Ethereum uses a slightly updated form of Bitcoin protocol and math but essentially it is the same wallet, block chain and mining going on. A good overview is here if you want to dig in more. So if you wanted to do this at home what would you do? For a wallet, for something like Ethereum you download an app or trust a 3rd party to hold a wallet there are many exchanges that do this.
A wallet client can be grabbed from here:. This will download the block chain to your PC. If you lose that wallet you lose the value of currency, so try not to let that harddisk crash without a backup one day. PC hardware. You can use sites like whattomine. You can then work out how much coins you could mine in a month and if it would cover your running and capital costs.
The hard bit is that you are speculating on the currency you are making value to be going up, or at least staying the same. That might not be the case as these markets are volatile. The mining programs are simple command line apps that you leave running, i. These pools take a percentage of your work remember: shovel sellers! It is an interesting area though and yet another thing that spawned from one-way hash math and distributed computing.
It used to be just quirky, but now the sums involved are insane. The fact that some estimates have shown current Bitcoin mining alone takes about the same electrical power as the entire country of Ecuador is also sort of sobering. The mining return for Bitcoin by now is so low that it is only profitable if you use ASICs a purpose built processor as opposed to our multi-purpose computing equipment, built only for the purpose to compute Bitcoin hashes.
Shortly after the GPU craze the Ethereum course took a huge dip, and since then it is hardly or not at all profitable to mine at home with a GPU. My point was that the time where mining at home might have given you some kind of profit is now gone and GPU prices are most likely going to stabilize once again. Apology accepted. Sprinkled with some hash they taste good! You can pay at Amazon with Bitcoin, with the number of e-shops that accept it growing daily.
People often use it for donations like to open source projects, etc. The ecosystem is growing, for now at least. It all depends on how governments will deal with e-coins. Right now here in Austria, if you hold a cryptocurrency for more than one year, it is no longer considered speculation and there is zero tax on any income generated through the rise of the course.
There is no equivalent justifying the worth of the currency, that is what makes it so volatile. It is purely based on demand. Crashes are frequent and probably to some amount caused intentionally by speculants holding big amounts of cryptocurrency. The fun thing is, there are constant disagreements about how Bitcoin is supposed to work, so every few months there is a fork resulting in another Bitcoin offspring that works a little differently. If a lot of miners and people start using that offspring too, you might find yourself with having twice the currency practically over night, because when a fork happens, your wallet holds identical amounts of both currencies.
It is absolutely ludicrous. Interesting article! Had a look again at a new graphics card after reading this and well, prices remain the same. There is almost no drop in price anymore. The final decision has not been made but […]. Yesterday we were higher so obviously the whiplash has to continue with a red day today.
I am not sure how it will play out during the day but this could keep a lid on the market and […]. I am rushed this morning but I wanted to put out a quick note. The market is still volatile with the Cohen search yesterday sending the market down and the potential relaxation of the trade war sending the markets higher.
I want to highlight a third macro issue and that is Syria. It is a […]. I picked the wrong day to be out of the office. I thought the news will be in a lull before AACR picked up later this week. I guess I was wrong on multiple fronts. The sector finally got its bounce and took some of the beaten down large caps with it.
The sector and market more generally needs to follow through on this move and I do not mean a couple more hours but days of consolidation. A little back filling is fine but we cannot have another one […]. The market is a volatility machine. We went so long without any real volatility and now all we have a whiplash moves.
In periods of these, the goal is to trade less at least for those with a longer term view. Let the valuations come to you and do not worry about the swings. It […]. Thursday was not a bad follow through for the sector. I am still not convinced that we are out of the forest quite yet but we are at least further away from the abyss that was staring at the sector earlier last week. This week looks to be quiet to start as there is not […].
It has certainly been an interesting couple of days. It looked like the sector was toast Tuesday and then we end up not getting the follow through selling yesterday. Despite all of the whiplash trading, there really has not been a lot of net movement higher or lower.
What I do find a little interesting […]. We seemingly got our bounce yesterday. It was touch and go a little in the afternoon but the market ended strong. While the trading might simply be a reflection of a higher volatility market, it did not feel like a healthy market. This still feels like we could be trading in the respite before another […].
The market is going to bounce today and there are a number or proximate reasons.
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The solution to that is that it will get mined into lifestyles. No one is equipped Bitcoin in step with se, you were given to earn them and just a little success too. There had been a large number of currencies which have been emerged within the years however this one has so much new era getting used. Programs then compete to verify the transaction by means of cracking advanced equations.
The winner is rewarded with extra bitcoins. Try to not get too wrapped up in that. The historical past of transaction may also be tracked again to the purpose from the place bitcoins had been produced.
Bitcoins are changing the way of shifting worth from one position to some other. Wire switch, cheques, and financial institution transfers typically be afflicted by delays and human error since there are other folks concerned within the procedure from each ends of transaction. It is our technology What we imply by means of that is that Bitcoin is made for web technology. We are slowly shifting previous the times of sporting money or bank card. The thought of Bitcoin is going additional than the ease of bank card customers with a cost choice that gives nearly instant transaction time.
Bitcoins are reasonable The charges of Bitcoin as a technique of cost is less expensive when in comparison to financial institution switch or on-line switch programs like PayPal. Why to pay such a lot to simply transfer your hard-earned cash. Bitcoin transaction charges are negligible, and even unfastened in some circumstances.
Its speedy Wire switch, cheques and financial institution transfers typically be afflicted by delays and human err as other individuals are concerned within the procedure. There are a variety of advantages to the use of Bitcoin and different virtual currencies.
The proven fact that they provide decrease transaction charges for traders compared to bank cards or Paypal implies that some retail outlets are keen to cross the financial savings directly to consumers within the type of reductions. You can switch cash to any one, any place on the earth with out paying the prime costs related to global financial institution transfers or conventional cash switch products and services.
If you consider virtual foreign money will develop in reputation, proudly owning it may also be observed as a excellent funding. This is since the provide of those currencies is proscribed, typically with a hard and fast most which is able to ever be created, so if call for grows because of extra folks short of to make use of the foreign money, then its worth will upward push.
