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However it can be found standing on its own, when used as an imperative form: vada via! See Clauses. Superlative See also Comparative. Occasionally the grammatical verb tense does not correspond to the time setting — for example the future can be used for a present time setting: Sono le 4.

Some verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively, e. Verb A verb describes an action, event or state. It always has a subject and can also have an object. Its form varies according to mood and tense, and the person, gender and number of its subject. In a regular verb the ending changes but the stem does not usually change. In an irregular verb, the stem may change too.

Voice Verbs normally have two voices: active and passive. The main function of nouns in any language is to denote an entity person, object, etc. Together they form a group of words called the noun group; two examples are shown below: una article grande adjective casa noun la article ragazza noun inglese adjective.

Although the noun group may contain other elements e. The noun The noun is the focus of the noun group, and in fact the article and adjectives always agree with the noun in gender masculine or feminine and number singular or plural. The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of noun, article and adjective.

Gender All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine gender. Gender is a purely grammatical term. Nouns referring to human beings or animals sometimes have the same grammatical gender as their natural gender, but not always see below. Italian native speakers rarely find this a problem. With non-animate objects, there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.

Non-Italian speakers either have to learn and memorise the genders of words or consult a dictionary. Italian dictionaries usually indicate the gender of nouns with abbreviations such as s. Grammatically speaking, Italian does not always have a male and a female of each animal species, for example: una giraffa un ippopotamo.

Some animals — as in English — have two distinct names for the male and the female of the species: un cane un gallo. Some, but not all, professional and other titles may have a distinct form for the feminine. Nouns whose masculine form ends in -e have a feminine form ending either in -a or in -essa: cameriere infermiere padrone studente presidente principe conte barone.

Most nouns with masculine form ending in -tore have a feminine form ending in -trice: ambasciatore attore autore direttore imperatore pittore scultore scrittore senatore. Occasionally as in English a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e. On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plural in Italian, e.

The gender and number determine the ending of the noun. These patterns of endings are called inflexions. Italian nouns can be divided into several different groups, according to their patterns of inflexion. The three most common patterns also followed by most adjectives, see below are:. Note: In the plural, nouns ending in -co, -go; -ca, -ga; -cia, -gia present variations in their endings, as shown below.

Nouns ending in -ca, -ga Feminine nouns ending in -ca, -ga form their plural in -che, -ghe, with the hard c, g sound: amica lega. Nouns ending in -ca, -ga, which refer to either men or women, normally form their plural in -chi, -ghi for male and -che, -ghe for female and see 1. There is no difference in pronunciation between the -cie of camicie and the -ce of arance. A large number of Italian nouns do not follow the patterns shown above. Here are some other noun patterns.

Masculine or feminine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m. The nouns in the above group refer to categories of people. Masculine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m. This pattern is similar to that of masculine and feminine nouns ending in -a shown above, but in the plural has only masculine forms. See also masculine nouns ending in -ca, -ga above. Feminine nouns with singular ending in -o, plural in -i The two nouns shown below are both feminine in the singular, but differ in the plural: mani is feminine, while echi is masculine: Singular mano f.

Masculine nouns with singular in -o, feminine plural in -a A number of masculine nouns become feminine in the plural, with an irregular ending in -a: Singular m. Invariable nouns have the same form in the plural as in the singular. These include the following. There are two main types of article in Italian, as there are in English: the indefinite article articolo indeterminativo and the definite article articolo determinativo.

They distinguish the generic from the specific, the known from the unknown see also 9. There is a dog in the garden. There is the dog in the garden. This applies also a third type of article, the partitive article. A partitive article can also be used in the singular, indicating a quantity of uncountable things, people or abstract concepts: Vorrei del pane. Ho visto della gente che correva. Definite article The form of the definite article varies according to the number and gender of the noun it accompanies, but also on whether the noun begins with a vowel, a consonant or certain letters or groups of letters, as seen in the table below:.

In the plural, they take the article le, which is never abbreviated. A particular, clearly identified thing or things, known or visible to the speaker and to the person s addressed: Dammi gli stuzzicadenti. Give me the toothpicks. Referring to any toothpicks, without reference to a particular or known set: Dammi degli stuzzicadenti.

Give me some toothpicks. Flavia wants to take her friend to the party. I would like the room we had last year. Flavia wants to take a friend to the party. I would like a room for tonight. The dolphin is a mammal. I like American films. There is a dolphin! Ho visto un bel film americano alla televisione. These are only general guidelines.

