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Bernard W. Dempsey, S. In a centralized economy, currency is issued by a central bank at a rate that is supposed to match the growth of the amount of goods that are exchanged so that these goods can be traded with stable prices. The monetary base is controlled by a central bank.

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Betting arena atlantica analyzer engineer

The causal condition and main concern of the patients was that they were overpowered by hopelessness. Patients blamed policy, the administrative system, and doctors for their unfortunate life circumstances. This was accompanied by avoidance of health care, denial of their own health situations, and self-treatment.

Only a deadly threat was a sufficient motivator for some patients to seek medical help. This category reflected the passive position of many patients in this situation, including their feelings of inability to change anything in their lives, to obtain employment.

Plume induced base heating environments were measured during the flight of the NASA Constellation Ares I-X developmental launch vehicle, successfully flown on October 28, The Ares IX first stage is a four segment Space Shuttle derived booster with base consisting of a flared aft skirt, deceleration and tumble motors, and a thermal curtain surrounding the first stage 7.

Developmental Flight Instrumentation DFI consisted of radiometers, calorimeters, pressure transducers and gas temperature probes installed on the aft skirt and nozzle to measure the base environments. In addition, thermocouples were also installed between the layers of the flexible thermal curtain to provide insight into the curtain response to the base environments and to assist in understanding curtain failure during reentry.

These predictions were compared to the DFI data and results from the flight videography. Radiation predictions agreed with the flight measured data early in flight but gauge failures prevented high altitude comparisons. The convective environment comparisons demonstrated the need to improve the prediction methodology; particularly for low altitude, local plume recirculation. The convective comparisons showed relatively good agreement at altitudes greater than 50, feet.

This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system.

NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster SRB , which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB.

The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. SaintCyr, William W. John C. Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine.

Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine SSME health monitoring, this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC.

Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. Very recently, ground -breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30, m , ft.

Although detailed near field 0 to 3 cm information regarding the exhaust plume of a two kilowatt arc jet is available refs. Furthermore real information about the plasma at distances between 3 to 6 m is of critical importance to high technology satellite companies in understanding the effect of arc jet plume exhausts on space based power systems.

It is therefore of utmost importance that one understands the exact nature of the interaction between the arc jet plume, the spacecraft power system and the surrounding electrical plasma environment. A good first step in understanding the nature of the interactions lies in making the needed plume parameter measurements in the far field. All diagnostic measurements are performed inside a large vacuum system 12 m diameter by 18 m high with a full scale arc jet and solar array panel in the required flight configuration geometry.

Thus, necessary information regarding the plume plasma parameters in the far field is obtained. Measurements of the floating potential, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, number density, density distribution, debye length, and plasma frequency are obtained at various locations about the array at vertical distances from the arc jet nozzle: 2. Plasma diagnostic parameters are measured for both the floating and grounded configurations of the arc jet anode and array.

Spectroscopic optical measurements are then acquired in close proximity to the nozzle, and contamination measurements are made in the vicinity of the array utilizing a mass spectrometer and two Quartz Crystal Microbalances QCM's. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator GTA. This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator GTA.

Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement.

The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data.

The measurements taken during the Ares I-X test flight provided a unique opportunity to assess the accuracy of the models and methods used to analyze the loads and accelerations present in the planned Ares I vehicle. During the rollout of the integrated vehicle from the Vehicle Assembly Building VAB to the launch pad, the vehicle and its supporting structure are subjected to wind loads and the vibrations produced by the crawler-transporter CT that is carrying it.

While the loads induced on the vehicle during this period are generally low relative to those experienced in flight, the rollout is a period of operation of primary interest to those designing both the ground support equipment and the interfaces between the launch vehicle and its supporting structure.

In this paper, the methods used for reconstructing the loads during the rollout phase are described. The results generated are compared to measured values, leading to insight into the accuracy of the Ares I assessment techniques. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons.

Ares I-X is the first step in. Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, data and lessons obtained from Ares I-X can be applied to any launch vehicle. This presentation will discuss the mission background and future impacts of the flight. The Ares I-X development flight test was conceived in to acquire early engineering, operations, and environment data during liftoff, ascent, and first stage recovery. Engineers are using the test flight data to improve the Ares I design before its critical design review the final review before manufacturing of the flight vehicle begins.

The Ares I-X flight test vehicle incorporated a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a similar length and mass to the operational vehicle. It was powered by a four-segment SRB from the Space Shuttle inventory, and was modified to include a fifth, spacer segment that made the booster approximately the same size as the five-segment SRB. The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program.

The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive.

The mission team itself comprised only individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions.

In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork.

At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle. Basing exploration launch vehicle designs on Ares I-X information puts NASA one step closer to full-up "test as you fly," a best practice in vehicle design.

Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, the Ares I-X data and experience in vehicle design and operations can be applied to any launch vehicle. This paper presents the mission background as well as results and lessons learned from the flight. The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle Figure This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration.

The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles. Grounds and causes of lack of demand for early diagnostic measures author's transl ]. The quite obvious neglect of prophylactic measures cannot be attributed to a single cause only. Ground are rather to be found both in the psychic disposition and in the social stratum of the population as well as in the nature of the prophylaxis available.

A synopsis leads to the conclusion that effective prevention requires not only changing the attitude of the patient or the population but also that of the supplier of the health promoting services. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes.

Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares- I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom 6-DOF digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 POST2 simulation framework.

The Ares- I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center KSC , and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer.

The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory. One of the primary test flight objectives was to evaluate the environment during First Stage separation to better understand the conditions that the J-2X second stage engine will experience at ignition [1].

A secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the stage separation motors. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle was successfully launched on October 29, , achieving most of its primary and secondary test objectives. Ground based video camera recordings of the separation event appeared to show recontact of the First Stage and the Upper Stage Simulator followed by an unconventional tumbling of the Upper Stage Simulator. Closer inspection of the videos and flight test data showed that recontact did not occur.

This paper describes the efforts to reconstruct the vehicle dynamics and loads through the staging event by means of a time integrated simulation developed in TREETOPS, a multi-body dynamics software tool developed at NASA [2]. The simulation was built around vehicle mass and geometry properties at the time of staging and thrust profiles for the first stage solid rocket motor as well as for the booster deceleration motors and booster tumble motors.

Aerodynamic forces were determined by models created from a combination of wind tunnel testing and CFD. The initial conditions such as position, velocity, and attitude were obtained from the Best Estimated Trajectory BET , which is compiled from multiple ground based and vehicle mounted instruments.

Dynamic loads were calculated by subtracting the inertial forces from the applied forces. The simulation results were compared to the Best Estimated Trajectory, accelerometer flight data, and to ground based video. Buehrle, Ralph D. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system.

Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model FEM used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM.

Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented.

Huebner, Lawrence D. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully. The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office APO established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models.

The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I.

The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks. This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results. Self diagnostic accelerometer ground testing on a C aircraft engine.

The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns IFSD which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response.

The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems.

The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition.

In an effort toward demonstrating the SDA's flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose.

The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C aircraft engine. Ignition Overpressure IOP is an unsteady fluid flow and acoustic phenomena caused by the rapid expansion of gas from the rocket nozzle within a ducted launching space resulting in an initially higher amplitude pressure wave.

This wave is potentially dangerous to the structural integrity of the vehicle. An in-depth look at the IOP environments resulting from the Ares I-X Solid Rocket Booster configuration showed high correlation between the pre-flight predictions and post-flight analysis results. The flight data allowed subsequent verification and validation of Ares I-X unsteady fluid ducted launcher predictions, computational fluid dynamic models, and strong correlation with historical Shuttle data.

Ares IX will use a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Since a test of the free-free vehicle is not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations in the nominal integration flow were defined to calibrate the FEM.

A traceability study by Aerospace Corporation was used to identify the critical modes for the tested configurations. The requirements flow down, pre-test analysis, constraints and overall test planning are described. Ares I is a two stage to orbit launch vehicle that provides crew access to low Earth orbit for NASA's future manned exploration missions. The Ares I first stage consists of a Shuttle solid rocket motor SRM modified to include an additional propellant segment and a liquid propellant upper stage with an Apollo J2X engine modified to increase its thrust capability.

The modified propulsion systems were not available for the first test flight, thus the test had to be conducted with an existing Shuttle 4 segment reusable solid rocket motor RSRM and an inert Upper Stage. The test flight's primary objective was to demonstrate controllability of an Ares I vehicle during first stage boost and the ability to perform a successful separation.

In order to demonstrate controllability, the Ares I-X ascent control algorithms had to maintain stable flight throughout a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. The goal of the test flight reference trajectory development was to design a boost trajectory using the existing RSRM that results in a flight environment equivalent to Ares I.

