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JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Microsoft PowerPoint Template and Background with taking a risk in the stock market. Presenting risk reward matrix ppt presentation. This is a risk reward matrix ppt presentation. This is four stage process. The stages in this process are risk reward matrix, investment reward, investment risk, high, med, low.

Despina symeonides chilton investment company monmouth r e a&l investments

Despina symeonides chilton investment company

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TANZANIA INVESTMENT ACT REGULATIONS ON CARRYING

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Chen, S. Wu, and Y. The brown algae Pl. Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein IEP and the spliced intron RNA.

Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.

Unlike most IEPs, Pl. The Pl. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI. The Brown Algae Pl. A randomised trial of high and low pressure level settings on an adjustable ventriculoperitoneal shunt valve for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: results of the Dutch evaluation programme Strata shunt DEPSS trial.

In treating idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus INPH with a shunt there is always a risk of underdrainage or overdrainage. The hypothesis is tested whether patients treated using an adjustable valve preset at the highest opening pressure leads to comparable good clinical results with less subdural effusions than in a control group with an opening pressure preset at a low pressure level.

A multicentre prospective randomised trial was performed on a total of 58 patients suspected of INPH. Thirty patients were assigned to control group 1 and received a Strata shunt Medtronic, Goleta, USA with the valve preset at a performance level PL of 1. In this group the PL was allowed to be lowered until improvement or radiological signs of overdrainage were met.

Significantly more subdural effusions were observed in the improved patients of group 1. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement between both groups overall. On the basis of this multicentre prospective randomised trial it is to be recommended to treat patients with INPH with a shunt with an adjustable valve, preset at the highest opening pressure and lowered until clinical improvement or radiological signs of overdrainage occur although slower improvement and more shunt adjustments might be the consequence.

An FDA licensed PPSB preparation served as the negative control, and a preparation containing activated as well as precursor clotting factors served as the positive control. The positive control indicated that the chimpanzee is a suitable model for the thrombogenicity testing of activated clotting factors.

A development study sponsored by NASA was completed in July which proposed a complete integration of all aircraft instrumentation into a single modular system. Instead of using the current single-function aircraft instruments, computers compiled and displayed inflight information for the pilot. A processor architecture called the Team Architecture was proposed.

A follow-up study of the proposed Team Architecture is reported. The problem, model development, simulation programs and results at length are presented. Also included are program input formats, outputs and listings. Seismic Unix Stockwell, is a widely distributed free software package for processing seismic reflection and signal processing. In a classroom environment, shell scripting of SU modules engages students and helps focus on the theoretical limitations and strengths of signal processing.

However, complex interactive processing stages, e. In a research setting, special functionality from other free seismic processing software such as SioSeis UCSD-NSF can be incorporated readily via an object-oriented style to programming. An object oriented approach is a first step toward efficient extensible programming of multi-step processes, and a simple GUI simplifies parameter selection and decision making. Perl packages classes can advantageously add new functionality around each module and clarify parameter names for easier usage.

For example, through the use of methods, packages can isolate the user from repetitive control structures, as well as replace the names of abbreviated parameters with self-describing names. Moose, an extension of the Perl 5 object system, greatly facilitates an object-oriented style. Perl wrappers are self-documenting via Perl programming document markup language. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate PL in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate PL is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline controls. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Oxidative degradation and non-enzymatic browning due to the interaction between oxidised lipids and primary amine groups in different marine PL emulsions.

Due to the beneficial health effects of marine phospholipids PL there is an increasing industrial interest in using them for nutritional applications including emulsified foods. This study was undertaken to investigate both oxidative and hydrolytic stability of marine PL emulsions in relation to the chemical composition of the marine PL used.

Moreover, non-enzymatic browning reactions were also investigated. Emulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenizer using different concentrations and sources of marine PL. In some formulations, fish oil was added in order to study the effect of increasing levels of triglycerides in the emulsions. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions during storage was further investigated through the measurement of secondary volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction SPME and dynamic headspace DHS connected to gas chromatography GC-MS.

Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through the measurement of Strecker derived volatiles, colour changes and pyrrole content. The results suggested that the oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition and the concentration of marine PL used to prepare them. Emulsions with good oxidative stability could be prepared from marine PL of high purity and high content of PL and antioxidant and low TAG content.

All rights reserved. ISSE 15 Oct. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging. Photoluminescence PL imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors.

In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength e. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process.

Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed. The Presidential Historical Records Preservation Act of [ PL ] requires that the Archivist of the United States submit to Congress a report on alternative models for Presidential archival depositories that: 1 Reduces the financial burden on the Federal Government; 2 Improves the preservation of Presidential records; and 3 Reduces….

Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 18 , introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus L. A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 18 , was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. Sunflower downy mildew DM is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia.

A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene Pl 18 transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus PI into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group LG 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with simple sequence repeat SSR markers. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism SNP markers that cover the Pl 18 region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region.

Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

Presence of the p. L V polymorphism in Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease. Wilson's disease is characterized by the accumulation of copper in different organs, mainly affecting the liver, brain, and cornea, and is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. More than polymorphisms in the ATP7B gene have been reported in the medical literature. The aim of the present study was to identify the conformational changes in the exon 3 region of the ATP7B gene and detect the p.

DNA extraction was performed through the salting-out method and the fragment of interest was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The conformational shift changes in the exon 3 region and the presence of the p.

The so-called b and c conformational shift changes, corresponding to the p. L V polymorphism in the heterozygous and homozygous states, respectively, were identified. The allelic frequency of the p. The p. L V polymorphism was identified in 64 Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease, making future molecular study through indirect methods possible. In this work, we wanted to develop a probiotic from famous longevity villages in Korea.

We visited eight longevity villages in Korea to collect fecal samples from healthy adults who were aged above 80 years and had regular bowel movements, and isolated lactic-acid-producing bacteria from the samples. Isolated colonies that appeared on MRS agar containing bromophenol blue were identified by means of 16S rRNA sequencing, and of the isolates were identified as lactic-acid-producing bacteria 18 species.

Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently found species. Eight isolates were selected on the basis of their ability to inhibit the growth of six intestinal pathogens Escherichia coli OH7, Salmonella enterica subsp. Among these eight isolates, four Lactobacillus fermentum isolates were found not to produce any harmful enzymes or metabolites. Among them, Lactobacillus fermentum isolate no.

This isolate, designated Lactobacillus fermentum PL , has all the characteristics for a good probiotic. We improved medial collateral ligament MCL healing throughout 90 days after surgical transection. We introduced intraperitoneal, per-oral in drinking water and topical thin cream layer peptide therapy always given alone, without a carrier.

Likewise, BPC was effective given per-orally 0. Commonly, BPC microg-ng-rats exhibited consistent functional, biomechanical, macroscopic and histological healing improvements. Thus, we suggest BPC improved healing of acute ligament injuries in further ligament therapy. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. GSMP is designed for use by systems analysis teams. Given compiled subroutines that model the behavior of components plus instructions as to how they are to be interconnected, this program links them together to model a complete system.

GSMP offers a fast response to management requests for reconfigurations of old systems and even initial configurations of new systems. Standard system-analytic services are provided: parameter sweeps, graphics, free-form input and formatted output, file storage and recovery, user-tested error diagnostics, component model and integration checkout and debugging facilities, sensitivity analysis, and a multimethod optimizer with nonlinear constraint handling capability.

Over the last five years GSMP has been used to model theta-pinch, tokamak, and heavy-ion fusion power plants, open- and closed-cycle magneto-hydrodynamic power plants, and total community energy systems. The reports document achievements of early intervention programs EIPs for handicapped infants and young children in Massachusetts.

The first report focuses on Project Access V and on evaluation of four major evaluation outcomes: 1 statutory compliance and generic impact of P. Pulliam and Sen, b Propagation characteristics and excitation of shear-coupled Pl waves with distance and corresponding phase velocity Vph.

Validation of the Polish version was done by analyzing the internal structure of the instrument and comparing the emotional and cognitive aspects of guilt assessed by the TRGI with PTSD symptoms, post-traumatic cognitions and responsibility for MVA and subjective agreement with the judgment.