One approach round that is to earn your cash, moderately than purchasing them. Earn Bitcoins for Playing Games One of essentially the most fascinating tactics to earn cryptocurrency cash is thru in-game economies and video video games rewards. Video video games and cryptocurrency appear to be an excellent are compatible — many video games have had their very own digital currencies and tradable in-game pieces for years assume World of Warcraft gold, as an example.
Here is a complete checklist of video games which pay you bitcoin Earn Bitcoins from Your Regular Job You do not essentially wish to do the rest other to what you might be doing now so as to get started incomes Bitcoins. Various products and services have began stoning up which permit staff to begin getting their wages in virtual moderately than fiat foreign money.
I have indexed a few notable examples beneath, or simply ask your boss! Get Paid In Bitcoin: This Australian corporate will take receipt of your common wages and convert as a lot or as low as you wish to have in Bitcoin, Mining Digital currencies like Bitcoin had been designed to be earned by means of individuals who run the instrument which runs the community on their pc s. In the early days of Bitcoin this was once executed by means of folks operating the instrument on house computer systems.
You can select up specialist mining slightly simply, the most cost effective of which comes within the type of a small USB stick that you simply wish to plug in to a pc operating the mining instrument. If you favor taking part in with new devices, tweaking settings and working out how issues paintings, then mining will also be an relaxing pastime as nicely to be able to earn just a little further pocket cash within the type of virtual foreign money.
Check out the eBay pill to the fitting for an instance of a low price USB miner. Cloud mining mainly implies that you a proportion in a miner which is being run by means of a qualified, permitting you to proportion within the monetary benefits that come from economies of scale and in addition which means that you have no of the trouble of in reality operating the your self.
Earning Bitcoins for Microjobs There are quite a lot of web pages available in the market now which let you earn a small quantity of Bitcoin for acting more than a few duties. I have additionally incorporated income sharing web pages which allow you to earn a small quantity for doing such things as posting footage on a picture sharing website online, or publishing code snippets or different textual content, on this class.
Check out the hyperlink checklist beneath! BitcoinGet Earn Bitcoins for finishing small easy jobs or for looking at movies. I Want Free Bitcoins Get paid for finishing survey and spouse gives. Includes a referral program which will pay Bitvisitor Get paid a small quantity for every site you discuss with. BitImg An symbol website hosting website online which stocks its advert income with customers in BTC. There at the moment are slightly a couple of firms available in the market in search of common complete time and phase time staff who need to be paid in BTC.
Many of those jobs will contain operating for firms focused on virtual foreign money one way or the other, however there also are different firms as nicely. There also are numerous puts to search out companies in search of brief and freelance employees. One of essentially the most well-established websites for freelancers who need to receives a commission in BTC is BitTask.
Source Faucets — Get Digital Currencies for Free On the opposite hand, in all probability you do not in reality need to do any paintings — you in reality simply need to get your palms on some Bitcoin or different virtual foreign money without spending a dime. Well do not be disturbed — there are many websites available in the market for you too!
You may not get some huge cash like this. But there are quite a lot of other web pages that can can help you declare a small quantity of a virtual foreign money each hour or day only for visiting the site. Whilst some universities are famous worldwide for their intensive research into blockchain, their education department is lacking.
Meanwhile, some of the institutions with the best teaching reputations have comparatively low scores for their research. As well as enrolling in these courses in universities, there is also the option to learn more about blockchain technology — and even gain professional qualifications — by studying online. New enrollments open every few days, and you can work the assignments around your schedule.
Many people still associate cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin with computer geeks, cyber-criminals, and hackers from the dark web. Blockchain technology is still a very new concept, but it has advanced rapidly over the past few years. David Yermack, the finance department chair at NYU Stern School of Business, first began to enroll students in his course on blockchain and financial services back in He started the course because he was interested in how fast Bitcoin was growing.
However, he now sees the course as a way for students to gain the skills they will require for jobs in the future. Students will benefit greatly by studying this area. Between and , the blockchain job market has witnessed tremendous growth. Perhaps one of the most obvious ways to use these courses to make money is to become a blockchain developer.
In addition, websites such as Indeed. A report from Bloomberg stated that the highest demand in the industry is for software development and financial services. Blockchain technology has made a lot of progress over the past few years alone, but this is still just the very beginning.
Job positions are opening far faster than they can be filled, and right now is the prime time for those with the right skills to get involved. You may have grown up constantly hearing that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. It was claimed to kick-start your metabolism and reduce over-eating later in the day, ultimately helping maintain a healthy weight. Recent research, however, has raised doubts over the veracity of this commonly held belief, and a new meta-analysis has concluded there is no good evidence to suggest eating breakfast promotes weight loss or improves metabolic rates later in the day.
The meta-study gathered data from 13 separate randomized control trials, all conducted to compare the effects of eating breakfast and skipping breakfast in adults. The results were pretty clear with the breakfast groups eating, on average, calories more per day than those that skipped breakfast.
Those that skipped breakfast also weighed an average of one pound 0. Of the studies included in the review that examined metabolic rates and hormone levels associated with appetite regulation, the data revealed no significant difference between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers. Two studies examining changes in diet-induced thermogenesis, the metabolic process in which your body converts calories to heat, also found virtually no differences between the two groups.
All of this evidence adds up to a reasonably confident conclusion that breakfast consumption does not promote weight loss or play a major role in altering energy expenditure across the day. In fact, the researchers suggest that eating breakfast may, in some cases, have the opposite effect and hinder weight loss plans.
But why then has such as strong anecdotal history built up around the idea of breakfast being so beneficial and important? Almost every major governmental health body around the world recommends breakfast as important and advises people to avoid skipping it. While epidemiological studies may often show that, in general populations, people who skip breakfast tend to be more overweight and eat more later in the day, this does not mean skipping breakfast actively causes those subsequent effects.
Some research is affirming that large caloric intakes late in the evening can be unhealthy. So, certainly, skipping breakfast and having a big dinner late at night is not an ideal strategy, but it is becoming increasingly clear that breakfast, in and of itself, is not as important as we previously suspected. Some people are programmed to prefer eating food earlier in the day and others later, which might suit our unique personal metabolism.