A trajectory similarity metric was defined as the integrated difference between the Ares I and Ares I-X Mach versus dynamic pressure relationships. Optimization analyses were performed that minimized the metric by adjusting the inert upper stage weight and the ascent steering profile.

The sensitivity of the optimal upper stage weight and steering profile to launch month was also investigated. A response surface approach was used to verify the optimization results. The paper will discuss the flight. The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle.

Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

The launch was successful and the flight test met all of its primary and secondary objectives. This paper discusses the stage separation and reentry trajectory analysis that was performed in support of the Ares I-X test flight. Pre-flight analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stage recontact during separation, to evaluate the first stage flight dynamics during reentry, and to define the range safety impact ellipses of both stages. The results of these pre-flight analyses were compared with available flight data.

On-board video taken during flight showed that the flight test vehicle successfully separated without any recontact. Reconstructed trajectory data also showed that first stage flight dynamics were well characterized by pre-flight Monte Carlo results. In addition, comparisons with flight data indicated that the complex interference aerodynamic models employed in the reentry simulation were effective in capturing the flight dynamics during separation.

Finally, the splash-down locations of both stages were well within predicted impact ellipses. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws.

The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual , Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions including flight software failures , characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints.

These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight.

A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products.

This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

Horta, Lucas G. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of non-conventional boundary conditions during component testing.

Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions.

Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis.

Comparisons of pretest predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of nonconventional boundary conditions during component testing.

Comparisons of pre-test predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented. Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations.

Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another.

Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential.

An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed. Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment. It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses.

Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm ERA. The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system.

Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals.

A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction. Introduction: Modern changes in the health care system of Ukraine are focused on financial support in providing medical and diagnostic care to the population and are based on deep and consistent structural and functional transformations.

They are aimed at providing adequate quality care, which is the main target function and a principal criterion for operation of health care system. The urgency of this problem is increasing in the context of reforming the health care system and global changes in the governmental financial guarantees for the provision of medical services to the population.

The aim of the work is to provide theoretical grounds for a structural and functional model of quality assurance of radiation diagnostics at all levels of medical care given to the population under the current health care reform in Ukraine. Materials and methods: The object of the study is organizing the operation of the radiation diagnostic service; the information is based on the actual data on the characteristics of radiation diagnosis at different levels of medical care provision.

Methods of systematic approach, system analysis and structural and functional analysis of the operating system of radiation diagnostics are used. Review: The basis of the quality assurance model is the cyclical process, which includes the stages of the problem identifition, planning of its solution, organization of the system for implementation of decisions, monitoring the quality management process of the radiation diagnostics , and factors influencing the quality of the radiation diagnostics service.

These factors include the quality of the structure, process, results, organization of management and control of current processes and the results of radiation diagnostics management. Conclusions: The advantages of the proposed model for ensuring the quality of the radiation diagnostics service are its systemacy and complexity, elimination of identified defects and deficiencies, and achievement of.

Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team IPT mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget. In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware.

The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations. The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures.

This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle.

This report focuses on the first modal test that was performed on the top section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 5, which consisted of the spacecraft adapter, service module, crew module and launch abort system simulators.

This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 5 modal test. This report focuses on the second modal test that was performed on the middle section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 1, which consisted of the subassembly from the 5th segment simulator through the interstage. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 1 modal test.

Getting expert systems off the ground : Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware. As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software.

Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited. While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications.

In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere. Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles.

This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies ionospheric and thermal can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites IR sensors and ionospheric probes and from ground GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity. We monitored the majority of transient events Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc.

Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant FDNPP and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network.

We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March. Ares I-X is scheduled for a flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design.

Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance.

The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives.

Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I - as well as what the test will not provide - is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Figure 1 , will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office MMO are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April launch.

As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office MMO are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a launch. Ground terminal expert GTEX. A research effort was undertaken to investigate how expert system technology could be applied to a satellite communications system. The focus of the expert system is the satellite earth station. With the increasing demand for satellite earth stations, maintenance is becoming a vital issue.

Vendors of such systems will be looking for cost effective means of maintaining such systems. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosis of faults occurring with the digital earth station. The test flight is scheduled for April , relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review.

Because of the short time frame relative to new launch vehicle development before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design.

This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X , like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test.

The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk.

The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions.

Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for. Positive lessons learned from Ares I-X were that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices are effective in streamlining development activities.

The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value activities. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by the success of Ares I-X. The key benefits. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars.

Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X , is scheduled to be launched in April As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed.

The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations.

A statistical energy analysis SEA model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models.

Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I. A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper.

The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles.

The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

The first test was performed on the foot 53,pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the foot , pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the foot 1,,pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform.

Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

During ARES I-X pre-flight modeling and analysis, six 6 independent time domain simulation tools were developed and cross validated. Each tool represents an independent implementation of a common set of models and parameters in a different simulation framework and architecture. Post flight data and reconstructed models provide the means to validate a subset of the simulations against actual flight data and to assess the accuracy of pre-flight dispersion analysis. Post flight data consists of telemetered Operational Flight Instrumentation OFI data primarily focused on flight computer outputs and sensor measurements as well as Best Estimated Trajectory BET data that estimates vehicle state information from all available measurement sources.

While pre-flight models were found to provide a reasonable prediction of the vehicle flight, reconstructed models were generated to better represent and simulate the ARES I-X flight. Post flight reconstructed models include: SRB propulsion model, thrust vector bias models, mass properties, base aerodynamics, and Meteorological Estimated Trajectory wind and atmospheric data. The result of the effort is a set of independently developed, high fidelity, time-domain simulation tools that have been cross validated and validated against flight data.

This paper presents the process and results of high fidelity aerospace modeling, simulation, analysis and tool validation in the time domain. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models.

The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared. The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight.

During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data. For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video.

The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components.

The vehicle was feet tall and weighed approximately 1,, pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4. The vehicle demonstrated staging at , feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware.

These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team.

Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that. This test was critical in providing insight into areas were significant design challenges existed. This paper discusses the objectives of the mission and how they were satisfied.

It discusses the overall results of the flight test and look at the data retrieved from the flight. Significant insight was gained in the areas of thrust oscillation, vibro-acoustics, predicting jet interactions and slag ejection from solid rocket systems with submerged nozzles. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures.

Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes GTP. Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs.

Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium. At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium , and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions.

The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0. Cleanex was used on the liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products.

Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank Tank The Am and Cm and associated lanthanide fission products are currently in nitric acid solution. Research was performed to determine if the Tank Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc.

Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. The food packages are as follows: 1 Food Package I—Infants birth ID VHK The use of curium neutrons to verify plutonium in spent fuel and reprocessing wastes.

For safeguards verification of spent fuel, leached hulls, and reprocessing wastes, it is necessary to determine the plutonium content in these items. Neutron multiplicity counting of the singles, doubles, and triples neutrons has been evaluated for measuring Pu, Cm, and Cf. We have proposed a method to establish the plutonium to curium ratio using the hybrid k-edge densitometer x-ray fluorescence instrument plus a neutron coincidence counter for the reprocessing dissolver solution.

This report presents the concepts, experimental results, and error estimates for typical spent fuel applications. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials. Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase.

The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content. The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls. In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards.

The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay NDA technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium.

The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium , so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation.

Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system. Cm III interaction with calcite was investigated in the trace concentration range. The first Cm III sorption species consists of a curium ion that is bonded onto the calcite surface. An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented.

A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry. Moll, H. The new SRB strain Desulfovibrio aespoeensis could be isolated. Results describing the basic interaction mechanisms of uranium, curium , and plutonium with cells of D.

The interaction experiments with the actinides showed that the cells are able to remove all three actinides from the surrounding solution. The amount of removed actinide and the interaction mechanism varied among the different actinides.

The main U VI removal occurred after the first 24 h. The presence of uranium caused a damaging of the cell membranes. TEM revealed an accumulation of U inside the bacterial cell. A complex interaction mechanism takes place consisting of biosorption, bioreduction and bioaccumulation. Most of the formed Pu V dissolves from the cell envelope back to the aqueous solution due to the weak complexing properties of this plutonium oxidation state. To summarize, the strength of the interaction of D.

Preparation of curium -americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading. Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material about 2. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation.

The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment.

Raison, P. It is DoD policy that: a The U. This part: a Establishes policy Information copies of the audit Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots. For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors.

In total, 92 publications - from to -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination.

There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated.

The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period.

At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. Exudates from C. The halophilic microorganisms Halomonas sp. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu III on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones.

Ozaki, T. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium nuclides. The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents. The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium , and certain fission products europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides.

It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride. The effect of temperature on the sorption of technetium, uranium, neptunium and curium on bentonite, tuff and granodiorite. A study of the sorption of the radioelements technetium; uranium; neptunium; and curium onto geological materials has been carried out as part of the PNC program to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan.

