Calk: A projection on the heels of a horseshoe, similar to a cleat. Call Race Call : Running position of horses in a race at various points. Card: Another term for a program of racing. For example, a person may refer to there being twelve races on the card, which simply means twelve races will be staged on that particular day. Cart: Another term for sulky, or jog cart. Catch Driver: A driver, which does not train his or her own horses, and is engaged by other trainers to drive their horses.
Chart: A statistical "picture" of a race from which past performances are compiled , that shows the position and margin of each horse at designated points of call. Chestnut: Yellow-red, red-yellow to golden yellow horse with red main and tail.
Claiming Box: A box in which claims are deposited before the race. Claiming Race: A race in which each horse entered is eligible to be purchased at a set price. Claims must be made before the race and only by licensed owners or their agents who are eligible to claim horses at said track.. Claiming: The process by which a licensed person may purchase a horse entered in a designated race for a predetermined price.
When a horse has been claimed, its new owner assumes title after the starting gate opens although the former owner is entitled to all purse money earned in that race. Class: The level of competition that a horse has been facing. Generally, the higher class level the bigger the purse and the stronger the level of competition. Classic: A race of traditional importance.
Closer: A horse that runs best in the latter part of the race, coming from off the pace. Clubhouse Turn: Generally, the turn on a racing oval that is closest to the clubhouse facility; usually the first turn after the finish line. Coasting: A horse, which is going easily or traveling without pressure in a race, usually in front. See individual entries for definitions. Colt: An ungelded entire male horse four-years-old or younger.
Company: Class of horses in a race. Condition Book S : A series of booklets issued by a racing secretary, which set forth conditions of races to be run at a particular racetrack. Condition: The fitness level of a horse. For example, it may be described as peak racing condition or poor condition.
Also the type of race horsemen can place their horses. Conditioned Race: A race where eligibility is based on age, gender, money won, or races won. Connections: Persons identified with a horse, such as owner, trainer, or driver, and stable employees.
Cooling Out: Restoring a horse to normal temperature, usually by walking. Cover: Describes when a horse is racing with a horse in front of him, especially on the outside. Live cover occurs when a horse has an advancing horse in front of him, dull cover occurs when the cover horse does not advance. Crossfiring: A Standardbred gait flaw that occurs when one hoof strikes the hoof s whip, or leg on the opposite corner. Cuppy Track : A dry and loose racing surface that breaks away under a horse's hooves.
Cushion: Top portion of a racetrack. The mane, tail and lower portions of the legs are always black unless white markings are present. Dark Day: A day on which no racing is conducted at a particular racetrack. Dead Heat: A situation in which the judges cannot separate two or more horses when judging the outcome of a race.
These horses are declared as having crossed the finish line at the exact same time. Dead Track: Racing surface lacking resiliency. Deep Stretch: A position very close to the finish line in race. Dh: Abbreviation for dead heat. Disqualification: Change in order of finish by officials for an infraction of the rules.
Distanced: A horse that is out of touch with the rest of the field at the end of the race. This is often referred to as finished distanced. Double: If a driver or trainer records two winners on a card, they are said to have recorded a winning double.
Dq: An abbreviation for disqualified. Driver: A person driving a harness horse in a race. Dropdown: A horse facing a lower class of rivals than he had been running against. Eligible: Qualified to start in a race, according to conditions. Entry Fee: The cost of nominating, entering or starting a horse in a stakes race.
Entry: Two or more horses owned by the same stable or in some cases trained by the same trainer and thus running as a single betting unit. Rules on entries vary from state to state. Equipment: Whip, blinkers, etc. Gear carried by a horse in a race. Farrier: Horseshoer, blacksmith. Also called a "platen". Fast Track: Track condition with footing at its best. Dry and even. Field: The final list of horses, selected by the handicapper that will contest the race.
First-Over: The first horse to make a move on the leader in a race, moving up on the outside. Forced Wide: A horse that is forced to move wide on the track further away from the inside running rail , because of the actions of another runner.
Form: How a horse has been racing. Generally, good form is defined as close up finishes in recent starts - bad form is poor finishes in recent starts. Fractional Time: Intermediate times recorded in a race, as at the quarter, half, three-quarters, etc. The "quarter time," for example, refers to the time after the first quarter-mile, not the first 25 percent of the race. Free Legged: A pacer, which races without wearing hopples which helps maintain it's gait is known as a free-legged pacer.
