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Bernard W. Dempsey, S. In a centralized economy, currency is issued by a central bank at a rate that is supposed to match the growth of the amount of goods that are exchanged so that these goods can be traded with stable prices. The monetary base is controlled by a central bank.

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Historia de chipre nicosia betting

However, the increase in illegal gambling and its wide influence in social problems led to regulation as a way to protect society and individuals. The legal prohibition of random gambling had mainly moral concerns and it was its vicious, if not immoral, character that was sought to be achieved. The need to safeguard heritage, security, peace and public order was invoked, avoiding feuds, schemes, fraud and other crimes.

Duarte , p. However, it is undeniable that there are negative aspects related to the practice of gambling that have important repercussions on societies, causing damage not only to themselves, but also to third parties, which can affect fundamental legal assets.

The regulation of the sector is decisive for channeling demand towards the legal supply side and adapting this supply to the markets size. It allows to control harmful aspects related to the illicit practice of games of chance, such as fraud, money laundering, corruption, tampering sports results, access by minors and compulsive gamblers and misleading advertising. However, technology emerges with all its virtues and online gambling needs that sovereign states take restrictive measures and regulate differentially these services effectively as considering sector specificities, such as the lack of direct contact, between the user and the operator, and the easy access to online games in an isolated environment, with no social control.

For more than a decade, different regimes have been in force in Europe regarding online gambling, ranging from regulated authorization, an absence of legislation to a total ban on gambling, varying between different liberalized model degrees. As a rule, States grant licenses to entities that intend to make games available online in their territories subject to compliance with legal requirements and the payment of fees and taxes.

However, the online gaming sector is still a young but vibrant segment of the digital economy of our times, being one of the few areas of technology led by European companies. Despite this new paradigm, traditional operators and monopolies of land-based games continue to boost their offline revenues while simultaneously expand their online offering.

Thus, the purpose of this empirical research was the online game in Brazil. The data allowed us to understand the phenomenon of online gambling in all its extent, the evolution trends and the tax revenues level that it provides.

The applicable European law principles are identified and articulated with the European Union Members, which can be applied in the Federated States in Brazil. The evolution of online gaming revenues obtained in Europe and in the World was estimated and Brazil revenue losses were projected. It was observed that social gains resulted from the legalization of online gambling, adopting clear principles and establishing a complete and modern regulatory framework.

We believe that duly regulated online gambling promotes acceptable social behaviors and can be an excellent source of revenue. However, it became evident that areas of collective society were not benefiting from the gambling investments, based on the comparative experience of European game. The research was based on the consultation of bibliography, reports, monographs, legislative sources, statistical data from countries in the European Union and specifically the country under study, Brazil.

Traditional forms of gambling lotteries, bingos, lotos, casino games are now available in a virtual environment, giving rise to practice of gambling in a new format - online gambling 1. The virtual space allowed operators to develop their activity without geographical limitations and allowed players to bet remotely, anytime and anywhere. It is known that the human drive for the game is a reality, as a recreational activity that provides fun, pleasure and passion for risk.

With the implosion of fortune games on the internet 3 , those started to compete unfairly with authorized operators, with evident losses of revenue for sovereign states. In Europe, it was Eurobet, based in the United Kingdom, in , who started offering remote gaming.

In , many of the biggest online operators were already in activity, such as Party Gaming 4 , which started being listed on the London Stock Exchange in It is estimated that at the end of there were around 15 cash gambling sites, more than at the end of , at the end of and 1, at the end of SCHWARTZ, This data indicates that, in , the commercial market for online games in the EU has generated net revenues total stake, minus the paid prizes of Pfanner concluded that attempts to ban the practice of online gambling were doomed to failure, arguing that it was better to legalize tax and regulate it.

Today, there are around 4. Statistics do not leave much room for questioning the optimism revealed in the sector. As for games of chance, Brazil assumes one of the most conservative positions in the world, as it does not have regulations that allow the practice or exploitation of cash games. In the imperial period 7 , Casinos were meeting places for the Brazilian aristocracy, not only to play roulette, card games and alike, but also to enjoy shows in their luxurious rooms 8.