Batch sorption experiments have been performed in order to study the sorption of the radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water under strongly-reducing conditions at both room temperature and at 60 C.

Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis. While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions.

In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium.

The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary. As prescribed in This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of The purpose of the Program is to The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and complete Electrochemistry of oxygen-free curium compounds in fused NaCl-2CsCl eutectic. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism of curium ions up to the metal.

The diffusion coefficient of [CmCl 6 ] 3- complex ions was determined by cyclic voltammetry at different temperatures by applying the Berzins-Delahay equation. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified and the activation energy for diffusion was found to be The thermodynamic properties of curium trichloride have also been calculated. Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments. The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species endofauna and epifauna was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation.

The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors F. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant.

Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography [fr. Frozen processed foods. The selection criteria cited in Venhart, M. Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions in the presence of curium Radiation-chemical behaviour of neptunium ions in nitric acid solutions is studied under the action of intensive internal alpha-irradiation conditioned by curium nuclides.

Effective constants of neptunium 4 oxidation rates and neptuniumi 6 reduction rates are not dependent on neptunium ion in1tial concentration and increase with a growth of a dose rate of alpha-irradiation of solution. In more concentrated solutions equilibrium between sexa-, penta- and tetravalent neptunium forms is established. Equilibrium concentrations of neptunium valent forms are not dependent on neptunium initial oxidation state under the same initial conditions dose rate, neptunium concentration and acidity.

It is shown form experimental data that under the action of alpha-irradiation neptunium 5 both is oxidated to neptunium 6 and is reduced to neptunium 4. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes.

Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides RDM.

The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost.

The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers.

Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal.

Co was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs including slab form were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels.

Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water.

Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31, curies. From the Co concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time.

The amounts of Pu, , , , ; Am, ; and Cm, produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu irradiated. Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: 1 Amount. For oral use in dogs Transportation to market may be Provisions and Clauses As prescribed in Noncomplex Nature. Clauses Complex Nature. As used in this Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract In vitro efficacy of ST against smallpox and monkeypox.

Since the eradication of smallpox and the cessation of routine childhood vaccination for smallpox, the proportion of the world's population susceptible to infection with orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus the causative agent of smallpox and monkeypox virus, has grown substantially. Unfortunately, a substantial number of people cannot receive live virus vaccines due to contraindications. Furthermore, no antiviral drugs have been fully approved by the FDA for the prevention or treatment of orthopoxvirus infection.

Here, we show the inhibitory effect of one new antiviral compound, ST- , on the in vitro growth properties of six variola virus strains and seven monkeypox virus strains. We performed multiple assays to monitor the cytopathic effect and to evaluate the reduction of viral progeny production and release in the presence of the compound.

The formation of sulfate complexes of Curium in aqueous solutions is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy TRLFS at 25 C. The complex Cm SO 4 3- 3 is found to be stable only at very high sulfate concentrations above 1 molal and therefore not considered for further evaluation. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the complexation of trivalent curium with inorganic ligands at increased temperatures; Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von trivalentem Curium mit anorganischen Liganden bei erhoehten Temperaturen.

The subject of the present investigation is the complexation of trivalent actinides at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work is to broaden the comprehension of the geochemical processes relevant for the migration of radionuclides in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. Depending on the disposed nuclear waste, the temperature in the direct vicinity of a nuclear waste repository may reach up to C. The result is a distinct change of the geochemistry of the actinides. Many of these processes have already been studied in detail at room temperature.

Yet, data at elevated temperature are rare. However, a comprehensive long term safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository requires the precise thermodynamic description of the relevant geochemical processes at room as well as at elevated temperatures. The present work is focused on the investigation of the complexation of trivalent curium Cm III with different inorganic ligands at elevated temperatures. Due to its outstanding spectroscopic properties, Cm III is chosen as a representative for trivalent actinides.

The experiments with nitrate, sulphate and chloride were carried out in a custom-built high temperature cell, enabling spectroscopic studies at temperatures up to C. The Cm III -fluoride-system was studied in a cuvette quartz glass in the temperature range from 20 to 90 C.

The results of the TRLFS studies show a general shift of the chemical equilibrium towards the complexed species with increasing temperature. For instance. Interaction of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6 -TCP was negligible. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed. We observed this object in and The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra.

Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies.

This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc. However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations. The complex and variable behaviour of NGC needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve.

Computational investigation on 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene crystal. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level were performed on crystalline 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene. The carbon, oxygen, and chlorine atoms make up the narrow lower energy bands, while the nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms make up the higher energy bands. Besides, the contributions of these atomic orbitals to the frontier bands are somewhat well-proportioned. An anisotropic impact on the bulk makes the electron transfer from chlorine to its neighbor carbon atom and from nitrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.

The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be Abstract Copyright [], Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store. The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period.

As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times.

In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, curium intake by shredder operator at Building Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.

Final report. On July 2, at approximately A. A third operator Worker 3 provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area hot area from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area cold area. At Approximately A. Sometime between A. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges.

An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately A. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium Organization and Management Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation.

Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above.

In this study, Np, Am and Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium.

However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples.

So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha gamma spectrometry using Np as a spike, and Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using Am as a tracer.

The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code. Electric resistivity of americium and curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of americium metal after self-irradiation.

The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk Am metal were measured between and 4. The room temperature resistivity was found to be The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons.

The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4. A saturation resistivity of After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and K.

The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at Comparison with theoretical models were made. Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants.

Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column.

Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of Am, Cm and 24 3 , Cm isotopes is possible using the Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest ROI in the alpha spectrum. In this work it was used tracers, Pu, Am, Cm and U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium, americium and curium During the past 10 years about glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe.

A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of Am, Am and Cm.

A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes.

A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding.

In addition, 2,4,6 - trichlorophenol may form during the treatment of phenol containing industrial wastewater with hypochlorite or during the disinfection of drinking-water sources. The removal of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol is significant because of its high toxicity, carcinogenic properties and persistence [1]. In this study, the adsorption of 2,4,6 -tr Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Cm, Cm, and Cm.

Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol 2,4,6 -TBP in placental tissues.

Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6 -TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children.

Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol. Optimal graphene loading of 0. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly.

The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values K 0 of 1.

The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6 -TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. All rights reserved. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of CmP and CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.

The fcc NaCl-type samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms. Alekseev, A.

This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for U, m Am, Cm, Cm, Cm and Cm done at this spectrometer. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA and JIA reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian.

Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR- for 4 days. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination.

Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR- were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR- also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR- suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have Complete dissipation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting. We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains.

A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an. Environmental concentrations and toxicology of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view.

We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. Moreover, it is used as a pesticide but also occurs as a natural product of some aquatic organisms. Due to its many sources, 2,4,6 -tribromophenol is ubiquitously found in the environment.

Nevertheless, not much is known about its toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It is also unclear which role the structural isomer 2,4,5-tribromophenol and several degradation products such as 2,4-dibromophenol play in the environment. Due to new flame retardants that enter the market and can degrade to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol, this compound will remain relevant in future years - not only in aquatic matrices, but also in house dust and foodstuff, which are an important exposure route for humans.

If Tribal construction standards are consistent with or Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene. The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene DATB or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 ,-trinitrobenzene TATB by: a reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.

TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN levansucrase Y S immobilized on chitosan beads.

LsRN-Y S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2. A maximum of 8. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish Danio rerio to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol affects reproduction. The bromophenol 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health Structural and spectroscopic parameters of 2,4,6 -trimethylbenzamide, using DFT method.

Conformational analysis of 2,4,6 -Trimethylbenzamide was carried out. The geometric parameters bond length, bond angle and tortion angle of the most stable conformer were calculated and the Infrared and Raman frequencies of fundamental modes were determined. Calculated values were compared with the experimental ones.

All calculations were carried out with the Gaussian03 and GaussView3. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB. A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated, yet it remains as one of the highest priority pathogens due to its potential as a biological weapon. The majority of the US population would be vulnerable in a smallpox outbreak. Additionally, SIGA has conducted Phase I and II clinical trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ST- , bringing us to our current late stage of clinical development.

This article reviews the need for a smallpox therapeutic and our experience in developing ST- , and provides perspective on the role of a smallpox antiviral during a smallpox public health emergency. Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants DWTPs were investigated.

The 2,4,6 -TCA concentrations were in the range of 1. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6 -TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6 -TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured. The results showed that 2,4,6 -TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6 -TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6 -TCA formation.

Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP to 2,4,6 -TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6 -TCA.