The new study was published in the journal BMJ. Below, what science has to tell us about the real value of soap. How effective is soap over plain old water? It works, but all else being equal, water has a greater marginal effect. Health professionals recommend handwashing before eating, after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, and other situations in which you might come into contact with harmful bacteria.
On the bright side, combining good technique with water alone can actually remove a significant share of germs from your hands. This has been proven in countries where access to soap is limited. In rural Bangladesh, where diarrhea among children is a widespread problem, scientists examined the effectiveness of four different forms of hygiene on incidences of diarrhea. Others were observed washing one hand using water only; still others were seen washing both hands with water; and lastly, scientists saw some food preparers wash at least one hand with water and soap.
While taking detailed notes on the manner and opportunities for handwashing, researchers also conducted monthly diarrhea tests on the children in each household in the study. In households where food was prepared without washing hands, children had diarrhea in Through the use of water alone on both hands, the rate of diarrhea was cut by nearly half. Not bad for a little H2O.
Adding in soap had a predictable effect, cutting the prevalence of diarrhea again by another 3. Maybe we should withhold our judgment. Is soap always clean? When you use it, you basically wind up transferring germs from the soap directly to your hands. In a thorough study of soap contamination , one team of U.
The scientists tested three types of soap dispenser, in both lab and real-world settings. Modular dispensers that relied on sealed refills stayed clean even after a year of use. In short, both the nature of the dispenser as well as the cleanliness of the soap itself can have a major impact on how clean your hands are after washing.
How helpful is antibacterial soap, anyway? In a head-to-head test of antibacterial and regular soap, antibacterial soap has an inherent advantage. One study has shown that a second handwashing session with regular soap successfully reduced E. But after doubling the time spent washing, the amount of bacteria removed skyrocketed for antibacterial soap, the figure was 3. Increasing the volume of soap used seemed to help in the case of antibacterial soap, but there seemed to be a ceiling for regular soap beyond which more time and more soap did virtually nothing.
The level of bacterial reduction caused by non-antimicrobial soap is due to its surfactants, which physically remove bacteria. Once maximum removal is achieved, soap amount and wash time do not improve surfactancy. Antimicrobial soap provides both surfactancy and biocidal modes of action. In other words, regular soap simply causes bacteria to loosen their grip on your hands, to be rinsed away. That helps explain why using water alone still seems to work just fine, as long as you rub your hands together vigorously.
By contrast, antibacterial soap has additives that are designed to kill bacteria outright. As you might have guessed already, washing your hands means more than slapping on a bit of soap, lathering up and then rinsing off.
The real secret to cleanliness, it seems, is not only whether you use soap, but how hard you scrub, and for how long. The expedition vehicle specialists at Action Mobil are filling out their Pure lineup with an even meaner all-terrain motorhome. The Mercedes Zetros base brings serious turbo-diesel muscle, plenty of height and an off-road-specific driveline. Drop a The truck also includes three switchable mechanical differential locks and a 1. Beyond off-road adventuring, the Zetros spends its time working mines, battling raging forest fires, responding to emergencies and reworking landscapes.
Needless to say, the Zetros makes an incredibly capable foundation for any specialized off-road vehicle. The sink is set into granite countertop. At the front of the living area, the dry bath is split into a shower room in the small central hallway just behind the driver cab pass-through door and a separate toilet compartment to the side.
Not surprisingly, the Pure Zetros rolls out of the garage much better prepared than the average motorhome for roaming off-grid for long periods of time. It carries dual L diesel tanks, a L fresh water tank, a L gray water tank, a Ah lithium battery bank, and a 1. Action Mobil announced the Zetros-based Pure last month, showing a polished model with global exterior graphics standing strong against the frigid Siberian backdrop.
Source: Action Mobil via Motor1. You might have heard that one of the smartphone trends of is going to be foldable phones, devices with displays you can actually bend all the way in half. The devices now coming down the line are truly foldable phones, though — complete with screens and internal circuitry that actually bend to take on multiple form factors, whether you want to use them as tablet-style devices, or handsets with screens on the front and the back.
But here are the big brand phones to start saving for. Official pre-launch images are pretty much non-existent, and bear in mind that the product names, specs, and designs are just speculation for the time being. Rumors of a foldable Samsung phone have been swirling for years now, and late in we finally got a proper look at a prototype , using what Samsung is calling an Infinity Flex Display. The phone itself is reportedly going to be called the Galaxy X or the Galaxy F for Foldable , and it might even appear alongside the Galaxy S10 phones early in the year.
All we know for definite is that Sony will want to keep up with the trend for flexible displays. Based on leaked trademark applications , it looks as though the LG foldable phone could be called the Flex, the Foldi, or the Duplex or perhaps all three. LG has also been busy filing patents around foldable phone tech, so we know the company is at least considering how to get it to market. Other details on the LG foldable phone, like specs and sizes, are thin on the ground — but we have seen reports that the LG G8 will come with a dual-screen display , setting the stage for a folding phone later in the year.
What we do know from Huawei phones of the last few years is that the company is unlikely to skimp on specs and features. Expect the foldable Huawei phone to come packing the most powerful internal components available, and quite possibly a triple-lens camera around the back. Could the old-school foldable phone be getting a new lease of life? Once again, there are patent filings to pore over: it does indeed look like the Razr form factor might be making a comeback, only this time the physical hardware hinge is going to be replaced with a bend in the screen.
That might mean a keyboard or keypad at the bottom of the display, with apps above. Xiaomi has recently teased the arrival of its own foldable phone by posting a video showing co-founder and president Lin Bin playing around with what we presume is a prototype. As you can see, the fold mechanism is a little different to the norm: there are two hinges, so the two sides of the larger display fold around the back of the device.
The software interface certainly looks slick and responsive, adapting quickly to the change in form factor while a video plays on screen. Keep an eye on MWC Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February, when we might well hear more about the Xiaomi foldable phone and the other folding devices on this list.
By Scotty Hendricks —. A new report by Oxfam argues that inequality around the word is so out of hand that it is putting progress at risk. The report offers a scathing indictment of policies advanced around the world over the last few decades.