It was through a legal diploma 9 that Brazil banned the practice of gambling and made it illegal to exploit, with the argument that legal and religious moral tradition of the Brazilian people is opposite to the practice and exploitation of gambling, which were a harmful abuse of morals and good manners.

At the time, there were about 70 casinos concentrated in the southeastern region of Brazil, guaranteeing employment to more than workers The animal game has existed for more than a century since , having become a misdemeanor in It is part of the culture and has already become a folklore in our society. Criminal law does not have the power to repeal the economic law of supply and demand.

If the demand is not met by the legal market, it will be met by the illegal market. The relationship of Brazilians with the internet has changed a lot in recent years, both in terms of the content surveyed and in relation to the various forms of access, namely with the exponential growth of smartphone sales in recent years However, until now, the legislation has not been changed and, as such, Brazil maintains its prohibitionist position regarding to the exploitation and practice of gambling.

The rampant growth of the illegal gambling market, due to the lack of regulation in the Brazilian territory, has very harmful consequences, of an economic and financial nature, with the withdrawal of large amounts of capital without any tax return, despite the gambling taking place on illegal sites. The loss of revenue for Brazil is evident, as a result of a new offer that expands the range of products available to players, without leaving their physical comfort zones.

This compromises public support for social functions that could be supported by gambling revenues. Online gambling operators in Brazil do so illegally from abroad as the legislation in force has not been revised to fit them. This legislative void leaves room for legal interpretations that can motivate wrong behavior by users, beyond the control of the authorities. However, the diploma that made betting on physical establishments in Brazil illegal, could not predict the phenomenon of the internet as a non-physical territory.

Therefore, Brazilian law does not limit the performance of betting on the web, since internet is not part of the physical territory of Brazil. Thus, Brazilians can bet on the gaming sites that are available without any illegality, since the servers used by online game operators are being displayed in countries that use this type of activities. It seems clear that maintaining the current lack of regulation of online gambling, coupled with the transfer of player habits, has a strong impact in tax revenue loss for the State, which could be avoided by legal measures.

Caixa also does not authorize the use of links or brand citations to any of its products. The money wagered on online games is still a profit for operators, mostly external, who are not subject to any public tutelage in Brazil, creating a lack of security and protection for players and direct loss of tax revenue.

The legalization of online gambling in Brazil would have, as a natural consequence, the increase in public revenues, the reinforcement of public investment in social areas where millions of Brazilians claim for improvements, in regional development through tourism and in the financing of the practice of sports, discouraging clandestine bets at the same time. The consultant also adds that the contribution of Brazilians to the global online market, with bets on sites located outside its country, reveals their eagerness for online sports betting mainly in football games and leaves clear indications of the revenue losses that could come from taxation.

The data suggests that legalizing all gambling by electronic means is the most intelligent and sensible way to deal with the phenomenon since the legal void generates a great loss of revenue for the interests of States, with significant socio-economic impact. However, legislating online games of chance in Brazil would require a consideration of their consequences, given the complexity of the topic and the multiplicity of disciplines that implies, from taxation issues, revenue sharing among the Federative Entities to criminal matters and sanctioning.

In this regard, reference is made to a legal principle consensually signed and clarified by Bueno , p. Accordingly, the proposals contained in the diploma, aimed at the operation of casinos and bingo halls in Brazilian territory, gambling legalization and measures to regulate online gambling and betting.

The project, by Ciro Nogueira 20 , included the definition of the types of games that can be explored, the criteria for granting licenses and the rules related to the payment of prizes and collection of taxes. It is the type of project in which the government wins and society wins too. These proposals do not revert any financial counterparts to Brazil, which would be really needed for sectors development in the country.

As such, it is imperative that all parties involved discuss and move towards the legalization of online games, so that they are removed from the sphere of illegal operators who do not pay taxes and who, therefore, do not contribute to society.

The European Union EU does not intend to harmonize gambling regulations and does not establish specific rules in terms of establishment autonomy and free access to markets by gambling operators. Therefore, it is up to each Member State to outline its regime for online gambling, respecting the fundamental principles, law and jurisprudence of the EU institutions.

However, with regard to consumer protection, the European Commission warns Member States of four fundamental aspects that must always be taken into account:. Playful games must not induce minors to acquire certain elements without the consent of their parents;. Consumers should be informed about payment methods and purchases should not be charged without their knowledge;. Operators must provide an email address for consumers who wish to clarify doubts or complain. EU defends the controlled regulation model.