The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6 -TCA suggested that 2,4,6 -TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment. In addition to 2,4,6 -TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6 -TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6 -TCA-related problems in drinking water. In this study, we showed that administration of the antiviral compound ST- to rabbits by oral gavage, once daily for 14 days beginning 1h postexposure p.

Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos. In vitro susceptibility to ST- and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.

The susceptibility of these strains to both drugs was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, extracellular virus's quantification in the presence of ST- and one-step growth curve in cells treated with CDV. ST- strongly inhibits the production of extracellular virus for all isolates in concentrations as low as 0.

Impedance spectroscopy of tripolar concentric ring electrodes with Ten20 and TD pastes. Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios.

There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper, we measured the impedance on both tripolar concentric ring electrodes and standard cup electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS using both Ten20 and TD electrode paste. Furthermore, we applied the model to prove that the model can predict the performance of the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes TCRE that are used to record brain signals.

Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. TCA entsteht durch mikrobielle Umsetzung von Chlorphenolen. The aryl groups at the 2- and 6-positions are derived from ketones, while benzyl amine plays the dual role of providing an aryl functionality at the 4-position of pyridine as well as being a nitrogen donor. Synthesis of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenyl hydrazones and their inhibitory potential against glycation of protein.

This study thus identified a novel series of antiglycation agents. A structure-activity relationship has been studied, and all the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe.

In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices.

In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is totally necessary and our traditional workspace it is now being asked how reproducible patient to patient, device to device are the delivered doses new tasking? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort. Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use.

These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in cork bark. Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods years.

Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation EC No.

We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Furthermore, their formation as unintentional by-products during the laboratory synthesis of BTBPE from 2,4,6 -TBP and 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of sodium carbonate has also been investigated. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications.

Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups.

Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form.

This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry. Adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene on carboxylated porous polystyrene microspheres. Large-pore-size nm polystyrene PSt microspheres were carboxylated with phthalic anhydride PA through Friedel-Crafts acetylation to study the adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT on this material from aqueous solution.

The scanning electron microscope SEM images and mercury porosimetry measurements MPM of the microspheres showed that the pore structure was unchanged during the reaction. High adsorption capacity As shown by the adsorption isotherm, the adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation, indicating heterogeneous adsorption process. Towards the island of superheavy stability - Prompt spectroscopy of Fm and Rf nuclei.

It therefore provides the ultimate anchor points for nuclear models. This region also lies on the path of the alpha-decay chains of the super-heavy elements. This region represents the limit of today's spectroscopic capabilities. It therefore requires technological developments in order to overcome these limits.

My thesis focuses on various aspects of the spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei. I took part in the development of the TNT2D digital acquisition cards for germanium detectors. I validated their use on the gamma-ray spectrometer JUROGAM during an in-beam experiment and demonstrated the gain compared to an analogue acquisition system. These tests were part of the developments needed to secure a study of the prompt spectroscopy of Rf.

The preparation of this experiment also lead me to work on the development of a 50 Ti beam. For that purpose, I studied and tested the use of titanium organo-metallic compounds compatible with the MIVOC technique. In parallel, I studied the use of metallic and oxide titanium pellets with an inductive oven newly developed at the University of Jyvaeskylae.

In addition to these developments, I had the opportunity to study the in-beam prompt spectroscopy of Fm at the University of Jyvaeskylae. The measurements yielded a rotational band built on the ground state of Fm. A spatio-kinematic study of the interaction of the planetary nebula NGC with the interstellar medium.

Evidence for the deceleration effect was found in the leading edge of the nebular shell, possibly due to its interaction with the interstellar medium. Further, we show that. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted magnetic microspheres for adsorption of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

Magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres MMIS were successfully prepared by suspension polymerization, and then as-prepared MMIS were used as adsorbents for selective recognition of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP from aqueous solutions. Then batch mode of binding experiments was used to determine the equilibrium, kinetics and selectivity recognition. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than did the Freundlich model, and the maximum adsorption capacity on MMIS was about 1.

Kinetics behaviors of MMIS were well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the reusability performance of MMIS showed about Makii, H. Visual detection of 2,4,6 -trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal. Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array MICA was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red.

And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles MICs were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. Monodisperse nm in diameter molecularly imprinted colloidal particles MICs for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template.

EU SPEAKERS CONFERENCE NICOSIA BETTING

Quantitative analysis of perfume dosage in talcum powder has been a challenge due to interference of the matrix and has so far not been widely reported. In this study, headspace sorptive extraction HSSE was validated as a solventless sample preparation method for the extraction and enrichment of perfume raw materials from talcum powder.

Sample enrichment is performed on a thick film of poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS coated onto a magnetic stir bar incorporated in a glass jacket. Sampling is done by placing the PDMS stir bar in the headspace vial by using a holder. The stir bar is then thermally desorbed online with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nevertheless, a relatively larger amount of extracting phase is coated on the stir bar as compared to SPME.

Sample amount and extraction time were optimized in this study. The method has shown good repeatability with relative standard deviation no higher than The method was also successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of talcum powder spiked with perfume at different dosages.

KGaA, Weinheim. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta- analysis. Some surgeons use systemic vancomycin to prevent surgical site infections SSIs , but patients who do not carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of SSIs when given vancomycin alone for intravenous prophylaxis. Applying vancomycin powder to the wound before closure could increase the local tissue vancomycin level without significant systemic levels.

However, the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs has not been established. Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate studies on the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder for decreasing SSIs. Meta- analysis. We included observational studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials of patients undergoing surgical procedures that involved vancomycin powder application to surgical wounds, reported SSI rates, and had a comparison group that did not use local vancomycin powder.

The primary outcome was postoperative SSIs. The secondary outcomes included deep incisional SSIs and S. We ran the searches from inception on May 9, with no limits on date or language. After reviewing titles or abstracts and 22 articles in detail, we included 10 independent studies and used a random-effects model when pooling risk estimates to assess the effectiveness of local.

Spectrochemical analysis of powdered biological samples using transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide laser plasma excitation. The aim of this study was to develop a simple laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS method for quantitative elemental analysis of powdered biological materials based on laboratory prepared calibration samples. The analysis was done using ungated single pulse LIBS in ambient air at atmospheric pressure.

The material used for the analysis was a blue-green alga Spirulina, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and also in a few biotechnological applications. Analytical curves for Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr were constructed using laboratory produced matrix-matched calibration samples.

Results confirm that, in respect to its sensitivity and precision, TEA CO2 laser based LIBS can be successfully applied for quantitative analysis of macro and micro-elements in algal samples. The fact that nearly all classes of materials can be prepared as powders implies that the proposed method could be easily extended to a quantitative analysis of different kinds of materials, organic, biological or inorganic. Anthrax screening was performed on-site using a ruggedized analytical pathogen identification device R.

Turnaround time was approximately hours for either anthrax or UI. Between October 10, and October 11, , samples were analyzed. Of these, 57 were for anthrax screening only, 78 were for anthrax and UI, and 26 were for UI only. The only potential biological or chemical warfare agent identified cyanide was provided by law enforcement.

Rapid anthrax screening and identification of unknown substances at the scene are useful to prevent costly interruption of services and potential referral for medical evaluation. Spectrochemical analysis of powder using nm Nd-YAG laser-induced low-pressure plasma. The applicability of spectrochemical analysis of minute amounts of powder samples was investigated using an ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser nm and low-pressure ambient air.

A large variety of chemical powder samples of different composition were employed in the experiment. These included a mixture of copper II sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfide, and chromium III sulfate n-hydrate powders , baby powder , cosmetic powders , gold films, zinc supplement tablet, and muds and soils from different areas.

The powder samples were prepared by pulverizing the original samples to an average size of around 30 microm in order to trap them in the tiny micro holes created on the surface of the quartz subtarget. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with low background, free from undesirable contamination by the subtarget elements and featuring ppm sensitivity.

A further measurement revealed a linear calibration curve with zero intercept. These results clearly show the potential application of this technique for practical qualitative and quantitative spectrochemical analysis of powder samples in various fields of study and investigation.

Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications. The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. In addition, the calcium oxide CaO phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles.

The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta- analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta- analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors.

The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder.

Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples. Bloodstain pattern analysis --casework experience. The morphology of bloodstain distribution patterns at the crime scene carries vital information for a reconstruction of the events.

Contrary to experimental work, case reports where the reconstruction has been verified have rarely been published. This is the reason why a series of four illustrative cases is presented where bloodstain pattern analysis at the crime scene made a reconstruction of the events possible and where this reconstruction was later verified by a confession of the offender. The cases include various types of bloodstains such as contact and smear stains, drop stains, arterial blood spatter and splash stains from both impact and cast-off pattern.

Problems frequently encountered in practical casework are addressed, such as unfavourable environmental conditions or combinations of different bloodstain patterns. It is also demonstrated that the analysis of bloodstain morphology can support individualisation of stains by directing the selection of a limited number of stains from a complex pattern for DNA analysis.