In many cases the use or omission of the articles depends on different linguistic habits. Some particular uses of the definite article In Italian we always use the definite article with the proper names of geographical features such as mountains, rivers, etc. I love Italy. Brazil is world champion. Andiamo in Spagna. One lives better in southern Italy. But we do sometimes use it to refer to masculine or plural countries: Vivo negli Stati Uniti.

I live in the USA. For the forms of the definite article with prepositions in, a, etc. See also 8. We can summarise these patterns in the following way: Noun. What is an adjective? An adjective is a word that qualifies the meaning of a noun by adding some specification or description to it.

There are many different categories of adjective including demonstrative questo, quello , interrogative quale , possessive mio, tuo , indefinite alcuni, qualche and negative nessun. But in this chapter we only cover the use of aggettivi qualificativi: descriptive adjectives that describe qualities physical or otherwise of person or thing, and classifying adjectives, such as nationality, that describe the category or classification that the person or thing belongs to see also Chapter The other types of adjectives will be shown in Chapter 3, together with the corresponding pronouns.

Almost all descriptive adjectives follow the same basic patterns as the nouns see 1. In the second group, the ending is the same for both masculine and feminine: Class 1. The gender and number of the adjective must agree with the noun to which it refers see 1. Only a few descriptive adjectives have a different pattern from those shown above. Adjectives with singular -a for both masculine and feminine have masculine plural in -i and feminine plural in -e.

Many of these have endings such as -ista, -asta, -ita, -ida, -ota for nouns with similar endings, see 1. Invariable adjectives have the same ending, whatever their gender and number, and retain the same form whatever noun they are referring to. Some colours: blu, rosa, viola, lilla, beige. Colours indicated by two words: verde bottiglia, giallo canarino, bianco latte. Position of adjectives Unlike English, and many other languages, the most common position for the adjective in the Italian noun group is after the noun.

Adjectives of shape, colour and nationality almost always come after the noun. Note that adjectives of nationality never have a capital letter in Italian: una tavola rotonda una maglia bianca uno studente francese. Adjectives qualified, for example, by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, also come after: una persona enormemente simpatica un viaggio pieno di problemi. Although Italian descriptive adjectives, particularly the most common e. Give me the small screwdriver.

There was a small screwdriver on the table. Sandra is a beautiful girl. Sandra is a really beautiful girl. Ho comprato una macchina nuova. I bought a new car. Paola put on a new dress. Ci sono molti studenti poveri There are many poor students Poveri studenti! Poor students! The exam will be hard! Note that bello, when positioned before the noun see example above, un bel problema changes its endings in the same way as the definite article il, la, lo, etc. One way of making a comparison between two different people, objects or other elements, is to use a comparative adjective.

My car is as fast as yours. My car is faster than yours. My car is less fast than yours. My new office is as comfortable as the one I had before. My colleague is as pretty as she is efficient. Qui le melanzane non sono care come in Inghilterra. Here aubergines are not as dear as in England.

Sandro is better than Angelo at bridge. It was less easy than I expected. Sara is prettier than she is intelligent. The regular form of comparative shown in brackets is also possible. La maggiore si chiama Diana. I have two sisters. The elder is called Diana. We have a greater responsibility than you. Il mio fratello minore frequenta la scuola elementare. My little younger brother goes to elementary school.

He works with less commitment since he got married. Silvia is the best student in our class. Pavarotti is the most famous Italian tenor in the world. The Po is the longest Italian river. Again, a few common adjectives have a special form of relative superlative, as well as the regular one: buono cattivo grande piccolo.

In my opinion, the greatest problem in our time is that of drugs. Absolute superlatives Absolute superlatives indicate the greatest possible degree of a quality, but without any comparison being made. As seen above, when modified by any adverb molto, poco, troppo, abbastanza, piuttosto the adjective generally follows the noun: dei clienti piuttosto importanti. So we have: Adjective in the first group Adjective in the second group. The common adjectives buono, cattivo, grande, piccolo, mentioned above, also have two forms of absolute superlative: buono cattivo grande piccolo.

Agreement of noun, article and adjective Nearly all Italian descriptive adjectives have the same pattern of endings as the nouns the two patterns are shown above ; only a few are invariable see 1. Nouns, adjectives and articles used together in a noun group must agree in number and gender. On the table there is a round dish. Ho conosciuto due ragazze inglesi. Il programma era noioso. La radio era rotta. There is a large dish on the table. I met two English girls. The programme was boring.