However, there are no common, legal and regulatory rules for online gambling in the EU. The creation of these rules including tax is a responsibility of the Member States and the monitoring of the compatibility of national rules with European rules is a responsibility of the Commission and the Court of Justice of the European Union CJEU Although online gambling in Europe can be seen as a successful sector of activity, it should be borne in mind that it is a relatively young market, with development processes that are slowing down as regulatory pressure grows.

In , the online gaming sector in Europe represented There are several reasons to expect continued growth in the online gaming market. From the outset, the increase in the use of smartphones and other mobile devices, technology, the growing use of the internet, changing consumer habits, as well as the gradual consolidation of regulations in several European states.

In the following graph , we can see the consistency in the growth of online gambling in Europe, including its evolution until the end of Regarding regulatory models, trend has been to adopt the so-called liberal regimes, models receptive to private operators and open to foreign investment.

In fact, the regulation of online gambling in the EU is characterized by the diversity of legal frameworks, with few States prohibiting gambling on the internet. However, in some cases, monopoly regimes with online gambling and betting remain, usually protected and managed by the State, either through a public operator or through a private operator with exclusive concession. However, what happens is a progressive implementation of legal regimes for online gambling and there are even more jurisdictions with licensing systems.

Although there is a huge diversity of legislative solutions for the regulation of online gambling, the current scenario suggests that the local license regime local licensing market based on the existence of licensed operators that provide services within a strictly regulated framework at national level, is prevailing. The alternative would be a monopoly regime of strict control by the State. This proactive European attitude towards online gambling has allowed European States not only to regulate the phenomenon controlling it better, but also to obtain essential revenues for the rebalancing of their public accounts CATARINO, The analysis was based on data of turnover and gross revenues of online gambling companies and on tax revenues collected in Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Cyprus and Malta for the years , and The level of statistical significance for all tests was 5.

The Shapiro-Wilk tests Shapiro and Wilk, were used to determine whether the distribution of variables, for each of the groups, had Gaussian properties. However, due to the absence of Gaussian properties, the application of parametric tests based on parameters such as means and standard deviations was invalidated and Mann-Whitney Mann and Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis Kruskal and Wallis, were applied.

Once the turnover, gross and tax revenue values were grouped by country, Gaussian properties normal distribution of values for the set of countries under analysis were not confirmed. Table 1 shows, for each country, the median values of each of the variables under analysis turnover, gross and tax revenue. Thus, it is possible to state that the values obtained are different, with the median for the United Kingdom being much higher than the other countries, on the other hand, the values obtained for Cyprus are considerably lower.

However, it is important to know if these differences are statistically significant. This implies that it is not possible to conclude that the revenues from the taxation of online gambling have a significant value in the gross revenues of companies and tax authorities in Brazil. The analysis hypotheses H2 and H3, according to which the gross revenues and tax revenues from online gambling are statistically significant, are not valid.

On the other hand, the H1 hypothesis in which the turnover of online gambling companies is statistically significant is valid. With regard to the statistical comparison between Brazil and some European Union countries, which tax revenues from online gambling, the following results were obtained: hypothesis H1 is valid for the Brazil-Portugal, Brazil-Cyprus groups and rejected in the Brazil-Spain and Brazil-United Kingdom and hypotheses 2 and 3 are valid in all groups and rejected in the Brazil-United Kingdom group.

Social behaviors show that individuals do not stop betting on games of chance just because they are prohibited by law. Bets continue to be placed but in a clandestine manner, with all its associated problems. Accordingly, the prohibition of betting on games of chance is not the most appropriate way to face the practice and addiction of gambling. States must take a proactive role, creating appropriate legislation, other disciplinary rules and implementing consumer protection and enforcement measures, in accordance with the principles in force in their legal systems.

The legalization of online gambling in the EU proves to be advantageous because, in addition to limiting the phenomenon of illegal gambling by making a socially relevant activity legal, it has enabled expressive revenue figures, thus supporting important social activities financially. It is estimated that there will be a transformation of the gaming business in Europe with the entry of new operators and the expansion of the offer in a model open to the gaming market, which operates through the allocation of licenses.