The complexity of real situations suggests a step-by-step approach starting with a comprehensive view of the overall picture. This is followed by a differentiation and analysis of single bloodstain patterns and a search for informative details. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia.

Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample.

The second sample, designated NSR-F, was also a depleted uranium powder. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of U and U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium NU fueled Pu production.

These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources. Quantitative analysis of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets by pattern -fitting procedure using X-ray diffraction pattern. A pattern -fitting procedure using an X-ray diffraction pattern was applied to the quantitative analysis of binary system of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets. Tablets were prepared under various compression pressures using a direct compression method with various compositions of INH and MAN.

Assuming that X-ray diffraction pattern of INH-MAN system consists of diffraction intensities from respective crystals, observed diffraction intensities were fitted to analytic expression based on X-ray diffraction theory and separated into two intensities from INH and MAN crystals by a nonlinear least-squares procedure. The correction parameter including all the factors that are beyond experimental control was required for quantitative analysis without calibration curve.

Further, certain characteristics of the crystals in the tablets, such as the preferred orientation, size of crystallite, and lattice disorder were determined simultaneously. This method can be adopted to analyze compounds whose crystal structures are known. It is a potentially powerful tool for the quantitative phase analysis and characterization of crystals in tablets and powders using X-ray diffraction patterns. Copyright Elsevier B. Understanding deformation mechanisms during powder compaction using principal component analysis of compression data.

Principal component analysis PCA was applied to pharmaceutical powder compaction. Multivariate analysis of the compression data was carried out using PCA. The first principal component PC1 showed loadings for the solid fraction and work values that agreed with changes in the relative significance of plastic deformation to consolidation at different pressures.

The PC1 scores showed the same rank order as the relative plasticity ranking derived from the literature for common pharmaceutical materials. The utility of PC1 in understanding deformation was extended to binary mixtures using a subset of the original materials. Combinations of brittle and plastic materials were characterized using the PCA method. The relationships between PC1 scores and the weight fractions of the mixtures were typically linear showing ideal mixing in their deformation behaviors.

The mixture consisting of two plastic materials was the only combination to show a consistent positive deviation from ideality. The application of PCA to solid fraction and mechanical work data appears to be an effective means of predicting deformation behavior during compaction of simple powder mixtures.

Because Y takes time to diffuse to the particle surfaces, the apparent melting point of this new phase appears at higher temperatures in initial DTA scans than in subsequent scans. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form. We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment].

To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

Thermal analysis of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and methylcellulose: powders , gels and matrix tablets. This review focuses on the thermal analysis of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose HPMC and methylcellulose. Differential scanning calorimetry DSC of their powders is used to determine temperatures of moisture loss in conjunction with thermogravimetric analysis and glass transition temperatures.

However, sample preparation and encapsulation affect the values obtained. The interaction of these cellulose ethers with water is evaluated by DSC. Water is added to the powder directly in DSC pans or preformed gels can be evaluated. Data quality depends on previous thermal history but estimates of the quantity of water bound to the polymers may be made. Water uptake by cellulose ethers may be evaluated by the use of polymeric wafers and by following loss of free water, over a series of timed curves, into wafers in contact with water.

Cloud points, which assess the reduction of polymer solubility with increase of temperature, may be assessed spectrophotometrically. DSC and rheometric studies are used to follow thermogelation, a process involving hydrophobic interaction between partly hydrated polymeric chains. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methodologies are highlighted. Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis on nano- powder pellets and applications to granite bulk rock analysis.

Granites are a ubiquitous component of the continental crust and knowing their precise trace element signatures is essential in understanding the origins and evolution of the continental crust. ICP-MS bulk analysis of granite is generally conducted on solution after acid-digestion.

The development of a nano- powder pellet technique by using wet milling procedure, and its combination with laser ablation ICP-MS has been proposed to overcome these problems. In this study, we produced nano- powders from a series of granite rock standards by wet milling in agate using a high power planetary ball mill instrument. The procedure was tested and optimized by modifying parameters ball to powder ratio, water to powder ratio, milling power etc. Characterization of nano- powders was conducted by various techniques including electron microprobe EMP , secondary electron imaging, polarizing microscope, and laser particle size analyzer LPSA and laser scanning confocal microscope LSCM.

Pellets of 5 mm in diameter were pressed into molds of cellulose at 1. Sources of contamination either from abrading agate balls or from ultrapure water were evaluated and quantified. Gravity flow of powder in a lunar environment. Part 2: Analysis of flow initiation. A small displacement-small strain finite element technique utilizing the constant strain triangle and incremental constitutive equations for elasticplastic media nonhardening and obeying a Coulomb yield condition was applied to the analysis of gravity flow initiation.

This was done in a V-shaped hopper containing a powder under lunar environmental conditions. Three methods of loading were examined. Of the three, the method of computing the initial state of stress in a filled hopper prior to drawdown, by adding material to the hopper layer by layer, was the best. Results of the analysis of a typical hopper problem show that the initial state of stress, the elastic moduli, and the strength parameters have an important influence on material response subsequent to the opening of the hopper outlet.

Comparative spectral analysis of veterinary powder product by continuous wavelet and derivative transforms. Comparative simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline and benzocaine in the commercial veterinary powder product was carried out by continuous wavelet transform CWT and classical derivative transform or classical derivative spectrophotometry. In this quantitative spectral analysis , two proposed analytical methods do not require any chemical separation process.

In the first step, several wavelet families were tested to find an optimal CWT for the overlapping signal processing of the analyzed compounds. For a comparison, the classical derivative spectrophotometry CDS approach was also applied to the simultaneous quantitative resolution of the same analytical problem.

Calibration functions were obtained by measuring the transform amplitudes corresponding to zero-crossing points for both CWT and CDS methods. The utility of these two analytical approaches were verified by analyzing various synthetic mixtures consisting of chlortetracycline and benzocaine and they were applied to the real samples consisting of veterinary powder formulation. The experimental results obtained from the COIF-CWT approach were statistically compared with those obtained by classical derivative spectrophotometry and successful results were reported.

Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder. Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration.

The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder SWP and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC Little by little the engineers research how the development of concrete that can utilize waste.

In the utilization of the waste, it can be functioned as mixing material which the chemical or the physical traits of the used goods contain similarity to the mixture of concrete in general, one of them is glass powder as the substitute of cement. The glass powder that utilizes is the one that is sifted through sieve No. Furthermore, visual examination, absorption, net weight and testing specimen compressive strength. Foaming Agent is make by using modified hand drill and brace.

The testing specimen uses the brick mold with the size of 40 cm x 20cm x 10 cm. Based on this research, it shows that the quality that results from brick is still qualified based on SNI 03 — — At or below the surface of painted works of art, valuable information is present that provides insights into an object's past, such as the artist's technique and the creative process that was followed or its conservation history but also on its current state of preservation.

Various noninvasive techniques have been developed over the past 2 decades that can probe this information either locally via point analysis or on a macroscopic scale e. This method can visualize highly specific chemical distributions at the macroscale dm 2. In this work we demonstrate the synergy between the quantitative aspects of powder diffraction and the noninvasive scanning capability of MA-XRPD highlighting the potential of the method to reveal new types of information.

Furthermore, on the same artifact, the depth-selective possibilities of the method that stem from an exploitation of the shift of the measured diffraction peaks with respect to reference data are highlighted. The influence of different experimental parameters on the depth-selective analysis results is briefly discussed.

Promising stratigraphic information could be obtained, even though the analysis is hampered by not completely understood variations in the unit cell dimensions of the crystalline pigment phases. The reaction product was Ge O particles as fine as several nm in size and composed of Ge and O atoms.

It is hard to recognize those particles in TEM images. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security DHS , is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed when developing safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods.

Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

Keywords: Small-scale safety testing, proficiency test, impact-, friction-, spark discharge-, thermal testing, round-robin test, safety testing protocols, HME, RDX, potassium perchlorate, potassium. Additional evidence from x-ray powder diffraction patterns that icosahedral quasi-crystals of intermetallic compounds are twinned cubic crystals.

Cross-Modal Multivariate Pattern Analysis. Typically, the method is used to identify a subject's perceptual experience from neural activity in certain regions of the brain. For instance, it has been employed to predict the orientation of visual gratings a subject perceives from activity in early visual cortices5 or, analogously, the content of speech from activity in early auditory cortices6. Here, we present an extension of the classical MVPA paradigm, according to which perceptual stimuli are not predicted within, but across sensory systems.