The radio was broken. More than one noun same gender If an adjective refers to more than one noun of the same gender, it will be plural and have the same gender as the nouns: Ho comprato un libro e un vocabolario tedeschi.

I bought a German book and German dictionary. I bought a German grammar and a German diary. More than one noun different genders If the two nouns are of different genders then the adjective is generally masculine plural: Ho comprato un vocabolario e una grammatica tedeschi. I bought a German dictionary and a German grammar.

However if the second of the two nouns — the one nearest to the adjective — is feminine plural, the adjective may sometimes agree with it: Ho comprato un vocabolario e due grammatiche tedesche. I bought a German dictionary and two German grammars. Introduction Actions, events and situations are expressed by the use of verbs. Italian has a complex system of different verb forms.

In the first section of this chapter we shall introduce the general features of Italian verbs, both regular and irregular, with a brief explanation of basic grammatical terminology, which will help you to understand these features. In the second section, the different verb forms are illustrated in table form for the regular and the most common irregular verbs and also for the passive forms of the four regular verb types. Finally, in the third section, we look at the different verb moods and tenses individually with brief explanations on their use.

Part B of the book illustrates usage more fully. We leave for America. Franco and Teresa leave for America. Sometimes we talk of facts rather than actions. Giulia is blonde. Questo film dura due ore. This film lasts two hours. However the grammatical subject of the verb may be different from the real subject or agent of the action.

This is the case with passive constructions see Persons of the verb The different forms of the verb, determined by its grammatical subject, are called the persons this is a purely grammatical term, not necessarily referring to human beings :. In each tense, Italian verbs have six different endings, depending on who or what is carrying out the action. How old are you? Using a subject pronoun to refer to the third person is often unnecessary where the person or thing has already been mentioned: Quanti anni ha Maria?

How old is Maria? Verb conjugations The fact that Italian verbs have a pattern of six distinct verb endings in each of the tenses creates a large number of different forms of the same verb almost a hundred! Fortunately, most verbs follow common patterns of change known as conjugations. The regular conjugation patterns are shown in the verb tables below 2.

Both patterns, however, are considered as belonging to the same conjugation, because of the -ire ending of the infinitive. Moods and tenses Moods The different forms and uses of Italian verbs are traditionally grouped in seven moods. These convey the different characteristics of the actions or facts that the speaker or writer wants to communicate: certainty or doubt, politeness or straightforwardness, command, etc.

The different verb forms for each verb mood will be listed below in the tables of regular and irregular conjugations and then described in separate paragraphs. The ways in which moods are used to express distinct communicative functions and meanings are illustrated in Part B. Tenses The word tense denotes the different verb forms that indicate the relationship between the action or event referred to and the time of speaking or writing or other reference point in time.

There is a range of different tenses for each mood of verbs except the imperative. In Italian, different tenses are sometimes used to distinguish features of verbs other than time relationships. For example, perfect and imperfect tenses can express the aspect of the action see Chapter 13 , while different subjunctive and conditional tenses can express different degrees of doubt, possibility, politeness, etc.

Simple and compound tenses Many tenses of Italian verbs are formed using the past participle of the main verb along with either avere or essere as the auxiliary verb. These are called compound tenses. One major area of difficulty for students of Italian is knowing which verbs use avere in compound tenses and which use essere. In order to be able to do this, it is useful to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs see 2.

All passive forms of verbs see 2. There may be a direct object as in: Lucia scrive una lettera. Cerchiamo una casa. Here the action of the verb can be completed by answering the question che cosa? The direct object of the verb is the noun that can answer this question without the use of a preposition in this case una lettera and una casa : Che cosa scrive Lucia? Lucia scrive una lettera.

Che cosa cerchiamo? What is Lucia writing? Lucia is writing a letter. What are we looking for? If we can ask and answer the question che cosa? Abbiamo cercato una casa. But some Italian verbs cannot be completed by a direct object and the question che cosa? Il treno per Napoli parte alle 6. Siamo andate in ufficio alle 9. We go to the office at 9. The train to Naples leaves at 6. We went to the office at 9.

The train to Naples left at 6. Because it determines their different uses, especially in the compound tenses, knowing whether verbs are transitive or intransitive is very important. Check by either looking in a dictionary or seeing whether you can ask and answer the question che cosa?