By banning gambling, Brazil not only fails to prevent this social transformation of gambling but also puts an activity on the margins, when it deserves institutional attention to protect the different partakers and legalize a relevant social phenomenon.

In addition, this marginalization does not prevent the activity of illicit gambling - which is easier nowadays - causes an effective loss of revenue that could very well be used to satisfy important social purposes. In conclusion, a regulatory model for online gambling activity in Brazil should include, among others, the following aspects:.

Only States in the case of Brazil, the Federated States and the Federal District are responsible for exploring online gambling and granting licenses to entities that meet the requirements of good repute, technical and economic capacity to be defined by law;. These, when abroad, must be located in jurisdictions linked to administrative cooperation in the field of taxation, combating fraud and money laundering;.

Regularized contributory and tax status, financial suitability and share capital not less than an amount to be defined;. Provision of deposits to guarantee compliance with legal obligations and the existence of a subsidiary or branch in Brazilian territory;. The regime should not, in principle, establish a limit number of licenses which, unless exceptional circumstances, may be renewable for successive periods and be subject to fees to be defined, depending on the type of game;.

Advertising for online gambling, if allowed, should provide limitations to protect minors and the most vulnerable social groups;. Mechanisms must be created to prevent minors from accessing online gambling, requiring operators to ask for personal data player name, date of birth, nationality, profession, address, e-mail and general registration number or passport , CPF number, bank account details, namely, IBAN or SWIFT, where payments will be debited and prizes credited;.

The legal possibility of creating a mechanism that confirms the player registers straight away, allowing the operator to verify his age, through public databases, should be considered;. As a result, in addition to the benefits mentioned, the legalizing games that remain underground and the establishment of clear and objective requirements for operators will contribute to the creation of new jobs, to penalize defaulters, to strengthen the role of the Federal Revenue of Brazil by requiring tax regularity from interested parties and to encourage regional development policies by increasing tourism and sports activity.

The regime should guarantee integrity and transparency in gambling operations, restricting access to risk groups, ensuring consumer protection and effective control of exploitation, in all its aspects. The taxation of online operators in Brazilian territory would bring immediate tax revenue advantages and, in addition, by guaranteeing the legal protection of consumers, it would safeguard tax regularity and ensure adequate supervision of the activity.

Like many European jurisdictions, with legal regimes that discipline online gambling, and designing an identical model to legalize online gambling in Brazil, the resources obtained could be directed to social, tourism and sport areas, redound the interests of all population. We also identified several positive factors: the protection of minors, the fight against compulsive gambling, the protection of families and property, public safety, in short, providing an environment where social stability must prevail.

It will be up to the National Congress to approve the regulatory initiatives to be proposed by the Government. With the evident advantages that could come from the regulation of gambling in Brazil, there are no consistent arguments that justify its postponement and the maintenance of the current ban that only favors the entities that operate in this legal void.

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The object, mounted on movable wheels, is much like a toy. Limestone with extensive extant polychrome, Classical, last quarter of the 5th Century B. The calm beauty of the creature's head, the form of the palmettes, and the egg-and-dart ovolo molding that decorates the base of the platform are typical of Greek art in the fifth century B. From the collection of the…. This work exemplifies the Hellenization of the Assyrian type of head. The treatment of the beard, though still stylized, has become considerably softer; hair and a wreath of leaves replace the helmet; and most of all, the sensuous lips are integrated into a finely articulated physiognomy.

In , the online gaming sector in Europe represented There are several reasons to expect continued growth in the online gaming market. From the outset, the increase in the use of smartphones and other mobile devices, technology, the growing use of the internet, changing consumer habits, as well as the gradual consolidation of regulations in several European states.

In the following graph , we can see the consistency in the growth of online gambling in Europe, including its evolution until the end of Regarding regulatory models, trend has been to adopt the so-called liberal regimes, models receptive to private operators and open to foreign investment.

In fact, the regulation of online gambling in the EU is characterized by the diversity of legal frameworks, with few States prohibiting gambling on the internet. However, in some cases, monopoly regimes with online gambling and betting remain, usually protected and managed by the State, either through a public operator or through a private operator with exclusive concession.