Specifically, the method we describe addresses the question of whether stimuli that evoke memory associations in modalities other than the one through which they are presented induce content-specific activity patterns in the sensory cortices of those other modalities. For instance, seeing a muted video clip of a glass vase shattering on the ground automatically triggers in most observers an auditory image of the associated sound; is the experience of this image in the "mind's ear" correlated with a specific neural activity pattern in early auditory cortices?

Furthermore, is this activity pattern distinct from the pattern that could be observed if the subject were, instead, watching a video clip of a howling dog? In two previous studies7,8, we were able to predict sound- and touch-implying video clips based on neural activity in early auditory and somatosensory cortices, respectively. Our results are in line with a neuroarchitectural framework proposed by Damasio9,10, according to which the experience of mental images that are based on memories - such as hearing the shattering sound of a vase in the "mind's ear" upon seeing the corresponding video clip - is supported by the re-construction of content-specific neural activity patterns in early sensory cortices.

Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits".

Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree.

In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits".

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Toward a metric for patterned injury analysis. An intriguing question in the matching of objects with patterned injures in two and three dimensions is that of an appropriate metric for closeness -- is it possible to objectively measure how well an object 'fits' a patterned injury.

Many investigators have suggested an energy-based metric, and have used such metrics to analyze craniofacial growth and anatomic variation. A strict dependence on homology is the primary disadvantage of this energy functional for generalized biological structures; many shapes do not have obvious landmarks. Some tentative solutions to the problem of landmark dependency for patterned injury analysis are presented. One intriguing approach comes from recent work in axiomatic vision. This approach has resulted in the development of a multiresolution medial axis for the extraction of shape primitives which can be used as the basis for registration.

A scale-based description of this process can be captured in structures called cores, which can describe object shape and position in a highly compact manner. Cores may provide a scale- and shape-based method of determining correspondences necessary for determining the number and position of landmarks for some patterned injuries. Each of the approaches described are generalizable to higher dimensions, and can thus be used to analyze both two- and three- dimensional data.

Together, they may represent a reasonable way of measuring shape distance for the purpose of matching objects and wounds, and can be combined with texture measures for a complete description. Hulien, Molly L. While X-ray powder diffraction XRPD is a fundamental analytical technique used by solid-state laboratories across a breadth of disciplines, it is still underrepresented in most undergraduate curricula. In this work, we incorporate XRPD analysis into an inquiry-based project that requires students to identify the crystalline component s of….

In , an unknown white powder was discovered spilled inside of a shipping container of whole kernel corn during an inspection by federal inspectors in the port of Baltimore, Maryland. The container was detained and quarantined while a sample of the powder was collected and sent to a federal laboratory where it was screened using chromatography for the presence of specific poisons and pesticides with negative results. Samples of the corn kernels and the white powder were forwarded to the Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center for further analysis.

Based on the unique particle analysis by SLM and SEM as well as the detection of the presence of aluminum and phosphorous by EDX, the unknown was determined to be consistent with reacted aluminum phosphide AlP. While commonly known in the agricultural industry, aluminum phosphide is relatively unknown in the forensic community.

Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns. This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis LMA as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns , to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort.

Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features.

Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics. Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value.

Notoginseng powder NP could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder SFP or corn flour CF , because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared Vis-NIR spectroscopy method.

Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra SNIR and long-wave near infrared spectra LNIR were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression PLSR and least-squares support vector machines LS-SVM , respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants.

Pyrolysis of tyre powder using microwave thermogravimetric analysis : Effect of microwave power. The product yields at different power levels were studied, along with comparative analysis of microwave pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. The feedstock underwent preheating, intense pyrolysis, and final pyrolysis in sequence. The main and secondary weight loss peaks observed during the intense pyrolysis stage were attributed to the decomposition of natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers, respectively.

The total mass loss rates, bulk temperatures, and maximum temperatures were distinctively higher at higher powers. However, the maximum mass loss rate 0. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns. In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis RQA and recurrence plots RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both.

First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals.

Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns , as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena. Many Mars in situ instruments require fine-grained high-fidelity samples of rocks or soil.

Included are instruments for the determination of mineralogy as well as organic and isotopic chemistry. Powder can be obtained as a primary objective of a sample collection system e. In the latter case, a properly designed system could be used to monitor drilling in real time as well as to deliver powder to analytical instruments which would perform complementary analyses to those later performed on the intact core. In addition, once a core or other sample is collected, a system that could transfer intelligently collected subsamples of power from the intact core to a suite of analytical instruments would be highly desirable.

We have conceptualized, developed and tested a breadboard Powder Delivery System PoDS intended to satisfy the collection, processing and distribution requirements of powder samples for Mars in-situ mineralogic, organic and isotopic measurement instruments. As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety.

FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study. The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method.

The obtained results had a high determination coefficient R 2 of 0. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS technique was used to compare various types of commercial milk products. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were investigated for the determination of the elemental composition of soy and rice milk powder , dairy milk, and lactose-free dairy milk.

The analysis was performed using radiative transitions. In addition, proteins and fat level in milks can be determined using molecular emissions such as CN bands. Ca concentrations were calculated to be 2. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis methods showed that the contents of major mineral elements were higher in lactose-free dairy milk than those in dairy milk.

The principal component analysis PCA method was used to discriminate four milk samples depending on their mineral elements concentration. In addition, proteins and fat level in dairy milks were determined using molecular emissions such as CN band. We applied partial least squares regression PLSR and simple linear regression SLR models to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk samples. The attention to sustainability-related issues has grown fast in recent decades.

The experience gained with these themes reveals the importance of considering this topic in the construction industry, which represents an important sector throughout the world. This work consists on conducting a multicriteria analysis of four cement powders , with the objective of calculating and analysing the environmental, human health and socio-economic effects of their production processes.

The economic, technical, environmental and safety performances of the examined powders result from official, both internal and public, documents prepared by the producers. The Analytic Hierarchy Process permitted to consider several indicators i.

As assumed in this study, the contribution of each considered parameter to the overall sustainability has a different incidence, therefore the procedure could be used to support on-going sustainability efforts under different conditions. The results also prove that it is not appropriate to regard only one parameter to identify the 'best' cement powder , but several impact categories should be considered and analysed if there is an interest for pursuing different, often conflicting interests.

Evidence from x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns that the so-called icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of MnAl 6 and other alloys are twinned cubic crystals. It is shown that the x-ray powder diffraction patterns of rapidly quenched MnAl 6 and Mg 32 Al,Zn 49 and the neutron powder diffraction pattern of MnAl 6 are compatible with the proposed atom primitive cubic structure [Pauling, L.

The values found for the edge of the unit cube are Evidence from x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns that the so-called icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of MnAl6 and other alloys are twinned cubic crystals. It is shown that the x-ray powder diffraction patterns of rapidly quenched MnAl6 and Mg32 Al,Zn 49 and the neutron powder diffraction pattern of MnAl6 are compatible with the proposed atom primitive cubic structure [Pauling, L. Kinetic products in coordination networks: ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

Porous coordination networks are materials that maintain their crystal structure as molecular "guests" enter and exit their pores. They are of great research interest with applications in areas such as catalysis, gas adsorption, proton conductivity, and drug release. As with zeolite preparation, the kinetic states in coordination network preparation play a crucial role in determining the final products. Controlling the kinetic state during self-assembly of coordination networks is a fundamental aspect of developing further functionalization of this class of materials.

However, unlike for zeolites, there are few structural studies reporting the kinetic products made during self-assembly of coordination networks. Synthetic routes that produce the necessary selectivity are complex. The structural knowledge obtained from X-ray crystallography has been crucial for developing rational strategies for design of organic-inorganic hybrid networks.

However, despite the explosive progress in the solid-state study of coordination networks during the last 15 years, researchers still do not understand many chemical reaction processes because of the difficulties in growing single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction: Fast precipitation can lead to kinetic metastable products, but in microcrystalline form, unsuitable for single crystal X-ray analysis.

Recent advances in structure determination of microcrystalline solids from ab initio XRPD have allowed three-dimensional structure determination when single crystals are not available. Thus, ab initio XRPD structure determination is becoming a powerful method for structure determination of microcrystalline solids, including porous coordination networks. Because of the great interest across scientific. Rosa, R. Gradient pattern analysis GPA is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice.

This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters. Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology. Phase quantification by X-ray photoemission valence band analysis applied to mixed phase TiO2 powders.

A method of quantitative phase analysis using valence band X-ray photoelectron spectra is presented and applied to the analysis of TiO2 anatase-rutile mixtures. The valence band spectra of pure TiO2 polymorphs were measured, and these spectral shapes used to fit valence band spectra from mixed phase samples. Given the surface sensitive nature of the technique, this yields a surface phase fraction. Mixed phase samples were prepared from high and low surface area anatase and rutile powders.