In dictionaries all verb entries carry the following indications: v. Problems arise also from the fact that many English verbs used transitively and intransitively have an Italian counterpart that can only be used intransitively. Fly me! Can you drive me home? Travel the world with Airmiles!

Verbs that can be used both transitively and intransitively Some verbs can be used both transitively with a direct object and intransitively without a direct object , for example aumentare, cambiare, cominciare, crescere, diminuire, finire and passare. Il professore comincia la lezione alle The teacher begins the lesson at Finiamo le vacanze in agosto.

We finish our holidays in August. The lesson begins at Le vacanze finiscono in agosto. The holidays finish in August. In simple tenses, the forms of the verbs are identical, whether transitive or intransitive.

But the compound tenses, such as the past, vary according to whether they are used transitively or intransitively: Il professore ha cominciato la lezione. The teacher began the lesson. The lesson began at Abbiamo finito le vacanze in agosto. We finished the holidays in August. Le vacanze sono finite in agosto. The holidays finished in August. They ran a great risk. Oggi ho saltato il pranzo. Today I skipped lunch.

I have lived a life of hell. I lived in London for 10 years. Giuliana ran home. The children jumped down from the bed. Verbs like these are marked in dictionaries as v. Verbs using the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively Generally Italian transitive verbs use the auxiliary avere, while intransitive verbs use the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses.

However, there are quite a few verbs that use the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively. Here are the most common: camminare dormire giocare passeggiare. The different voices or relationships are: a Active voice Normally see 2. Gianni watches Luisa. Il meccanico ripara la macchina.

The mechanic repairs the car. Luisa is watched by Gianni. The car is repaired by the mechanic. In the second example, the agent of the action is clearly the mechanic the one who repairs the car , but the grammatical subject of the passive verb is the car. Gianni looks at himself in the mirror. There are other verb forms that are not strictly speaking reflexive but are similar in form. The passive form The passive of Italian verbs is formed by the use of the past participle and the auxiliary essere, using the same tense as the corresponding active form.

The passive conjugation of verbs is shown in the verb tables in 2. The passive can also be formed using venire or andare as auxiliary instead of essere see Only transitive verbs can have a passive form see 2. Passive sentences sentences based on a passive verb are used when we want to focus on the action itself or the object of an action, rather than on the agent of an action.

For more examples on the use of the passive, see The reflexive and pronominal form Reflexive verb forms Reflexive verbs are active verb forms accompanied by a reflexive pronoun see 3. Look at these two examples: Il Sig. Franchi sta lavando la macchina. Mr Franchi is washing the car. Il Sig. Franchi si sta lavando. Mr Franchi is washing himself.

In the first example above, the direct object of the action of washing is the car. It is separate from the person who is doing it the subject of the action. In the second example, the subject and the object of the action are the same person Il Sig. This is the reflexive form, in which the reflexive pronoun refers to the person carrying out the action, but at the same time is also the object of it.

The position of the reflexive pronoun is the same as that of all other unstressed personal pronouns see 3. Please, have a seat make yourself comfortable. In genere i giovani italiani si vestono alla moda. In general young people in Italy dress fashionably. Sono le 9. Dovete prepararvi ad uscire. You must prepare yourselves to go out. Preparati ad uscire! Get yourself ready to go out! In the compound tenses, reflexive verbs are conjugated with the verb essere, even though the verbs are transitive cf.

The past participle has to agree with the subject: Stamattina i bambini si sono alzati alle 6. This morning the children got themselves up at 6. Mi sono vestita con calma. I got dressed slowly. Pronominal verb forms Pronominal verb forms are verb forms which use the reflexive pronoun. In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways.

In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani. Giulio washes his hands. Mi metto la giacca.

I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba. The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani.

Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani. Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow. Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other?

Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action. The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta.

Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Ho incontrato il Dott. Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I really want a pizza! Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I forgot the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects. However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the people carrying out these actions.

The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Voglio mangiare una pizza. Ho dimenticato le chiavi. Hurry up! Non arrabbiarti!

Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Giulia regretted having accepted that job. Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs. Impersonal si The pronoun si is also used to express the impersonal form of verbs see also One works better in cool weather.

Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance. A tavola non si invecchia. Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb. Verb tables All the examples shown in the tables in 2.

Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simplified tables in 2. Regular verbs: active conjugations Here are the complete conjugations of four very common Italian verbs. We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs remain constantly the same or invariable throughout the whole system of moods and tenses.

Understanding the way the endings the variable part of the verb change, will allow us to learn all the possible forms of most Italian verbs. Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent.

Present Presente 1st sing. Compound perfect Passato prossimo ho parlato ho creduto hai parlato hai creduto ha parlato ha creduto abbiamo parlato abbiamo creduto avete parlato avete creduto hanno parlato hanno creduto. Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo parlato avevi parlato aveva parlato avevamo parlato avevate parlato avevano parlato.

Pluperfect Trapassato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessimo parlato aveste parlato avessero parlato. Conditional Condizionale Present Presente parl-erei parl-eresti parl-erebbe parl-eremmo parl-ereste parl-erebbero Past Passato avrei parlato avresti parlato avrebbe parlato avremmo parlato avreste parlato avrebbero parlato Imperative Imperativo tu parl-a lui parl-i noi parl-iamo voi parl-ate loro parl-ino Participle Participio Present Presente parl-ante Past Passato parl-ato Gerund Gerundio Present Presente parl-ando Past Passato avendo parlato.

Regular verbs: passive conjugation Here is a simplified table showing only the third person singular of each tense of the passive forms of four regular verbs. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary essere see below 2. In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere.

Remember that only transitive verbs see 2. Irregular verb conjugations: introduction Irregular verbs are those that not only change the endings, but also change the stem in some of the tenses. Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language. Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere.

The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs. A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. These five verbs are among the most frequently used in Italian, and also among the most irregular.

They share a common feature: they are often used in combination with another verb. I had to lock the office, yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il Dott. When can we meet Dr Salvi? Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses. In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender.

Infinitive Infinito Present Presente av-ere ess-ere. Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo avuto ero stato avevi avuto eri stato aveva avuto era stato avevamo avuto eravamo stati avevate avuto eravate stati avevano avuto erano stati. Past anterior Trapassato remoto ebbi avuto fui stato avesti avuto fosti stato ebbe avuto fu stato avemmo avuto fummo stati aveste avuto foste stati ebbero avuto furono stati.

Imperfect Imperfetto av-essi fo-ssi av-essi fo-ssi av-esse fo-sse av-essimo fo-ssimo av-este fo-ste av-essero fo-ssero. Pluperfect Trapassato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessimo avuto fossimo stati aveste avuto foste stati avessero avuto fossero stati Conditional Condizionale. Past Passato avrei avuto avresti avuto avrebbe avuto avremmo avuto avreste avuto avrebbero avuto.

Imperative Imperativo abbi sii abbia sia abbiamo siamo abbiate siate abbiano siano Participle Participio. Moods and tenses of verbs In this section, we look at each mood and tense of verbs individually, with a brief illustration of their use. Infinitive mood infinito The infinitive is the basic form of verbs, and the one used as dictionary entry in other words, the name of the verb. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or -rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to.

The infinitive has a present and a past tense. The past is formed by the past participle and the infinitive avere or essere. When formed with essere, the past infinitive changes form to agree with the verb subject see examples below. Present andare vivere sentire. Irregular infinitives There are two groups of 2nd conjugation verbs with an irregular infinitive i. In their present indicative, these verbs follow the -go pattern shown below 2. Some uses of the infinitive Verbs used in the infinitive generally depend on another verb: Dobbiamo partire alle 7.

Sai usare il computer? Penso di avere capito. Non riesco a sentire la tua voce. We must leave at 7. Can you use the computer? I think I have understood. In most cases the infinitive is linked to preceding verbs by a preposition such as di or a as in the last two examples above see list of verbs and prepositions in Appendix IV.

However with the verbs potere, dovere, volere, sapere, preferire, desiderare, amare, osare, no preposition is needed. For particular uses of infinitive with a preposition, see 4. In Italian the subject of the infinitive must be the same as that of the verb on which it depends. Otherwise two separate finite verbs must be used, usually linked by che. An exception to this is when the main verb of the clause is fare or lasciare see also Lasciali parlare.

Ho fatto entrare i signori. Infinitive as imperative: The infinitive can be used by itself, without depending on another verb, when it is used to tell somebody not to do something, i. Non sporgersi dal finestrino. Infinitive as a noun: Infinitive verbs are often used instead of nouns, sometimes preceded by the definite article, in the masculine singular form: Lavorare stanca. Work is tiring.