Fresh Freshened : A rested horse. Front-Runner: A horse whose running style is to attempt to get on or near the lead at the start of the race and to continue there as long as possible. Frozen Track : A condition of a racetrack where any moisture present is frozen. Gait: Harness horses are divided into two distinct groups, pacers or trotters, depending on their gait when racing.
The gait is the manner in which a horse moves its legs when running. The pacer is a horse with a lateral gait, whereas a trotter has a diagonal gait. Game: A horse that's brave, determined, or hard working. Gate Speed: How quickly a horse is able to leave from the starting gate. Gate: The starting mechanism. Gear: The equipment used by trotters and pacers. Good Track: Condition of the racetrack between fast and slow.
Graduate: Winning at a class and moving up. Gray: A horse color where the majority of the coat is a mixture of black and white hairs. The mane, tail and legs may be either black or gray unless white markings are present. Starting with foals of , the color classifications gray and roan were combined as "roan or gray. Groom: A person who cares for a horse in the stables. Half: Half of a mile. Halter: Like a bridle, but lacking a bit.
Used in handling horses around the stable. Hand: Four inches. A horse's height is measured in hands and inches from the top of the shoulder withers to the ground, e. Harness: The gear, which is used to attach the sulky to a horse, to carry the hopples and to enable the driver to steer the horse. Head Of The Stretch: Beginning of the straight run to the finish line. Head: A margin between horses.
One horse leading another, by the length of its head. Heat: 1 A race in which more then one running is required to decide the winner. Hobbles: The straps, which connect the front and rear legs on the same side of a horse. Most pacers wear hobbles to help balance their stride and maintain a pacing gait.
The length of hobbles is adjustable and a trainer registers the length that best suits his or her horse. There are also trotting hobbles that work through a pulley system to help trotters maintain their gait. Home Stretch: The straight length of the track, nearest the spectators, heading toward the finish line.
It is called this because it is the final part of the track a horse travels down on its way 'home' or the finish line. Horse: A male horse aged 5 years and over. Infield: Area encompassed by the inner rail of the racetrack. Jog: Slow, easy gait. Judge: The person who decides the official placings and margins for each race or trial. They are also responsible for deciding who the placegetters are in the event of a photo finish or developed print.
Juvenile: Two-year old horse. Lame: The term used to describe a horse which is limping or has difficulty walking properly. Lasix: A medication for the treatment of bleeding. Leader: The horse, which is out in front or leading during a race. This term may also be applied to a horse that most commonly wins races when in a leading position.
Length: A measurement approximating the length of a horse, used to denote distance between horses in a race: Lines: Harness racing uses this term instead of reins, but it means the same thing. Loose Line: A horse on a loose line is one, which is allowed to run freely, without any pressure from the driver to speed up or slow down. Maiden Race: A race for horses, which have never won a race. Maiden: A horse that has not won a race. Also applied to a non-winning driver. Match Race: A race between just two horses.
Mudder: A horse, which races well on an off track. Neck: Unit of measurement. About the length of a horse's neck; a little less than a quarter of a length. Non-Starter: the starter or Stewards may declare a horse, which has failed to come within a reasonable distance of the mobile barrier, as a non-starter of the race. All bets placed on a horse which is later declared as a non-starter, are refunded. Nose: Smallest advantage a horse can win by.
Called a short head in Britain. Objection: Claim of foul lodged by a driver. Off Track: An off track refers to a wet racing surface. Official: the stewards have confirmed final results of a race. Also used to denote a racing official. On The Board: Finishing among the first four. On The Pace: A horse, which is keeping up with the runner, which is determining the speed of the race.
It means it's right up there with a good chance of winning. On The Pylons: A horse racing in a position next to the hub rail or pylons. Otb: Abbreviation for off-track betting. Out Of Position: A horse that is not in its designated position at the start of a mobile event is deemed to have been out of position at the start. Overall Time: This is the time taken to complete the distance of the race. Overnight Race: A race in which entries close a specific number of hours before running such as 48 hours , as opposed to a stakes race for which nominations close weeks and sometimes months in advance.