Multi-junction photovoltaic devices employing dilute-N GaInNAs alloys are currently of high interest for efficient solar energy conversion. The negative band-bowing produced by introducing a few percent N into GaInAs provides a convenient way to match the 1eV component of the solar spectrum, providing recombination losses in localized states can be reduced while maintaining favorable carrier extraction.

The effects of post-growth annealing and hydrogen incorporation on the PL spectra of the films are considered. Research supported by Amethyst Research Inc. Measures were all pre-eclampsia and pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 37 weeks. Overall percent agreement was AUCs were 0. All tests have heightened predictive accuracy for preterm pre-eclampsia.

RNA-mediated silencing of sirZ gives rise to transformants that produce only residual amounts of sirodesmin PL and display a decrease in the transcription of several sirodesmin PL biosynthetic genes. This indicates that SirZ is a major regulator of this gene cluster. Despite its high level of sequence similarity to gliZ, PlgliZ is unable to complement the gliotoxin-deficiency of a mutant of gliZ in A.

Putative binding sites for these regulatory proteins in the promoters of genes in these clusters were predicted using bioinformatic analysis. Virtual screening is a computational technique for predicting a potent binding compound for a receptor protein from a ligand library. It has been a widely used in the drug discovery field to reduce the efforts of medicinal chemists to find hit compounds by experiments. Here, we introduce our novel structure-based virtual screening program, PL -PatchSurfer, which uses molecular surface representation with the three-dimensional Zernike descriptors, which is an effective mathematical representation for identifying physicochemical complementarities between local surfaces of a target protein and a ligand.

The advantage of the surface-patch description is its tolerance on a receptor and compound structure variation. PL -PatchSurfer2 achieves higher accuracy on apo form and computationally modeled receptor structures than conventional structure-based virtual screening programs. Thus, PL -PatchSurfer2 opens up an opportunity for targets that do not have their crystal structures. It is a promising natural biopolymer widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry.

With pre- randomisation , the conventional sequence of obtaining informed consent followed by randomisation is reversed. According to the original pre- randomisation design Zelen design , participants are randomised before they are asked to consent; after randomisation , only participants in the experimental group are asked to consent to treatment and effect measurement. In the past, pre- randomisation has seldom been used, and when it was, it was often under the wrong circumstances.

Awareness regarding the ethical, legal and methodological objections to pre- randomisation is increasing. About a decade ago, we illustrated the applicability and acceptability of pre- randomisation by means of a fictitious heroin provision trial.

In general, pre- randomisation is justified if valid evaluation of the effects of an intervention is impossible using a conventional randomised design, e. Other requirements for pre- randomisation include the following: the study has a clinically relevant objective, it is likely that the study will lead to important new insights, the informed consent procedure bears no potential harm to participants, at least standard care is offered to participants in the control group, and the approval of an independent research ethics committee is obtained.

Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood AFB of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death.

Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P.

Here, we present the isolation and identification of Pl CBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. Using chitin-affinity purified Pl CBP49, we provide evidence that Pl CBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. The identification of the functional role of Pl CBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens.

Improving seismic crustal models in the Corinth Gulf, Greece and estimating source depth using PL -waves. A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece Mw 5. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect.

The wave is similar to PL -wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances ranging from 30 to km. For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL -wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL -wave.

The Discrete Wavenumber method Bouchon, ; Coutant is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm Sambridge, for stochastic search more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth.

We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves derived from synthetic seismograms as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL -wave.

Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL -wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth. To assess the economic impact of introducing into clinical practice in the UK the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase sFlt-1 to placental growth factor Pl GF ratio test for guiding the management of pre-eclampsia.

The main outcome measure from the economic model was the cost per patient per episode of care, from first suspicion of pre-eclampsia to birth. Savings are generated primarily through an improvement in diagnostic accuracy and subsequent reduction in unnecessary hospitalization.

In addition, the test ensures that those women at higher risk are identified and managed appropriately. Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. Yeung, Carol K. Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence.

Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl.

When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability 1. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable posterior probabilities were 0. Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl.

Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. In this light, we. Randomised clinical trial of chest drainage systems. A chest drainage bag incorporating a one way flutter valve has been compared with underwater seal drains in a randomised clinical trial. METHODS: During June-December patients undergoing elective thoracotomy were randomised to receive postoperative chest drainage by drainage bags 56 patients, 87 drains or by underwater seal drains 63 patients, 98 drains.

Daily drainage volumes, the requirement for pleural suction, mobility, and complications were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean volume drained, the requirements for pleural suction, or the occurrence of complications. Acute pancreatitis: recent advances through randomised trials. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common GI conditions requiring acute hospitalisation and has a rising incidence.

In recent years, important insights on the management of acute pancreatitis have been obtained through numerous randomised controlled trials. Based on this evidence, the treatment of acute pancreatitis has gradually developed towards a tailored, multidisciplinary effort, with distinctive roles for gastroenterologists, radiologists and surgeons. This review summarises how to diagnose, classify and manage patients with acute pancreatitis, emphasising the evidence obtained through randomised controlled trials.

No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Simulations of one historical period and two future horizons and assuming two representative concentration pathways RCP4. We used the quantile mapping method and corrected any systematic seasonal bias in these simulations before assessing the changes in annual and seasonal means of precipitation and temperature over Poland. Assuming the RCP8.

Similarly, individual model simulations also exhibited warmer and wetter conditions on an annual scale, showing an intensification of the magnitude of the change at the end of the 21st century. The same applied for projected changes in seasonal means of temperature showing a higher winter warming rate by up to 0. However, projected changes in seasonal means of precipitation by the individual models largely differ and are sometimes inconsistent, exhibiting spatial variations which depend on the selected season, location, future horizon, and RCP.

A decision analytic model was developed using these data to establish the budget impact of managing women with suspected pre-eclampsia for two weeks from the date of Pl GF testing, using a clinical management algorithm and reference cost tariffs. The main outcome measures of resource use numbers of outpatient appointments, ultrasound investigations and hospital admissions were correlated to final diagnosis and used to calculate comparative management regimes.

Introduction of Pl GF testing could be used to direct appropriate resource allocation and overall would be cost saving. Several common higher level program languages are described. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1. PL , a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor displaying a high genetic barrier to resistance: an in vitro selection study. The development of new HIV inhibitors with distinct resistance profiles is essential in order to combat the development of multi-resistant viral strains.

A drug discovery program based on the identification of compounds that are active against drug-resistant viruses has produced PL , a novel potent protease inhibitor PI that incorporates a lysine-based scaffold. A selection for resistance against PL in cord blood mononuclear cells was performed, using the laboratory-adapted IIIb strain of HIV-1, and it was shown that resistance appears to develop slower against this compound than against amprenavir, which was studied as a control.

Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that all four mutations were required to develop low-level resistance to PL , which is indicative of the high genetic barrier of the compound. Importantly, these mutations did not cause cross-resistance to currently marketed PIs. Analysis of p55Gag processing showed that a marked defect in protease activity caused by mutation P81S could only be compensated when K45R and M46I were present.

These data correlated well with the replication capacity RC of the mutant viruses as measured by a standard viral growth assay, since only viruses containing all four mutations approached the RC of wild type virus. X-ray crystallography provided insight on the structural basis of the resistance conferred by the identified mutations. Endolysins, which are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes expressed during the terminal stage of the reproduction cycle of bacteriophages, have great potential to control Gram-positive pathogens.

This bacterial disease, caused by P. The restriction to antibiotic residues in honey imposed by the EU legislation hinders its therapeutic use to combat American foulbrood and enforces the development of alternative antimicrobial methods. The new endolysin described herein has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against common P. Moreover, the enzyme displays high antimicrobial activity in a range of pH that matches environmental conditions pH between 5.

At pH 7. The presence of sucrose and of the substances present in the larvae gut content did not affect the enzyme activity. Interestingly, an increase of activity was observed when Ply Pl 23 was previously incubated in royal jelly. Furthermore, in vivo safety evaluation assays demonstrated that this enzyme is not toxic to the bee larvae. The present work describes for the first time an endolysin encoded in a P.