In the samples studied here, the surface phase fraction of anatase was found to be linearly correlated with photocatalytic activity of the mixed phase samples, even for samples with very different anatase and rutile surface areas.

We apply this method to determine the surface phase fraction of P25 powder. This method may be applied to other systems where a surface phase fraction is an important characteristic. In the LPCGDS process, pressurized compressed gas is accelerated to the critical velocity, which depends on length of the divergent section of nozzle, the propellant gas and particle characteristics, and the diameters ratio of the inlet and outer diameters. This paper presents finite element modeling FEM of powder stream in supersonic nozzle wherein adiabatic gas flow and expansion of gas occurs in uniform manner and the same is used to evaluate the resultant temperature and velocity contours during coating process.

The results are helpful to predict the characteristics of powder stream at the exit of the supersonic nozzle. The analysis of carbohydrates in milk powder by a new "heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method. In this study, a new"heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate contents in milk powder was presented.

In this two dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil XBP-C4 analysis column was used in the first dimension 1 D as a pre-separation column, a ZORBAX carbohydrates analysis column was used in the second dimension 2 D as a final- analysis column. The whole process was completed in less than 35min without a particular sample preparation procedure. The capability of the new two dimensional HPLC method was demonstrated in the determination of carbohydrates in various brands of milk powder samples.

A conventional one dimensional chromatography method was also proposed. The two proposed methods were both validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, accuracy and precision. The comparison between the results obtained with the two methods showed that the new and completely automated two dimensional liquid chromatography method is more suitable for milk powder sample because of its online cleanup effect involved. Published by Elsevier B.

The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns , and prey thresholds.

These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance ANOVA in the program JmpPro12 SAS Institute, Crary, NC to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved.

I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density. Scanning pattern angle effect on the resulting properties of selective laser sintered monolayers of Cu-Sn-Ni powder.

Laser-based layer manufacturing of metals, also known as additive manufacturing, is a growing research field of academic and industrial interest. However, in the associated laser-driven processes i. This research aims at determining how the angle of laser scanning pattern i.

A noticeable effect of the scan angle on the mechanical strength and degree of densification of the sintered specimens is found. Thickness of the resulting monolayer correlates negatively with increasing scan angle, whereas relative density correlates positively. It is concluded that angle of the scanning pattern angle plays a significant role in SLS of metallic monolayers.

Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis TGA. For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon PAC adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants WWTP. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix.

Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis TGA , which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials.

This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping.

A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0.

They have been treated from a qualitative point of view so far because quantitative analysis method has not be established. In this paper, the authors proposed and investigated some quantitative analysis methods of density and orientation of trabecular patterns observed in a bone.

These methods can give an index for evaluating orientation of trabecular pattern quantitatively and have been applied to analyze trabecular pattern observed in a head of femur and their availabilities are confirmed. Key Words: Index of pattern orientation, Trabecular pattern , Pattern density, Quantitative analysis. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns. Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern -recognition computational systems.

These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model SVM , which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern -recognition, tracking, and data-reduction data preprocessing applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets.

Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body soma surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network dendrites. Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses spikes in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons. They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time.

Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry. Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools collections of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers.

The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions in imitation of such transport in biological. Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders. With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output.

Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die.

The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen.

Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. John C. Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine.

Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine SSME health monitoring, this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC.

Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. Very recently, ground -breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30, m , ft.

Although detailed near field 0 to 3 cm information regarding the exhaust plume of a two kilowatt arc jet is available refs. Furthermore real information about the plasma at distances between 3 to 6 m is of critical importance to high technology satellite companies in understanding the effect of arc jet plume exhausts on space based power systems.

It is therefore of utmost importance that one understands the exact nature of the interaction between the arc jet plume, the spacecraft power system and the surrounding electrical plasma environment. A good first step in understanding the nature of the interactions lies in making the needed plume parameter measurements in the far field. All diagnostic measurements are performed inside a large vacuum system 12 m diameter by 18 m high with a full scale arc jet and solar array panel in the required flight configuration geometry.

Thus, necessary information regarding the plume plasma parameters in the far field is obtained. Measurements of the floating potential, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, number density, density distribution, debye length, and plasma frequency are obtained at various locations about the array at vertical distances from the arc jet nozzle: 2. Plasma diagnostic parameters are measured for both the floating and grounded configurations of the arc jet anode and array.

Spectroscopic optical measurements are then acquired in close proximity to the nozzle, and contamination measurements are made in the vicinity of the array utilizing a mass spectrometer and two Quartz Crystal Microbalances QCM's. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator GTA.

This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator GTA. Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data.

A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements.

The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data. The measurements taken during the Ares I-X test flight provided a unique opportunity to assess the accuracy of the models and methods used to analyze the loads and accelerations present in the planned Ares I vehicle. During the rollout of the integrated vehicle from the Vehicle Assembly Building VAB to the launch pad, the vehicle and its supporting structure are subjected to wind loads and the vibrations produced by the crawler-transporter CT that is carrying it.

While the loads induced on the vehicle during this period are generally low relative to those experienced in flight, the rollout is a period of operation of primary interest to those designing both the ground support equipment and the interfaces between the launch vehicle and its supporting structure. In this paper, the methods used for reconstructing the loads during the rollout phase are described. The results generated are compared to measured values, leading to insight into the accuracy of the Ares I assessment techniques.

The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons. Ares I-X is the first step in. Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, data and lessons obtained from Ares I-X can be applied to any launch vehicle. This presentation will discuss the mission background and future impacts of the flight. The Ares I-X development flight test was conceived in to acquire early engineering, operations, and environment data during liftoff, ascent, and first stage recovery.

Engineers are using the test flight data to improve the Ares I design before its critical design review the final review before manufacturing of the flight vehicle begins. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle incorporated a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a similar length and mass to the operational vehicle. It was powered by a four-segment SRB from the Space Shuttle inventory, and was modified to include a fifth, spacer segment that made the booster approximately the same size as the five-segment SRB.

The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions.

In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle.

The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle. Basing exploration launch vehicle designs on Ares I-X information puts NASA one step closer to full-up "test as you fly," a best practice in vehicle design.

Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, the Ares I-X data and experience in vehicle design and operations can be applied to any launch vehicle. This paper presents the mission background as well as results and lessons learned from the flight. The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle Figure This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration.

The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles. Grounds and causes of lack of demand for early diagnostic measures author's transl ]. The quite obvious neglect of prophylactic measures cannot be attributed to a single cause only.

Ground are rather to be found both in the psychic disposition and in the social stratum of the population as well as in the nature of the prophylaxis available. A synopsis leads to the conclusion that effective prevention requires not only changing the attitude of the patient or the population but also that of the supplier of the health promoting services.

As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares- I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom 6-DOF digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 POST2 simulation framework.

The Ares- I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center KSC , and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer.

The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

One of the primary test flight objectives was to evaluate the environment during First Stage separation to better understand the conditions that the J-2X second stage engine will experience at ignition [1]. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the stage separation motors. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle was successfully launched on October 29, , achieving most of its primary and secondary test objectives.

Ground based video camera recordings of the separation event appeared to show recontact of the First Stage and the Upper Stage Simulator followed by an unconventional tumbling of the Upper Stage Simulator. Closer inspection of the videos and flight test data showed that recontact did not occur. This paper describes the efforts to reconstruct the vehicle dynamics and loads through the staging event by means of a time integrated simulation developed in TREETOPS, a multi-body dynamics software tool developed at NASA [2].

The simulation was built around vehicle mass and geometry properties at the time of staging and thrust profiles for the first stage solid rocket motor as well as for the booster deceleration motors and booster tumble motors. Aerodynamic forces were determined by models created from a combination of wind tunnel testing and CFD. The initial conditions such as position, velocity, and attitude were obtained from the Best Estimated Trajectory BET , which is compiled from multiple ground based and vehicle mounted instruments.

Dynamic loads were calculated by subtracting the inertial forces from the applied forces. The simulation results were compared to the Best Estimated Trajectory, accelerometer flight data, and to ground based video. Buehrle, Ralph D. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics.

As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model FEM used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform.

This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented. Huebner, Lawrence D. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully.

The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office APO established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models.

The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I. The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks.

This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results.

Self diagnostic accelerometer ground testing on a C aircraft engine. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns IFSD which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response.

The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements.

The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDA's flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose.

The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C aircraft engine. Ignition Overpressure IOP is an unsteady fluid flow and acoustic phenomena caused by the rapid expansion of gas from the rocket nozzle within a ducted launching space resulting in an initially higher amplitude pressure wave. This wave is potentially dangerous to the structural integrity of the vehicle.