Overnight: A sheet published by the racing secretary's office listing the entries for an upcoming racing card. The pace of a race can affect how well certain horses are able to compete. For example, if a pacesetter is able to set a slow pace, horses that are far back early will have a particularly difficult time making up ground once the pace picks up in the latter stages of the race.
Conversely, if the early pace is torrid, it will be harder for pacesetters to withstand the late challenges of closers who benefit from a relatively slow second half. Pacesetter: The horse that is running in front on the lead. Pacing: This Standardbred gait features legs on the same side moving forward and backward at the same time. Pacers are sometimes called amblers or sidewheelers. Paddock Judge: Official in charge of the paddock. Paddock: Area where the horses are saddled and paraded before post time.
Parked Out: This term describes a horse that is racing on the outside, normally for an extended period of time. Horses lose ground while racing on the outside and depending on the circumstances the amount of time spent racing on the outside, the pace, etc can be adversely affected by it. These races are designed for horses aged four years old and older. There are different types of handicap racing: Handicaps, Special Handicaps and Discretionary Handicaps.
August 1 corresponds with the start of the new racing season. Junior Driver - a driver who is under the age of 25 that has driven less than winners, from a minimum of six seasons of race driving regardless of the number of winners driven. Also includes drivers aged 25 — 29 years who have driven less than winners from a maximum of six seasons of race driving.
On most race tracks around New Zealand markers have replaced the running or hub rail. No matter the race distance each race will have a Mile Rate declared by the judge. A Mobile Start ensures all runners are moving together at speed before the race begins.
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At longer races with rather even competitors running positions like second or third in the outer track have good chances, especially if the inner track horses get trapped behind a weakening front horse. Though all kind of trot betting in terms of money, is the most popular type of betting in Sweden, attendances at the races don't correspond to this. Even when "the V75 circuit comes to town" attendance rarely exceeds people.
Larger crowds only gather at the biggest races. Trot racing as a sport is often considered dull, but when combined with betting it can rapidly get interesting. The huge popularity of trot betting in Sweden "spills over" to the neighboring Norway 11 racing tracks , Finland 43 and Denmark 9. In Italy "trotto" is as popular as "galoppo". Most races are run on tracks constructed solely for harness racing some with banked turns , but a few tracks conduct both harness and Thoroughbred flat racing.
North American harness horses earn a "mark" a record , which is their fastest winning time at that distance. Harness races involve a good deal of strategy. Though the vast majority of races are one mile, races are contested on several different size tracks. Certain horses are better on the smaller tracks and others are better on the 1 mile tracks because there are fewer turns.
Also, on the shorter tracks early speed is important, while the longer stretch run of a mile track favors horses with late speed for come-from-behind wins. Usually, several drivers will contend for the lead away from the gate. They then try to avoid getting "boxed in" as the horses form into two lines — one on the rail and the other outside — in the second quarter-mile. They may decide to go to the front; to race on the front on the outside "first over", a difficult position ; or to race with "cover" on the outside.
On the rail behind the leader is a choice spot, known as the "pocket", and a horse in that position is said to have a "garden trip". Third on the rail is an undesirable spot, known on small tracks as the "death hole". As the race nears the three-quarter mile mark, the drivers implement their tactics for advancing their positions — going to the lead early; circling the field; moving up an open rail; advancing behind a horse expected to tire and so on.
Harness horses accelerate during the final quarter-mile of a race. The finish of a harness race is exciting, and often extremely close. The judges have a photo-finish camera to help them determine the order of finish if needed. Until the s harness tracks featured a rail on the inside, much like the one at Thoroughbred tracks.
This "hub rail" was replaced with a row of short pylons usually of a flexible material , which mark the inside boundary of the course. This change was mainly for safety reasons; it allows a driver to pull off to the inside of the course if necessary, such as when their horse breaks stride but they cannot move to the outside due to being boxed in, thus avoiding injury to himself, his horse, and other competitors.
This change allowed another innovation, "open-stretch racing". As of open-lane racing is not universal. An additional lane is available to the inside of where the rail would have been. If the race leader is positioned on the rail at the top of the homestretch, that leader is required by rule to maintain that line or move further out , while horses behind the leader can move into the open lane with room to pass the leader if possible.