Placental growth factor Pl GF is a pro-angiogenic factor mainly assessed in preeclampsia in which its blood concentration is decreased. The aim of this study was to dose the blood concentration of Pl GF in women with fetal intra-uterine growth restriction IUGR without associated preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis. Women with preeclampsia were not included. Published by Elsevier SAS. The randomised controlled trial RCT is an evaluative method used by social scientists in order to establish whether or not an intervention is effective.

This contribution discusses the fundamental aspects of good RCT design. These are illustrated through the use of a recently completed RCT which evaluated an information and communication…. Bifidobacterium longum PL 03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A, and Lactobacillus plantarum PL 02 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

To determine the efficacy of a combination of Bifidobacterium longum PL 03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A and Lactobacillus plantarum PL 02 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. The mean number of stools per day was significantly lower in the experimental group mean difference No adverse events were reported.

The administration of the 3 probiotics did not significantly alter the rate of diarrhea, although it reduced the frequency of stools per day. As the overall frequency of diarrhea was surprisingly low, these results should be interpreted with caution. Karger AG, Basel. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials. Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research.

To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting e. Randomised and quasi- randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials.

This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi- randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group.

We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We identified 68 eligible trials 24 new to this update with more than 74, participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants.

All studies were in. Aspen pectate lyase Ptxt PL mobilizes matrix polysaccharides from woody tissues and improves saccharification yield. Background Wood cell walls are rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Hence, they are important sources of renewable biomass for producing energy and green chemicals. However, extracting desired constituents from wood efficiently poses significant challenges because these polymers are highly cross-linked in cell walls and are not easily accessible to enzymes and chemicals.

Results We show that aspen pectate lyase PL , which degrades homogalacturonan and is expressed at the onset of secondary wall formation, can increase the solubility of wood matrix polysaccharides. Overexpression of this enzyme in aspen increased solubility of not only pectins but also xylans and other hemicelluloses, indicating that homogalacturonan limits the solubility of major wood cell wall components.

Enzymatic saccharification of wood obtained from PL overexpressing trees gave higher yields of pentoses and hexoses than similar treatment of wood from wild-type trees, even after acid pretreatment. Conclusions Thus, the modification of pectins may constitute an important biotechnological target for improved wood processing despite their low abundance in woody biomass.

Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower Helianthus annuus L. A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI , introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome.

Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with simple sequence repeat SSR markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H.

To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

To investigate the pathogenesis of pregnancies delivering small for gestational age SGA neonates by examining biochemical and Doppler indices of placental development during the first trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was considered to be SGA if the birth weight was less than the fifth percentile after correction for gestation at delivery and sex, maternal racial origin, weight, height and parity. The median Pl GF 0. Birth weight is predetermined by placental development during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase AST and alanine aminotransferase ALT levels by Furthermore, DHA- PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. Randomised trial of biofeedback training for encopresis.

AIMS: To evaluate biofeedback training in children with encopresis and the effect on psychosocial function. Children were randomised into two groups. Each group received dietary and toilet advice, enemas, oral laxatives, and anorectal manometry. One group also received five biofeedback training sessions. Psychosocial function after treatment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist.

Most children had improved behaviour scores six months after treatment. Children with an initial abnormal behaviour score who were successfully treated had a significant improvement in their behavioural profiles. Psychosocial problems are present in a subgroup of children with encopresis.

The relation between successful treatment and improvement in behavioural function supports the idea that encopresis has an aetiological role in the occurrence and maintenance of behavioural problems in children with encopresis. Effects of lipid emulsion particle size on satiety and energy intake: a randomised cross-over trial. Emulsified lipids, with central lipid core surrounded by polar lipid 'protective coat', have been proposed to stimulate the ileal brake, alter appetite, food intake and aid weight control.

In addition to lipid composition, emulsion particle size may contribute to efficacy with small droplets providing a larger surface area for gastrointestinal GI lipase action and larger droplets prolonging and delaying digestion in the GI tract. Tube feeding studies delivering emulsions directly into the small intestine show clear effects of smaller particle size on appetite and food intake, but evidence from oral feeding studies is sparse.