Eating is necessary for life. Il sapere degli antichi si trasmette di generazione in generazione. The wisdom of the ancients is handed down from generation to generation. For further uses of the infinitive and past infinitive, see also The indicative mood is used to express straightforward statements of facts, objective descriptions, real and definite situations, etc.

We shall look here at the eight tenses of the indicative mood, both regular and irregular forms, with a brief reference to their use, covered in detail in Part B. Present indicative indicativo presente The forms of the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2.

In addition to avere, essere, dovere, potere, volere shown in the verb tables above, some common verbs with irregular present indicative are illustrated below. Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties with spelling.

In the verbs ending in -ciare and -giare, the i before letters o, a indicates the soft c or g and is not pronounced as a separate vowel. There is no doubling of the i in the second person singular and first person plural forms:.

Many verbs in the 2nd conjugation are irregular in the present indicative tense as well as in other tenses see also verb tables above, 2. Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infinitive see 2. Here are a few more irregular 2nd conjugation verbs. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with g and some without see Appendix II for a complete list.

Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write. This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona. Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing. Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at 10 to 8.

Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals. There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming. Rome became the capital of Italy in At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup.

Future indicative indicativo futuro Forms The forms of the future indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative. See Appendix II for further examples and translations. A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei. Uses of the future The future indicative tense is naturally mainly used to refer to facts that will happen in a time subsequent to the time when we speak.

However Italians use this tense sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see Saranno le tre meno dieci. What time is it? It must be about ten to three. Suona il telefono. The phone is ringing.

Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide. Future perfect futuro anteriore Forms The future perfect is a compound tense formed of the future tense of the auxiliary avere or essere together with the past participle of the verb. The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in Imperfect indicative indicativo imperfetto Forms The forms of the imperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables.

The imperfect indicative is formed by adding the endings -avo, -evo, -ivo for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively to the stem of the verb. It is the most regular of all the tenses of Italian verbs. The imperfect of the 2nd conjugation verbs with contracted infinitive in -urre is regular, but follows the pattern of the stem in duc-, giving produrre: produc-evo, produc-evi. Similarly, the verbs with contracted infinitive in -orre have a regular imperfect based on the stem in pon-: disporre: dispon-evo; imporre: impon-evo; etc.

The contracted infinitive bere has a regular imperfect bev-evo. The only true irregular imperfect is that of essere: ero, eri. Uses of the imperfect The imperfect indicative is mainly used to refer to the past see In using past tenses, one should always consider the context or aspect. The question of aspect and the choice of imperfect or perfect is very important when referring to the past in Italian, particularly in situations where the two past forms are used in the same sentence see I was watching television when the earthquake struck.

It was midnight, it was raining and the car ran silently. We used to have a coffee at La settimana scorsa mi hanno detto che tu venivi saresti venuto ieri. In a few cases the imperfect indicative is not used to refer to past time, but as a substitute for a different verb mood such as conditional or subjunctive : f To express a polite request or statement in place of the present conditional see Buongiorno, cercavo un libro di Umberto Eco.

Mi scusi, non volevo disturbare. This is more common in spoken than in written Italian. For the use of the imperfect of modal verbs dovere, potere, volere, see Compound perfect passato prossimo Forms The compound perfect is formed by the present indicative of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle see verb tables in 2.

Of the two forms of the perfect compound and simple the compound is by far the more frequently used, especially in spoken language. The uses of the compound perfect and other past tenses are illustrated in Part B. Uses of the compound perfect The compound perfect refers to facts that are seen as completed, but have some relation to the present, generally in one of the following two contexts: a The past events are very near to the present time see also Avete capito quello che ho detto?

Did you understand what I said? We came to England 20 years ago and we are still here. La Basilica di S. Simple perfect passato remoto Forms The forms of the simple perfect passato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables 2. The simple perfect is often irregular. The most common irregularity is the short -si ending alternating with the longer form based on the stem of the infinitive, e.

Most verbs with this irregular pattern are 2nd conjugation verbs, and in some cases for example mettere, muovere, sapere, vedere the stem has a vowel change as well: mettere: muovere: sapere: vedere:. I had a bad time living in Milan. Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago.