The authors propose vast expansions of public services paid for by increasing taxes on the super wealthy to remedy the problems they examine in their report. It then warns us that the problems we face today place that progress at risk and even threaten to undo the efforts of countless individuals, governments, and NGOs. It begins by revealing that the number of billionaires in the world has doubled since the financial crisis of and that they collectively grow richer by 2.
This is made possible, it explains, by the ever-decreasing tax rates on high incomes and corporations. The choice to cut taxes means there is less money in the coffers to pay for public services and comes at a high cost to those who need them the most. The figures explaining that cost are shocking. All of the wealth those 3. As a direct result of lack of public services, people die and the poverty trap becomes harder to escape.
The report explains that 10, people will die today due to lack of proper medical care, million children will not be allowed to go to school for lack of funds, and the poorest women on the planet will do millions of hours of unpaid care work. All of this means it should come as no surprise that the rate of poverty reduction is half of what it was in The authors hasten to add that in Sub-Saharan Africa the extreme poverty rate has started to increase.
While the report focuses on devolving nations, it references conditions in the United States several times. It mentions how social mobility in the United States has been declining for some time and how a black child born in the United States is more likely to die before their first birthday than a child born in Libya. One section in the report explains the poverty mentioned above:. This is a direct result of inequality, and of prosperity accruing disproportionately to those at the top for decades.
The lesson is clear: to beat poverty, we must fight inequality. The report also explores how these problems tend to harm women more than men. Since women tend to own less wealth than men, policies that benefit the rich are less likely to help them. Women are also expected in many cultures to take care of children, the sick, and the elderly — tasks made much harder if public services like health programs and childcare are cut back. The Oxfam report tells us that if a corporation did all the unpaid care work the women of the world do and charged people for it, that business would be 43 times larger than Apple.
If this work were to be supported by public services, we are told, women around the would be able to spend that time more effectively improving their situation. The report does not merely complain without offering a way forward. The authors point to the places where progress is being made on these issues and conclude that increased funding to public services financed by taxes on the super-rich will go a long way in solving them. For example, a wealth tax placed on the top 1 percent of income earners would provide billion dollars each year, enough to ensure that every child on the planet has access to an education — a necessity if global poverty rates are going to be reduced.
They propose universal health care and education, an end to privatizations of public services, public pensions and child care, and investments in public utilities to help fix inequality. Anand Giridharadas , an author who has written extensively on inequality, took to Twitter to comment on the report.
He has argued in his books that inequality prevents society from making progress on certain problems because the people with the most wealth will use that wealth to keep the system that made them wealthy in place, even at the cost of inhibiting social reform. In line with his previous comments on inequality, he argues that these figures are a sign that:. He also takes aim at those who think this is a glitch in the system or that the problem will solve itself.
Pinker is known for taking a nuanced but controversial attitude toward inequality. Instead, he argues that we should focus on questions of poverty and unfairness which are tied to the discussion around inequality. In one section he cites philosopher Harry Frankfurt to explain his stance:. If a person lives a long, healthy, pleasurable, and stimulating life, then how much money the Joneses earn, how big their house is, and how many cars they drive are morally irrelevant. What is morally important is that each should have enough.
How he would feel about a report which argues that massive inequality is itself causing an increase in poverty is an open question since it does move beyond viewing inequality as bad in itself and focuses more on how that inequality causes other problems. In the past, Pinker has critiqued those who say inequality is doing that by pointing to absolute improvements in living conditions over time, but he might not be able to do that for much longer.
He has a history of giving various metrics for how the world is improving over time and is likely to continue to do so as long as we keep our Enlightenment worldview. The global tendency to cut taxes and public services came at a high cost for the poorest. Now, inequality is so high that it threatens to cause progress in poverty reduction to stall or even reverse. While the question of how lousy inequality is in itself remains open, the fact that it has reached a level where it is causing other problems has been settled.
What we do next may prove definitive in the battle against poverty or it may halt the progress of the last few decades. Read on below to see our pick and you can also hit the gallery to see more of each project. The power station itself is already operational but the ski slope roof is currently being tested and is expected to be open in April. The building will measure sq m 6, sq ft and sport 1 m 3. It includes just 83 homes in all, with apartments measuring between 4, and 9, sq ft — sq m.
One Thousand Museum is due to be completed sometime this year. Looking like a strange cross between a big pineapple and an M. Escher artwork, Vessel is the centerpiece of a massive development in Hudson Yards, New York City, the largest private real estate development in the history of the United States.
Rising m 1, ft over St. Its construction has taken over six years and involved 20, people from 18 countries. The foundations required concrete to be poured continuously for 49 hours and its glazing measures 72, sq m , sq ft. It takes the form of a spire with five wings that twist a total of 90 degrees from top to bottom and has been pre-certified LEED Gold a green building standard for its energy-efficient design. The Lakhta Center is due to be officially completed soon. It consists of a large podium envisioned as an artificial mountain, with 18 houses atop.
The podium will be covered in native, drought-tolerant greenery and contain commercial spaces for rent on ground level. The UN expects the global population to hit around 10 billion people by , and the reality is our current food practices cannot support both that and the health of our planet. Indeed, the environment that supports human existence will begin to burst at the seams if we continue with the status quo.
The EAT-Lancet Commission is a team of 37 scientists from various disciplines that take aim at this problem via the prism of food. The aim of the team is to establish a robust, scientific consensus on what constitutes a diet that is not only nutritious and healthy, but will be sustainable for the planet in the year One particularly unnerving statistic of our current food practices is that one in every three mouthfuls of it go to waste, around 1.
At the same time, obesity and diabetes rates are on the rise, with more than two billion adults around the world classed as overweight and obese. How we correct these imbalances, and do so in a way that looks after the planet, is a huge undertaking, but the scientists maintain that a healthy, sustainable food system is very much attainable. While this is uncharted policy territory and these problems are not easily fixed, this goal is within reach and there are opportunities to adapt international, local, and business policies.