However, what happens is a progressive implementation of legal regimes for online gambling and there are even more jurisdictions with licensing systems. Although there is a huge diversity of legislative solutions for the regulation of online gambling, the current scenario suggests that the local license regime local licensing market based on the existence of licensed operators that provide services within a strictly regulated framework at national level, is prevailing.

The alternative would be a monopoly regime of strict control by the State. This proactive European attitude towards online gambling has allowed European States not only to regulate the phenomenon controlling it better, but also to obtain essential revenues for the rebalancing of their public accounts CATARINO, The analysis was based on data of turnover and gross revenues of online gambling companies and on tax revenues collected in Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Cyprus and Malta for the years , and The level of statistical significance for all tests was 5.

The Shapiro-Wilk tests Shapiro and Wilk, were used to determine whether the distribution of variables, for each of the groups, had Gaussian properties. However, due to the absence of Gaussian properties, the application of parametric tests based on parameters such as means and standard deviations was invalidated and Mann-Whitney Mann and Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis Kruskal and Wallis, were applied.

Once the turnover, gross and tax revenue values were grouped by country, Gaussian properties normal distribution of values for the set of countries under analysis were not confirmed. Table 1 shows, for each country, the median values of each of the variables under analysis turnover, gross and tax revenue. Thus, it is possible to state that the values obtained are different, with the median for the United Kingdom being much higher than the other countries, on the other hand, the values obtained for Cyprus are considerably lower.

However, it is important to know if these differences are statistically significant. This implies that it is not possible to conclude that the revenues from the taxation of online gambling have a significant value in the gross revenues of companies and tax authorities in Brazil. The analysis hypotheses H2 and H3, according to which the gross revenues and tax revenues from online gambling are statistically significant, are not valid.

On the other hand, the H1 hypothesis in which the turnover of online gambling companies is statistically significant is valid. With regard to the statistical comparison between Brazil and some European Union countries, which tax revenues from online gambling, the following results were obtained: hypothesis H1 is valid for the Brazil-Portugal, Brazil-Cyprus groups and rejected in the Brazil-Spain and Brazil-United Kingdom and hypotheses 2 and 3 are valid in all groups and rejected in the Brazil-United Kingdom group.

Social behaviors show that individuals do not stop betting on games of chance just because they are prohibited by law. Bets continue to be placed but in a clandestine manner, with all its associated problems. Accordingly, the prohibition of betting on games of chance is not the most appropriate way to face the practice and addiction of gambling.

States must take a proactive role, creating appropriate legislation, other disciplinary rules and implementing consumer protection and enforcement measures, in accordance with the principles in force in their legal systems. The legalization of online gambling in the EU proves to be advantageous because, in addition to limiting the phenomenon of illegal gambling by making a socially relevant activity legal, it has enabled expressive revenue figures, thus supporting important social activities financially.

It is estimated that there will be a transformation of the gaming business in Europe with the entry of new operators and the expansion of the offer in a model open to the gaming market, which operates through the allocation of licenses.

By banning gambling, Brazil not only fails to prevent this social transformation of gambling but also puts an activity on the margins, when it deserves institutional attention to protect the different partakers and legalize a relevant social phenomenon. In addition, this marginalization does not prevent the activity of illicit gambling - which is easier nowadays - causes an effective loss of revenue that could very well be used to satisfy important social purposes.

In conclusion, a regulatory model for online gambling activity in Brazil should include, among others, the following aspects:. Only States in the case of Brazil, the Federated States and the Federal District are responsible for exploring online gambling and granting licenses to entities that meet the requirements of good repute, technical and economic capacity to be defined by law;.

These, when abroad, must be located in jurisdictions linked to administrative cooperation in the field of taxation, combating fraud and money laundering;. Regularized contributory and tax status, financial suitability and share capital not less than an amount to be defined;. Provision of deposits to guarantee compliance with legal obligations and the existence of a subsidiary or branch in Brazilian territory;. The regime should not, in principle, establish a limit number of licenses which, unless exceptional circumstances, may be renewable for successive periods and be subject to fees to be defined, depending on the type of game;.