This solves a common problem, in which trailing horses are "boxed in" behind the leader, with another horse outside. It makes races more wide-open, with potentially higher payoffs — and more attractive to bettors. Australian racing differs from North American racing in that metric distances are used, generally above the equivalent of one mile and horses are classed by how many wins they have.
Another large difference is that in Australian racing the leader does not have to hand up the lead to any horse that challenges, often leaving a horse parked outside the leader in the " death seat " or simply "the death" known as "facing the breeze" in New Zealand , as this horse covers more ground than the leader.
Australian racing generally has more horses in each race; a field of 12 or 13 is not uncommon. This generally means that with the smaller tracks a "three wide train" starts as the field gets the bell at signal their final lap. New Zealand racing is quite similar to that of Australia.
Many horses are able to easily "cross the Tasman " and compete as well on either side of the sea that separates Australia and New Zealand. In both New Zealand and Australia the same system of an 'open lane' operates, although in Australia it is called a 'sprint lane' and in New Zealand a 'passing lane'. These lanes do not operate on all tracks and have been a point of argument between many industry participants. Modern Starting gates used in Australia now include Auto start.
This innovation allows the starter to concentrate on the actual horse's positioning during the "score up". The modern Starting gates use only a driver for steering the vehicle and a starter in the rear to observe the race and call a false start if required. The start speed, acceleration, score up distance, and gate closing are controlled via a computer system, which takes control of the vehicle and provides a printout at the end of the score up.
In Australia and New Zealand, harness racing is conducted both on smaller rural tracks and at major city venues, creating the opportunity for even the hobby-trainer to make it into the big-time if they have an exceptional horse.
The breeding and racing of standardbred horses is both a dedicated pastime and profession for participants in the industry. The premier events can now have prizemoney exceeding AUD 1 million and recent upgrades to some venues has created world-class facilities for harness racing. Betting revenues have come under pressure from both thoroughbred racing and from expanding opportunities in greyhound racing - however 'the trots' still has a dedicated following and a rich history to enjoy.
Friday night is generally regarded as the premier trotting night although key events will enjoy broader weekend billing. Important annual races include the Hambletonian for 3-year-old trotters, the Little Brown Jug for 3-year-old pacers, and the Breeders Crown series of twelve races covering each of the traditional categories of age, gait and sex.
The harness racing industry conducts an annual Grand Circuit , which includes many of the most prestigious races for both pacers and trotters. Founded in and first conducted in at four tracks, the Grand Circuit now visits 17 tracks as of the upcoming season. The marquee event of Australasian racing is the Inter Dominion Series, which includes a pacing series and a trotting series.
The series is held yearly and rotated around the Australian State Controlling Bodies and once every four years the Inter Dominion Championships are held in New Zealand. For the younger horses there are series that stem from yearling sales including the Australian Pacing Gold and an Australasian Breeders Crown.
The leading harness racing nations in Europe are France, Italy and Sweden, and the sport is fairly popular in most northern European countries. Practically all races in Europe are trotting races. A yearly Grand Circuit tour for the top trotters includes a number of prestigious European races. All notable racing nations also host their own highly regarded premier events for young horses. Saddled events are also commonplace in France and though less frequent, they are not considered exceptional in other European trotting nations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Play media. Further information: Harness racing in Sweden. Further information: Harness racing in Finland. Further information: Harness racing in Australia. Further information: Harness racing in New Zealand. Standardbred Canada. Retrieved The Gaited Horse Magazine.
Archived from the original on United States Trotting Association. The International Museum of The Horse. AVA Integrity. Government of Australia. January 16, Equestrian activities. Main articles: Equestrianism Equitation. Dressage Eventing Show jumping. Categories : Harness racing Horse racing. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional references Articles containing French-language text All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from June All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles containing video clips.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Also includes drivers aged 25 — 29 years who have driven less than winners from a maximum of six seasons of race driving. On most race tracks around New Zealand markers have replaced the running or hub rail.
No matter the race distance each race will have a Mile Rate declared by the judge. A Mobile Start ensures all runners are moving together at speed before the race begins. The opposing stride sees the off side front and rear legs moving back and forth at the same time. The Starter will only start a race when all horses are standing well in a line. Stipendiary Stewards act as prosecutors in race day enquiries. So the diagonal legs move together.
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