Red meat production places a huge strain on the environment, demanding vast amounts of land and water while outputting substantial greenhouse gas emissions. The scientists call for consumption of red meat to be halved globally, with that protein to be sourced from plants like chickpeas and beans instead. This is particularly pertinent in North America, where residents eat almost 6. Meanwhile, the diet suggests consuming at least g The move away from unhealthy diets toward a more plant-based subsistence could help avoid approximately 11 million premature deaths per year, according to the scientists.
Beyond the specifics, they also call for individuals to give greater consideration to how the food they buy is produced [organic vs. A brief of the report is available here , while a paper accompanying it was published in the journal The Lancet. Source: EAT-Lancet. Probably ever since bicycles were first invented, people have been looking for alternatives to the traditional approach of pedaling in circles. Los Angeles-based inventor Rodger Parker has utilized one such alternative in his NuBike, which he claims is more efficient than a chain-drive bike.
Along with its unique-looking carbon fiber frame, what really stands out on the NuBike are the levers that run from the pedals to a linkage on the rear hub. These allow riders to simply push up and down on the pedals, causing the rear wheel to turn. There are reportedly a number of advantages to this setup. According to Brown, because the levers are much longer than traditional cranks, riders are able to deliver more torque and thus power to the wheel for a given amount of effort.
He also states that because the pedals just move vertically, riders can more effectively use the force of gravity to help push them down. The prototype weighs 22 lb 10 kg. By replacing the current aluminum levers with ones made of magnesium, along with making some other changes, it is hoped that the final commercial model will tip the scales at 18 lb 8 kg.
Source: Kickstarter. Earth is a spectacular photographic project from veteran artist and storyteller Milan Radisics. The project tells the story of how water shapes the planet by using aerial photography to deliver a series of stunning images that sit on the border between abstract art and documentary realism. The ongoing series currently spans eleven countries and while, so far, the project has centered mainly on European locations, Radisics is planning on photographing areas of Africa, South America and India in the very near future.
The project is structured as a story with seven primary chapters, or topics. These topics cover the entire story of Earth and water, beginning with melting glaciers and ending with drought that has left us with the patterns and remnants of long lost streams and rivers. Research for each prospective photographic location begins with a large scout using Google Earth.
That way, after hours of research, I may come across something truly remarkable which is also appropriate for the project. When this occurs, I dive into the location and continue the search personally on site. While the project does have an overt environmental message, Radisics is not interested in pushing a specific ideology through his work. The Water. Earth project is one that Radisics sees as both artistic self-expression and journalistic document.
This is inspiring visual storytelling designed to proffer a sense of awe in the viewer, and Radisics hopes the work will maybe move some people to reconsider their approach to conservation and our place on this fragile planet. Source: Water. But when it hit, the Alaskan borough of Matanuska-Susitna was knocked for six.
Hundreds of employees found themselves locked out of their work stations. Staff at local libraries received urgent phone calls telling them to quickly turn off all the public PCs. The animal shelter lost access to data on medications required by its furry residents. An online booking system for swimming lessons went down, leaving people to queue up in person.
One borough office had to switch to electronic typewriters temporarily. She threw her hands up in disgust. Matanuska-Susitna, known as Mat-Su, is still trying to recover from what happened, months after the attack began in July When the first signs of malware popped up, no-one expected the turmoil that followed. IT staff initially worked up to 20 hours a day, tasked with digitally scrubbing clean servers.
Mat-Su, a largely rural borough stretching across an area the size of West Virginia or Latvia, is home to just , people. It seems a strange target for a cyber-attack. On the morning of 23 July , employees at the borough offices of Matanuska-Susitna in the tiny town of Palmer arrived for work as usual. Within a few hours, an anti-virus program flagged unusual activity on some of their PCs. They found some malicious files, so they followed standard procedure: get staff to change their passwords and, meanwhile, prepare an automated program to clear out any suspicious software.
Wyatt watched as the network lit up. It looked like a larger or second stage attack had been triggered. In recent years, ransomware outbreaks around the world have temporarily shut hospitals, halted production at factories, skewered operations at major ports and sent hundreds of offices into chaos. Some estimates put the annual total cost of ransomware events at several billion dollars.
The scale of these cyber-attacks was certainly new to Wyatt, who started his IT career in the US Air Force before working for defense and government contractors. When he realized the incident was going to cause significant headaches, he went to see borough manager John Moosey. Moosey listened as Wyatt explained what he knew about the situation.
Moosey and Wyatt were soon on the phone to the FBI — and their insurer — explaining that they seemed to be the target of a large cyber-attack. As IT experts were drafted in to help with the recovery, printers and computers were gathered up in droves — more than devices in total had to be checked and scrubbed.
They wanted the library to disconnect every computer and printer — not just switch them off, but unplug them too. Then they had a bright idea. In the cupboard were a couple of old electronic typewriters. They dusted them off and used them, a move that made international headlines. As systems were taken offline, and staff switched to mobile phones and temporary webmail services, many functions of the borough were forced to slow down.
Computer programs had been designed to help process everything from data on construction sites to credit card payments at the local landfill — but now they were all out of action. In the space of one week, Big Lake library welcomes between 1, and 1, people through its doors. Many of them rely on internet and computer services there. Oberg remembers the call she got from the IT department. They wanted the library to disconnect every computer and printer — not just switch them off, but unplug them.
Staff were also asked to turn off the public wi-fi. For a few weeks, they were partially cut off. Oberg spent two months worrying that the data for library groups and services would be lost forever. Staff computers at the shelter were taken away. She moved to Mat-Su in the s with her husband, whose family ran a septic tank and sewerage business. She has a place on a committee overseeing the development of a new waste-water treatment plant.
Others were equally worried. Meanwhile, Mat-Su estate agents, who regularly sign in to an online system for local land registry data, found themselves locked out. Even the system for signing up children for swimming lessons went down. While no-one has made any official link to the Chinese, there have been allegations of Chinese involvement in other recent hacking episodes.
As they combed through the digital wreckage, Wyatt and his colleagues realized that the malware had deposited data, in files named with a specific number, on victim computers. After investigating, they realized this number, , identified Mat-Su as the th victim of this particular version of the malware; the other victims are still unknown. They also gleaned some clues now about how the attack started. Wyatt has some hints it was a targeted phishing attack, in which an organization working with the borough was compromised in a separate attack.