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lipid emulsion particle size on appetite response and food intake. In a three-arm randomised cross-over, high-phospholipid PL dairy lipid emulsions or matched control were consumed at breakfast within a yoghurt smoothie: i large-particle size emulsion, LPE diameter 0. Altering particle size of a high- PL emulsion did not enhance satiety or alter eating behaviour in a group of lean men. Vaccine testing for emerging infections: the case for individual randomisation.

During the — Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, many opposed the use of individually randomised controlled trials to test candidate Ebola vaccines. For a raging fatal disease, they explained, it is unethical to relegate some study participants to control arms.

In Zika and future emerging infections, similar opposition may hinder urgent vaccine research, so it is best to address these questions now. This article lays out the ethical case for individually randomised control in testing vaccines against many emerging infections, including lethal infections in low-income countries, even when at no point in the trial do the controls receive the countermeasures being tested.

When individual randomisation is feasible—and it often will be—it tends to save more lives than alternative designs would. And for emerging infections, individual randomisation also tends as such to improve care, access to the experimental vaccine and prospects for all participants relative to their opportunities absent the trial, and no less than alternative designs would.

That obtains even under placebo control and without equipoise—requiring which would undermine individual randomisation and the alternative designs that opponents proffered. Phospholipids PL or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1 3 -monoacylglycerol MAG are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFA and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol TAG. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days.

After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed. Phospholipids PL or partial acylglycerols such as sn-1 3 -monoacylglycerol MAG are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFA and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol TAG.

Silencing of Sl PL , which encodes a pectate lyase in tomato, confers enhanced fruit firmness, prolonged shelf-life and reduced susceptibility to grey mould. Pectate lyase genes have been documented as excellent candidates for improvement of fruit firmness. However, implementation of pectate lyase in regulating fruit postharvest deterioration has not been fully explored. In this report, 22 individual pectate lyase genes in tomato were identified, and one pectate lyase gene Sl PL Solyc03g showed dominant expression during fruit maturation.

Compared to wild-type, Sl PL -RNAi fruit had higher levels of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas the level of water-soluble pectin was lower. Consistent with this, the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were higher in Sl PL -RNAi fruit, and the malondialdehyde concentration was lower. RNA-Seq results showed large amounts of differentially expressed genes involved in hormone signalling, cell wall modification, oxidative stress and pathogen resistance.

Collectively, these data demonstrate that pectate lyase plays an important role in both fruit softening and pathogen resistance. This may advance knowledge of postharvest fruit preservation in tomato and other fleshy fruit. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials.

Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials.

We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi- randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation , type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained.

We used risk ratios RR to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi 2 and I 2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention.

These were incentives, communication strategies, new questionnaire format, participant case. The effect of modification on luminescence properties for the samples was studied by photoluminescence PL spectra, electroluminescence EL spectra and time-resolved luminescence decay curves.

Organic light emitting diodes OLEDs with the corresponded emitting layer structure were investigated. The increase in luminance and current efficiency stability can be attributed to the energy transfer process between the Alq3 and the nano-TiO2, and the suppression of the self-quenching by caged 8-vinyl POSS molecules. Ramchandran plot displayed Residues Y and H or R might act as general base and general acid respectively.

The aim is to find algorithms less complex than those in conventional use, and thus facilitating more accurate computation of the unknown parameters. All conventional techniques use point transformation to calculate the screw axis. This method is compared with Schwartz and Rozumalski [ A new method for estimating joint parameters from motion data.

Journal of Biomechanics 38, ] in simulations of random measurement errors and systematic skin movements. This investigation yielded practical results, which can be used to locate the axis of a screw motion in a noisy environment. Developing the dual transformation matrix DTM from noisy data and determining the screw axis from a given DTM is done in a manner analogous to that for handling simple rotations.

A more robust approach to solve for the dual vector associated with DTM is also addressed by using the eigenvector and the singular value decomposition. Bacteriophage J-1 was isolated in from an abnormal fermentation of Yakult using Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and a related phage, PL -1, was subsequently recovered from a strain resistant to J Complete genome sequencing shows that J-1 and PL -1 are almost identical, but PL -1 has a deletion of 1.

