanol permeability of membranes in a direct methanol fuel cell application new and better materials are still required.

Existing polymer electrolyte membranes PEMs applied for hydrogen fuel cells are frequently not suitable for direct methanol fuel cells due to the high methanol permeability. Therefore, new materials are required and in order to avoid laborious fuel cell experiments with a so-called. Enhancing the methanol tolerance of platinum nanoparticles for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells through a geometric design. Mastery over the structure of nanoparticles might be an effective way to enhance their performance for a given application.

Herein we demonstrate the design of cage-bell nanostructures to enhance the methanol tolerance of platinum Pt nanoparticles while remaining their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell-shell nanoparticles with Pt and silver Ag residing respectively in the core and inner shell regions, which are then agitated with saturated sodium chloride NaCl solution to eliminate the Ag component from the inner shell region, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a metal shell with nano-channels, which exhibit superior methanol -tolerant property in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction due to the different diffusion behaviour of methanol and oxygen in the porous metal shell of cage-bell structured nanoparticles.

In particular, the use of remarkably inexpensive chemical agent NaCl to promote the formation of cage-bell structured particles containing a wide spectrum of metal shells highlights its engineering merit to produce highly selective electrocatalysts on a large scale for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells.

Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study. In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs , Pt modified tungsten carbide WC materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity.

In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs.

The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association.

The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data.

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