Wyatt says he has evidence that this allowed someone to send a carefully composed malicious email, containing the first batch of malware, to a Mat-Su employee. By cloaking an attack within a seemingly innocuous message, malware creators increase the chances that someone clicks on a link or downloads the attachment that spreads the malware to their computer. From there, it can attack other computers on the same network. In August , Wyatt appeared in a YouTube video published by the borough explaining the extent of the recovery operation.
Not all members of the public were understanding. But many were supportive. Mat-Su may not have been attacked for any other reason besides the malware creators belief that they could collect ransom payments. William Walton, a supervisory special agent at the FBI investigating what happened in Mat-Su, says the kind of attack Mat-Su experienced can have serious consequences. Being a smaller community, Mat-Su has less of a safety net to rely on, he points out.
We may never know who attacked Mat-Su, or why. But such incidents are unsettlingly common. As communities and businesses rely on computers for even the most basic tasks, the potential for a cyber-criminal to cause havoc has only increased. Now, a handful of small towns in Alaska, scattered across the borough of Mat-Su, know that only too well. Image Source. First, you need a bitcoin wallet. There are free bitcoin wallets available for smartphones and all major operating systems.
Just like with a physical wallet, you must always secure it — this means being careful with online services, putting backup and encryption, and putting just small amounts in it for everyday use. A very common use for bitcoin is for online purchases. Today, there are hundreds of retailers and online shops — even local businesses — that accept bitcoins. Bitcoin can be used to purchase gift cards, video games, and household items; you can also use it in tipping and donating to charity.
There are different ways to pay using your bitcoin. You can pay using your wallet or app, via QR code, or pay directly to a bitcoin address. Making a blockchain payment is fast and convenient — and you do not need to key-in sensitive information when making a payment.
One thing that you need to understand is that bitcoin, no matter how popular it has become at this point, is still experimental. Getting into bitcoin now can mean that you have to deal with the growing pains as it is still at the stage in which it is still improving and such improvements may bring about new challenges.
Bitcoin price is very volatile. You should look at bitcoin as a high risk asset and you should not keep your savings with bitcoin at this point. You must adopt good practices in protecting your privacy as bitcoin is not entirely anonymous. Bitcoin payments cannot be reversed, so only transact with people you trust and business that have already established their reputation. Moreover, bitcoin purchases are not taxed at the moment since there is no way for third parties to identify, track, or intercept transactions that use bitcoins.
Please consult a legal professional for further information. With so much emphasis on mothers, turns out fathers have to be equally vigilant in their habits. Classical music might not make your child smarter, although music—such as, it turns out, the Village People— does have an effect on fetuses. For example, most of the blame for infertility falls on women, yet nearly half of all couples unable to reproduce are due to problems with men. Wexner Medical Center physiology and cell biology researcher Kristin Stanford has now provided another important clue about infant health: exercise.
In a study recently published in the journal, Diabetes , she says that men who exercise within a month of conception produce healthier babies. The study featured two groups of mice. One group was fed a high-fat diet for three weeks; the other, a more balanced diet. Each group was split into two: one group remained sedentary, the other had plenty of exercise.
After their children were born, the infant mice were given regular diets, but remained sedentary. The result :. The researchers report that adult offspring from sires who exercised had improved glucose metabolism, decreased body weight and a decreased fat mass.
The worse-performing group of children was produced by sedentary fathers on a high-fat diet. Exercise, Standford notes, negated that effect—the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet led to healthier children than sedentary fathers on a regular diet. Movement matters. Incredibly, exercise changes the genetic expression of their offspring. Laurie Goodyear, who co-led the study, says this could have important consequences on children moving forward. If translated to humans, this would be hugely important for the health of the next generation.
Early onset diabetes is linked to the microbiome—your genetic expression directly affects your children, and yes, the food you eat matters. Another recent study shows that breastfeeding is not only better for babies, it reduces the risk of various types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis in mothers. Though the long-standing myth that marijuana use affects fertility rates has been debunked , male obesity, for example, has a profound effect on the health of children.
Standford notes,. We know that in adult men obesity impairs testosterone levels, sperm number and motility, and it decreases the number of live births. Yet exercise is never the wrong solution. As it turns out, it plays an essential role in every stage of development, even at the very beginning.
Stay in touch with Derek on Twitter and Facebook. The average number of books in a U. The study, led by Dr. Joanna Sikora of Australian National University, found the greatest gains in adult literacy, numeracy, and ICT skills when a home had from 80 to books — no additional gains were seen above that number. Nonetheless, what constitutes a large library depends on where you are. Only a handful of countries, though, own fewer than 80 books on average: Chile, Greece, Italy, Singapore, and Turkey.
A reasonable question to ask would be about the effect of the rise in digital books. The study suggests that there are two factors at play here. Having books around the house can substantially level the playing field in reading and math skills even without the expense of post-secondary time in the classroom.
For those who can send their kids to college, the study suggests that raising a child in a bookish atmosphere may be a prerequisite to deriving the full benefit of a college education, and, of course, it provides a child with an even greater chance of success in adulthood.
Bookworms rejoice! Researchers at Yale University asked 3, participants over 50 years-old about their reading habits. From that data, they split the cohort into 3 groups: non-readers, people who read less than 3. The researchers followed up with each group for 12 years. The people who read the most were college-educated women in the higher-income group.
Over the course of the study, the researchers consistently found that both groups of readers lived longer than the non-readers. The readers who read over 3. Credit: Social Science and Medicine. The results get better. This is a novel finding, as previous studies did not compare types of reading material; it indicates that book reading rather than reading in general is driving a survival advantage.
The reason books had greater gains than periodicals is because book reading involves more cognitive faculties. As any book lover knows, reading involves two major cognitive processes: deep reading, and emotional connection. Deep reading is a slow process where the reader engages with the book and seeks to understand it within its own context and within the context of the outside world. Emotional connection is where the reader empathizes with the characters, and that promotes social perception and emotional intelligence.