The structural proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Similarly to phage A2, two capsid proteins are generated by a translational frameshift and undergo proteolytic processing. The structure of gene product 16 gp16 , a putative tail protein, was modeled based on the crystal structure of baseplate distal tail proteins Dit that form the baseplate hub in other Siphoviridae. However, two regions of the C terminus of gp16 could not be modeled using this template.

The first region accounts for the differences between J-1 and PL -1 gp16 and showed sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding modules CBMs. J-1 gp16 exhibited a higher affinity than PL -1 gp16 for cell walls of L. The data presented here provide insights into how Lactobacillus phages interact with their hosts at the first steps of infection. These three groups were comparable for all clinical characteristics including sex ratio, mean age, vascular risk factors, previous coronary events, baseline angiographic exam, indication for the percutaneous coronary intervention and drug therapy.

The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised , controlled trial. Background The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia.

Methods Participants in a dementia trial were randomised to intensive follow-up with comprehensive assessment visits at baseline and two, four and six months post randomisation or minimal follow-up with an abbreviated assessment at baseline and a full assessment at six months.

Results We recruited participants, mainly through general practices. The main analysis was based on Intention to treat ITT , with available data. There was no significant difference on carer quality of life. Conclusion We found that more intensive follow-up of individuals in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia resulted in a better outcome than minimal follow-up, as measured by their cognitive functioning.

Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials. The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses.

In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs.

Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design.

Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments.

In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into. Methods: Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. Conclusion: The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments.

In future, trialists should. Lay public's understanding of equipoise and randomisation in randomised controlled trials. To research the lay public's understanding of equipoise and randomisation in randomised controlled trials RCTs and to look at why information on this may not be not taken in or remembered, as well as the effects of providing information designed to overcome barriers. Investigations were informed by an update of systematic review on patients' understanding of consent information in clinical trials, and by relevant theory and evidence from experimental psychology.

Nine investigations were conducted with nine participants. Healthy adults with a wide range of educational backgrounds and ages. Participants read hypothetical scenarios and wrote brief answers to subsequent questions. Sub-samples of participants were interviewed individually to elaborate on their written answers. Participants' background assumptions concerning equipoise and randomisation were examined and ways of helping participants recognise the scientific benefits of randomisation were explored.

Assessments of understanding hypothetical trial information. Recent literature continues to report trial participants' failure to understand or remember information about randomisation and equipoise, despite the provision of clear and readable trial information leaflets. In current best practice, written trial information describes what will happen without offering accessible explanations. As a consequence, patients may create their own incorrect interpretations and consent or refusal may be inadequately informed.

Army Research Office P. Temperature and excitation power dependences of photoluminescence PL measurements were studied for the CdMnTe crystal grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The observed band-edge peak of the PL spectrum showed a clear blue-shift with decreasing temperature. With increasing the excitation power, the intensity of the emission peak was increased.

Lewkowicz Jeanne M. McPhetres 7. Drive Arlington, VA Mendelian randomisation in cardiovascular research: an introduction for clinicians. Understanding the causal role of biomarkers in cardiovascular and other diseases is crucial in order to find effective approaches including pharmacological therapies for disease treatment and prevention.

This has direct relevance for drug development as if drug targets track to non-causal biomarkers, this can lead to expensive failure of these drugs in phase III randomised controlled trials. In an effort to provide a more reliable indication of the likely causal role of a biomarker in the development of disease, Mendelian randomisation studies are increasingly used, and this is facilitated by the availability of large-scale genetic data.

We conducted a narrative review in order to provide a description of the utility of Mendelian randomisation for clinicians engaged in cardiovascular research. We describe the rationale and provide a basic description of the methods and potential limitations of Mendelian randomisation.

We give examples from the literature where Mendelian randomisation has provided pivotal information for drug discovery including predicting efficacy, informing on target-mediated adverse effects and providing potential new evidence for drug repurposing. The variety of the examples presented illustrates the importance of Mendelian randomisation in order to prioritise drug targets for cardiovascular research. Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results.

Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting.

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