Advertising for online gambling, if allowed, should provide limitations to protect minors and the most vulnerable social groups;. Mechanisms must be created to prevent minors from accessing online gambling, requiring operators to ask for personal data player name, date of birth, nationality, profession, address, e-mail and general registration number or passport , CPF number, bank account details, namely, IBAN or SWIFT, where payments will be debited and prizes credited;. The legal possibility of creating a mechanism that confirms the player registers straight away, allowing the operator to verify his age, through public databases, should be considered;.

As a result, in addition to the benefits mentioned, the legalizing games that remain underground and the establishment of clear and objective requirements for operators will contribute to the creation of new jobs, to penalize defaulters, to strengthen the role of the Federal Revenue of Brazil by requiring tax regularity from interested parties and to encourage regional development policies by increasing tourism and sports activity.

The regime should guarantee integrity and transparency in gambling operations, restricting access to risk groups, ensuring consumer protection and effective control of exploitation, in all its aspects. The taxation of online operators in Brazilian territory would bring immediate tax revenue advantages and, in addition, by guaranteeing the legal protection of consumers, it would safeguard tax regularity and ensure adequate supervision of the activity.

Like many European jurisdictions, with legal regimes that discipline online gambling, and designing an identical model to legalize online gambling in Brazil, the resources obtained could be directed to social, tourism and sport areas, redound the interests of all population. We also identified several positive factors: the protection of minors, the fight against compulsive gambling, the protection of families and property, public safety, in short, providing an environment where social stability must prevail.

It will be up to the National Congress to approve the regulatory initiatives to be proposed by the Government. With the evident advantages that could come from the regulation of gambling in Brazil, there are no consistent arguments that justify its postponement and the maintenance of the current ban that only favors the entities that operate in this legal void.

Access in: 10 jan. Portugal: Coimbra Editora, Paris, Access in: 26 nov. Internet Gambling Report. Access in: 14 nov. Coimbra: Almedina, Lisboa: Vislis Editores, Access in: 12 set. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora, Access in: 27 fev. Directorate of Administration and Finance.

Cyprus Republic. Access in: 8 jan. Secretaria de Estado de Hacienda. Parlamento Europeu e Conselho, Official Journal L O Direito e o jogo. Manifesto for a sustainable EU policy for online gambling. Access in: 15 set. Royal Assent on 17 July Access in: 12 jan. Access in: 23 out. Access in: 4 abr.

Online Gaming: a Gamble or a Sure Bet. Access in: 7 jun. Access in: 16 jan. Department of Information, Access in jan. Coimbra: [s. Jogo e Aposta. Manchester: Manchester University, Call centre: Implementation of the Ottawa Taxation Framework Conditions.

Access in: 16 maio Estudos de homenagem ao Prof. Doutor Alberto Xavier. Decreto-Lei n. Official Journal C Com Interactive Entertainment. Tribunal Judicial da Comarca do Porto Portugal. VIII, n. Doutor J. Saldanha Sanches. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora , Editora, PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited. Global entertainment and media outlook , Access in: 17 out. Manual das Apostas Desportivas.

Access in: 16 set. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora , Roll the Bones: The History of Gambling. New York: Gotham Books, Access in: 19 jan. Official Gazette of the Republic of Cyprus, [ S. Annual Report and Accounts Birmingham: Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 12 July , As Duas faces do Gueto. Coimbra: Livraria Almedina, The essence of games of chance is a decision making under risk scenarios, determined by the statistical probability of hitting the chosen combination result, key, etc.

During this period, Brazil was ruled by two monarchs: D. Pedro I and D. Pedro II. Frequented by many celebrities, where the charismatic figure of Carmen Miranda stood out, who performed on stage every week, between and His objectives were to govern without opposition and to approve his main projects for Brazil, which he achieved. One of the first measures he took was to ban gambling and end casinos. He was a co-founder and editor of the interdisciplinary magazine Ethnography and a regular contributor to Le Monde Diplomatique newspaper.

IDC is a leader in market intelligence and consultancy in the information technology, telecommunications and mass consumer technology markets. The promotion of horse racing and the sale of bets on Brazilian territory is governed by federal law Law of 19 December - Law of Turf. Access at: www. It provides consultancy and advice based on its experience, with more than 50 years operating in different areas of the sector of games of chance.

BNL also monitors bills in progress in the National Congress, judicial decisions and official acts of government lotteries. The measures proposed by Agenda Brasil can be consulted on the Senate website.

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