Those cognitive processes were cited by the Yale team and used as markers for this study. Still, those cognitive benefits are real, as writer Nicholas Sparr explains [in a video associated with this article]. There are no real downsides to reading, other than making the time for it.
Civita Bagnoreggio is slowly dying. The continuous seismic activities that followed in the course of the centuries, brought a long series of landslides; for this reason, Civita almost became completely desolated. Today, in fact, only a very small number of people live there who are determined to keep this little fragment of rock alive.
Thanks to these stubborn inhabitants, today Civita is an enchanted place, where time seems to have stopped. Wandering around the century old city is an unbelievable experience. Civita Bagnoreggio is just one hour and a half driving time from Rome, which makes it a perfect destination for a day trip. As the United States becomes a net oil exporter for the first time in 75 years, the US Department of the Interior has announced the discovery of the largest continuous oil and gas field ever found.
One of the problems when it comes to understanding the oil and gas industry is that the terminology can be misleading. For example, when someone asks how much oil or gas there is, the answer is almost invariably that we have enough to last 20 years. That seems straightforward enough and argues for the phasing out of increasingly scarce fossil fuels, but the curious thing is that 20 years ago we had 20 years worth of oil and gas, and the same was true 20 years before that, and will probably be true in 20 years time.
This is because what that year figure deals with are reserves or, rather proven reserves. These are oil and gas fields that have been found with 90 percent certainty and can be recovered given the economic, technological, and political conditions of today. Because oil and gas prospecting is incredibly expensive, the oil companies like to find enough reserves to last a generation and call it good.
Behind the proven reserves are the probable reserves, which are 50 percent certain, and the possible reserves, which are 10 percent certain. And there tend to be a lot more of these than the proven reserves. Then there are the resources, which is what the Department of the Interior is talking about.
This is effectively how the new giant oil and gas field was found. The area is already highly productive in oil and gas, but it was only with the introduction of new technology and studying their effects on output that the size and wealth of the resource could be assessed. How economical it will be to recover the oil and gas there has yet to be determined.
The results of this most recent assessment and that of the Wolfcamp Formation in the Midland Basin in are our largest continuous oil and gas assessments ever released. Knowing where these resources are located and how much exists is crucial to ensuring both our energy independence and energy dominance.
Of course, advances in technology have also opened up alternative energy pathways based on renewable energy. Source: US Department of the Interior. By Kevin Dickinson —. Psychologists James Fadiman and Sophia Korb have compiled more than 1, reports detailing individual experiences with microdosing. Based on their research, they define microdosing as when a user takes a small amount of a psychotropic drug, such as LSD, peyote, or magic truffles.
A typical microdose lands between one-tenth and one-twentieth of a recreational hit. Most microdosers follow a regiment of one day on, two days off. Others only imbibe when they feel it would be useful for a particular project. Bernhard Hommel, took place at an event organized by the Psychedelic Society of the Netherlands. Thirty-eight volunteers were asked to perform three tests: a picture concept task, an alternative uses task, and a progressive matrices task.
The picture concept task required participants to find a common association among several objects, while ruling out inappropriate ones. The alternative uses task asked the participants to conceive of as many uses for a common household object as possible within a time limit.
After the first round of tests, participants were given 0. The results were significant. Other tests have shown microdosing psilocybin mushrooms can have other efficacious results. A study published in The Lancet had participants take psilocybin capsules to combat depression alongside supportive therapy. The participants, who had proven to be treatment resistant beforehand, reported improvement in their symptoms. By slowing down the amygdala specifically, the drug repressed negative emotions in patients and improved their moods.
Yet another study from Johns Hopkins University suggested that magic truffles could weaken nicotine addiction and help smokers quit. Tying these studies together is one published in PNAS. It looked at patients high on psilocybin while they were in an fMRI machine. The scans revealed that the compound not only inhibits the limbic system but also the prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, areas associated with personality expression, filtering stimuli intake, and intrinsic control.
The disconnection between these specific areas of the brain could explain why psilocybin not only lessens depression but, which taken at a high enough dose, also leads to hallucinations and feelings of oneness with the world. Not just yet. The Psychopharmacology study lacked several strict experimental controls, making it a preliminary study and far from the final word.
It had a small sample size only 38 participants , provided no control group, did not look for a placebo effect, and neither researchers nor participants were blinded to the use of psilocybin. It is also possible that participants improved simply because they had taken the test beforehand. The other studies mentioned also lacked these controls, especially with regard to small sample size and not looking at long-term effects.
While these studies suggest magic truffles deliver on their mind-expanding promises, at the moment that remains a suggestion at best. Further and much more rigorous research must be performed before we can say magic truffles can definitively increase creativity and relax our inner critics.
Intermittent fasting diets are all the rage these days. A new study from Harvard researchers has now shown how fasting can increase lifespan, slow aging and improve health by altering the activity of mitochondrial networks inside our cells.
Mitochondria are a little like tiny power plants inside our cells. Last year a team of researchers led by Newcastle University successfully showed how mitochondria are fundamental to the aging of cells. Inside cells mitochondrial networks generally alternate between two states: fused and fragmented. Using nematode worms, an organism useful for studying longevity as it only lives for two weeks, the study found that restricted diets promotes homeostasis in mitochondrial networks allowing for a healthy plasticity between these fused and fragmented states.
Above we can see mitochondrial cells in muscle tissue from the nematode worms Credit: Harvard Chan School. The study also found that fasting enhances mitochondrial coordination with peroxisomes, a type of organelle that can increase fatty acid oxidation, a fundamental fat metabolism process.
These results help shed light on how fasting can increase longevity and promote healthy aging. The study was published in the journal Cell Metabolism. Source: Harvard University. Matthew Davis —. If you were to take out a loan for buying a home — a mortgage — you would offer up your house as collateral to the bank. If you were a farmer, your collateral might instead be the tractors and combines necessary to conduct your business.
However, if you were, say, a small business owner in the Italian city of Reggio Emilia, you could ask the bank Credito Emiliano for a loan. The trouble is, producing and aging the cheese is a delicate process. Parmigiano-Reggiano can take between 12 and 36 months to fully age, and a lot can go wrong in the interim.