An in-depth look at the IOP environments resulting from the Ares I-X Solid Rocket Booster configuration showed high correlation between the pre-flight predictions and post-flight analysis results. The flight data allowed subsequent verification and validation of Ares I-X unsteady fluid ducted launcher predictions, computational fluid dynamic models, and strong correlation with historical Shuttle data.

Ares IX will use a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Since a test of the free-free vehicle is not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations in the nominal integration flow were defined to calibrate the FEM. A traceability study by Aerospace Corporation was used to identify the critical modes for the tested configurations.

The requirements flow down, pre-test analysis, constraints and overall test planning are described. Ares I is a two stage to orbit launch vehicle that provides crew access to low Earth orbit for NASA's future manned exploration missions. The Ares I first stage consists of a Shuttle solid rocket motor SRM modified to include an additional propellant segment and a liquid propellant upper stage with an Apollo J2X engine modified to increase its thrust capability. The modified propulsion systems were not available for the first test flight, thus the test had to be conducted with an existing Shuttle 4 segment reusable solid rocket motor RSRM and an inert Upper Stage.

The test flight's primary objective was to demonstrate controllability of an Ares I vehicle during first stage boost and the ability to perform a successful separation. In order to demonstrate controllability, the Ares I-X ascent control algorithms had to maintain stable flight throughout a flight environment equivalent to Ares I.

The goal of the test flight reference trajectory development was to design a boost trajectory using the existing RSRM that results in a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. A trajectory similarity metric was defined as the integrated difference between the Ares I and Ares I-X Mach versus dynamic pressure relationships. Optimization analyses were performed that minimized the metric by adjusting the inert upper stage weight and the ascent steering profile.

The sensitivity of the optimal upper stage weight and steering profile to launch month was also investigated. A response surface approach was used to verify the optimization results. The paper will discuss the flight. The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle.

The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life.

The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment. The launch was successful and the flight test met all of its primary and secondary objectives. This paper discusses the stage separation and reentry trajectory analysis that was performed in support of the Ares I-X test flight. Pre-flight analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stage recontact during separation, to evaluate the first stage flight dynamics during reentry, and to define the range safety impact ellipses of both stages.

The results of these pre-flight analyses were compared with available flight data. On-board video taken during flight showed that the flight test vehicle successfully separated without any recontact. Reconstructed trajectory data also showed that first stage flight dynamics were well characterized by pre-flight Monte Carlo results. In addition, comparisons with flight data indicated that the complex interference aerodynamic models employed in the reentry simulation were effective in capturing the flight dynamics during separation.

Finally, the splash-down locations of both stages were well within predicted impact ellipses. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range.

The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual , Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions including flight software failures , characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints.

These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight.

A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

Horta, Lucas G. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of non-conventional boundary conditions during component testing.

Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results.

To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pretest predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of nonconventional boundary conditions during component testing. Comparisons of pre-test predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation.

Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another.

Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed. Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment.

It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses. Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm ERA.

The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system. Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals.

A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction. Introduction: Modern changes in the health care system of Ukraine are focused on financial support in providing medical and diagnostic care to the population and are based on deep and consistent structural and functional transformations.

They are aimed at providing adequate quality care, which is the main target function and a principal criterion for operation of health care system. The urgency of this problem is increasing in the context of reforming the health care system and global changes in the governmental financial guarantees for the provision of medical services to the population. The aim of the work is to provide theoretical grounds for a structural and functional model of quality assurance of radiation diagnostics at all levels of medical care given to the population under the current health care reform in Ukraine.

Materials and methods: The object of the study is organizing the operation of the radiation diagnostic service; the information is based on the actual data on the characteristics of radiation diagnosis at different levels of medical care provision. Methods of systematic approach, system analysis and structural and functional analysis of the operating system of radiation diagnostics are used.

Review: The basis of the quality assurance model is the cyclical process, which includes the stages of the problem identifition, planning of its solution, organization of the system for implementation of decisions, monitoring the quality management process of the radiation diagnostics , and factors influencing the quality of the radiation diagnostics service. These factors include the quality of the structure, process, results, organization of management and control of current processes and the results of radiation diagnostics management.

Conclusions: The advantages of the proposed model for ensuring the quality of the radiation diagnostics service are its systemacy and complexity, elimination of identified defects and deficiencies, and achievement of. Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team IPT mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget.

In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware. The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations.

The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures.

This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system.

Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. This report focuses on the first modal test that was performed on the top section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 5, which consisted of the spacecraft adapter, service module, crew module and launch abort system simulators.

This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 5 modal test. This report focuses on the second modal test that was performed on the middle section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 1, which consisted of the subassembly from the 5th segment simulator through the interstage. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 1 modal test.

Getting expert systems off the ground : Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware. As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software. Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited.

While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications. In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere. Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere.

As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies ionospheric and thermal can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites IR sensors and ionospheric probes and from ground GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity.

We monitored the majority of transient events Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant FDNPP and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin.

On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network.

We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March. Ares I-X is scheduled for a flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process.

Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance.

The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas.

Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I - as well as what the test will not provide - is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Figure 1 , will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office MMO are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April launch. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office MMO are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a launch. Ground terminal expert GTEX. A research effort was undertaken to investigate how expert system technology could be applied to a satellite communications system.

The focus of the expert system is the satellite earth station. With the increasing demand for satellite earth stations, maintenance is becoming a vital issue. Vendors of such systems will be looking for cost effective means of maintaining such systems. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosis of faults occurring with the digital earth station.

The test flight is scheduled for April , relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame relative to new launch vehicle development before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements.

Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design.

This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X , like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test.

The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities.

They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions.

They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently.

The key benefits for. Positive lessons learned from Ares I-X were that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices are effective in streamlining development activities. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value activities.

This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by the success of Ares I-X. The key benefits. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars.

Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X , is scheduled to be launched in April As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed.

The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation.

This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis SEA model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I.

A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper. The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles.

The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

The first test was performed on the foot 53,pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the foot , pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the foot 1,,pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform.

Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process.

Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates. During ARES I-X pre-flight modeling and analysis, six 6 independent time domain simulation tools were developed and cross validated. Each tool represents an independent implementation of a common set of models and parameters in a different simulation framework and architecture.

Post flight data and reconstructed models provide the means to validate a subset of the simulations against actual flight data and to assess the accuracy of pre-flight dispersion analysis. Post flight data consists of telemetered Operational Flight Instrumentation OFI data primarily focused on flight computer outputs and sensor measurements as well as Best Estimated Trajectory BET data that estimates vehicle state information from all available measurement sources. While pre-flight models were found to provide a reasonable prediction of the vehicle flight, reconstructed models were generated to better represent and simulate the ARES I-X flight.

Post flight reconstructed models include: SRB propulsion model, thrust vector bias models, mass properties, base aerodynamics, and Meteorological Estimated Trajectory wind and atmospheric data. The result of the effort is a set of independently developed, high fidelity, time-domain simulation tools that have been cross validated and validated against flight data.

This paper presents the process and results of high fidelity aerospace modeling, simulation, analysis and tool validation in the time domain. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models. The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared.

The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight. During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data.

For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper.

For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was feet tall and weighed approximately 1,, pounds.

During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4. The vehicle demonstrated staging at , feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges.

Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team.

Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board.

Ares I-X was a technically complex test that. This test was critical in providing insight into areas were significant design challenges existed. This paper discusses the objectives of the mission and how they were satisfied. It discusses the overall results of the flight test and look at the data retrieved from the flight. Significant insight was gained in the areas of thrust oscillation, vibro-acoustics, predicting jet interactions and slag ejection from solid rocket systems with submerged nozzles.

An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data.

In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes GTP. Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs.

Image deconvolutions using a ray traced model PSF was performed successfully to reinforce our conclusion regarding the origin of the astigmatism. A mechanical correction was made to the optical structure, and the mirror was tested successfully FWHM 0. Flight and calibration results are presented for the Ares I-X 5-hole probe. The probe is calibrated by using a combination of wind tunnel, CFD, and other numerical modeling techniques. This is then applied to the probe flight data and comparisons are made between the vanes and 5-hole probe.

Using this and other data it is shown the probe was corrupted by water rendering that measurement unreliable. Despite the President s intention to cancel the Constellation Program of which Ares is a part, this historic flight has produced a great amount of data and numerous lessons learned for any future launch vehicles.

This paper will describe the accomplishments of Ares I-X and the lessons that other programs can glean from this successful mission. It also was designed to be used with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for a variety of missions beyond low-Earth orbit LEO. The Ares I-X development flight test was conceived in to acquire early engineering and environment data during liftoff, ascent, and first stage recovery. Demonstrated First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics, and parachute performance.

Characterized the magnitude of integrated vehicle roll torque throughout First Stage flight. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle FTV , launched in October , carried with it over buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X.

It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model RBM instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range.

This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations.

Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented.

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