Under the wrong conditions, the cheeses can sweat, bubble, or crack. Too many cracks in the exterior of the wheel and the sharp and savory cheesy interior can spoil. Considering their value, fragility, and the time they take to produce, farmers selling wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano are often forced to sell their cheeses before full maturation in order to get an influx of cash. A lot of time and effort is wrapped up in the cheese, and if a farmer has a bad year selling other products, they might have no choice but to liquidate their cheesy assets before they had fully matured.
A worker inspects a wheel of Parimigiano-Reggiano by thumping it with a hammer. By listening to the sound it produces, he can determine if the wheel contains any internal fissures, which would reduce the value of the wheel. In this way, farmers have immediate access to the cash they would otherwise have gained a year or two or three later.
Not only that, but Credem stores the cheeses in the Tagliate General Warehouse. There, , wheels of cheese age under a carefully controlled environment and are regularly inspected by experts to assess the quality of the cheese. Outside of the Credem warehouse, about 10 percent of Parmigiano-Reggiano wheels degrade due to environmental damage, which is a fairly significant chunk considering their value and long maturation period.
Overall, it turns into a much-improved scenario for farmers. Farming can be an extremely volatile industry, especially in Italy, where most farms are small- to medium-sized businesses and lack the resilience that consolidating into a larger entity might provide.
Credem might seem like an outlandish institution, but other banks have accepted unique forms of collateral before. Prior to Prohibition, banks accepted whiskey as collateral for many of the same reasons Credem accepts cheese: Whiskey needs to mature over time, is sensitive to its environment, and is worth quite a bit. Another bank in Hong Kong accepts designer handbags, several accept thoroughbred horses , and when one Spanish bank sought a loan from the European Central Bank, they put up Cristiano Ronaldo and a teammate as collateral.
By Ned Dymoke —. Some music inspires you to move your feet, some inspires you to get out there and change the world. Turns out that ASMR is pretty special. ASMR is powerful stuff! One of the most famous examples of this is the story of Henry, who comes out of dementia while listening to songs from his youth.
By Frank Jacobs —. Is Texas really bigger than Poland? Does Russia stretch further east to west than Africa does north to south? And how big a chunk of Europe would the U. Created by James Talmage and Damon Maneice, the application was inspired by an episode of The West Wing , in which a delegation of the fictional Organisation of Cartographers for Social Equality OCSE asks the White House to get public schools to use world maps that use the Peters projection rather than the traditional Mercator projection.
On a Mercator map, countries in further north and south are shown larger than they are relative to countries closer to the equator. However, the Peters projection deviates substantially from what many people have come to expect a world map should look like. Or a lot less. See countries shrink as you drag them from their positions high up north or deep down south closer to the equator. Yes, Greenland is huge.
But not this huge. Drag the icy island away from its Arctic abode toward the deepest jungles of Africa, and its form shifts and its area shrinks. Greenland has an area of , square miles 2. The symbolism of space and the prejudice of history puts the United Kingdom on top, and its former colony Tanzania way down at the bottom of this map.
Look at that: the entire U. But Mercator makes it look larger than it is. Drag and drop it near the equator, and you see how truly huge Africa is: at Texas is bigger than Poland. Talking about huge: stick the Lower 48 onto Europe, and you immediately see how both compare for size.
If Seattle would be in the west of Ireland, Istanbul would still be in the same country — in southern Texas. New York? Deepest Siberia. Admittedly, it sometimes does feel like that. The U. It inflates to a grotesque parody of its former shape but it does rival Canada for size.
Not so much deviation towards the equator, except that it shrinks. Louis would be Cologne and Fort Wayne could pretend it was Berlin. Together, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky cover , sq. Enjoy your time, every second. Ben, BootheGlobalPerspectives. It had a pendulum. Ancient civilizations like the Babylonians focused on the major time units of years, days and hours, whose relative lengths they determined using astronomical observations.
But the invention of the first practical clocks in medieval times allowed finer division. Following the tradition set by the Babylonians, these divisions were expressed using the sexagesimal system , a form of counting based on units of Next time you look at a second hand, remember it is a concept devised by man centuries before our modern clocks came into being. Altria Group Inc. By Stephen Johnson —. Big tobacco companies have been quietly eyeing a move into the marijuana industry for decades.
Now, as cigarette sales slump and more states move to legalize marijuana, big tobacco is finally gearing up for its long-awaited move. Recently, Altria Group Inc. Giants like Altria and Phillip Morris would have an especially easy time doing so because they already have legal experts to navigate the regulatory mazes of legalization, sophisticated distribution networks and massive amounts of capital to invest.
Many experts estimate the legal recreational pot market will eventually look like the beer or cigarette market in the U. What remains harder to predict is how the corporatization of the marijuana industry will change the product itself. Americans have a love-hate relationship with mathematics. Research seems to support this view. The National Assessment of Educational Progress found that, in , just 25 percent of 12th graders performed at or above proficiency in mathematics.
Nor are we doing well when compared to other countries. Meanwhile, Japan, China, and Singapore are crushing it mean scores , , and respectively. This is simply untrue. The brain is mostly not hardwired for mathematics.
While there is no innate math ability in this brain, there sure is a lot of room for math anxiety. Photo from Flickr. On evolutionary grounds it would be surprising if children were mentally equipped for school mathematics.
These tools were invented recently in history and only in a few cultures, too late and too local to stamp the human genome. The mothers of these inventions were the recording and trading of farming surpluses in the first agricultural civilizations. With that said, Pinker notes that we do come pre-equipped with some innate mathematical intuitions.
For example, toddlers can choose which picture has fewer dots, children can divide snacks to share, and all cultures have words for numbers even if that lexicon is limited to one , two , and many. All feats managed with no formal schooling, and all evolutionary advantageous. Citing the work of mathematician Saunders Mac Lane, Pinker speculates that these intuitions may have provided the inspiration for contemporary branches of mathematics: grouping, arithmetic, geometry, and so on.
These intuitions are not the same as the highly formal rule systems we start learning in elementary school, though. While mathematical ability may not be congenital, it is worth noting that general intelligence is.
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