In spoken Italian, the simple perfect tends to be used very seldom in the north of Italy, but quite often in Tuscany, and in central and southern Italy, in the contexts mentioned above. In written language, the simple perfect is very common, especially in narrative and historical language, because of the precise way in which it defines the past Collodi, Pinocchio, I Libri di Gulliver, It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere. The forms of the pluperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables.

Uses of the pluperfect It is used to refer to an event previous to an event placed in the past. See also Ricordo che tu eri arrivato da poco quando Maria ha telefonato. I remember that you had just arrived when Maria called. Penso che alle 7. I think Franco had already closed the shop at 7. Past anterior trapassato remoto Forms The trapassato remoto is formed by the simple perfect of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle.

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Front Matter Pages i-xxii. Front Matter Pages Pages Ciak, Action! IWP 1: Interview No. IWP 2: Interview No. IWP 3: Interview No. IWP 4: Interview No. IWP 5: Interview No.

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Instaforex 2021 gmc Reflexive pronouns refer to the object or other complement of a verb, when it is the same person as the subject. Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infinitive see 2. The different verb forms for each verb mood will be listed below in the tables of regular and irregular conjugations and then described in separate paragraphs. The combination ci ci is best avoided. It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere.
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Giudicato dedotto e deductible investment Yesterday I thought the phone was out of order. Lasciali parlare. Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent. Direct object A direct object, whether noun or pronoun, is one which is directly affected by the action or event. Puoi restituirmi la penna che ti ho prestato?
Giudicato dedotto e deductible investment Ci abito da dieci anni. Remember that only transitive verbs see 2. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Expressing negation using Expressing negation using Expressing negation using Expressing negation using Reinforcing negation It is almost always used in complex sentences where one clause depends on another e.
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Penta investments limited james There is a dolphin! The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. Nouns ending in -ca, -ga Feminine nouns ending in -ca, -ga form their plural in -che, -ghe, with the hard c, g sound: amica lega. Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! See Clauses. In the second example, the agent of the action is clearly the mechanic the one who repairs the carbut the grammatical subject of the passive verb is the car.
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The different voices or relationships are: a Active voice Normally see 2. Gianni watches Luisa. Il meccanico ripara la macchina. The mechanic repairs the car. Luisa is watched by Gianni. The car is repaired by the mechanic. In the second example, the agent of the action is clearly the mechanic the one who repairs the car , but the grammatical subject of the passive verb is the car. Gianni looks at himself in the mirror.

There are other verb forms that are not strictly speaking reflexive but are similar in form. The passive form The passive of Italian verbs is formed by the use of the past participle and the auxiliary essere, using the same tense as the corresponding active form.

The passive conjugation of verbs is shown in the verb tables in 2. The passive can also be formed using venire or andare as auxiliary instead of essere see Only transitive verbs can have a passive form see 2. Passive sentences sentences based on a passive verb are used when we want to focus on the action itself or the object of an action, rather than on the agent of an action. For more examples on the use of the passive, see The reflexive and pronominal form Reflexive verb forms Reflexive verbs are active verb forms accompanied by a reflexive pronoun see 3.

Look at these two examples: Il Sig. Franchi sta lavando la macchina. Mr Franchi is washing the car. Il Sig. Franchi si sta lavando. Mr Franchi is washing himself. In the first example above, the direct object of the action of washing is the car. It is separate from the person who is doing it the subject of the action. In the second example, the subject and the object of the action are the same person Il Sig. This is the reflexive form, in which the reflexive pronoun refers to the person carrying out the action, but at the same time is also the object of it.

The position of the reflexive pronoun is the same as that of all other unstressed personal pronouns see 3. Please, have a seat make yourself comfortable. In genere i giovani italiani si vestono alla moda. In general young people in Italy dress fashionably. Sono le 9. Dovete prepararvi ad uscire. You must prepare yourselves to go out. Preparati ad uscire! Get yourself ready to go out! In the compound tenses, reflexive verbs are conjugated with the verb essere, even though the verbs are transitive cf.

The past participle has to agree with the subject: Stamattina i bambini si sono alzati alle 6. This morning the children got themselves up at 6. Mi sono vestita con calma. I got dressed slowly. Pronominal verb forms Pronominal verb forms are verb forms which use the reflexive pronoun. In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways. In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same.

The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani. Giulio washes his hands. Mi metto la giacca. I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio.

In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba. The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani. Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani.

Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow. Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action. The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta.

Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Ho incontrato il Dott. Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I really want a pizza! Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I forgot the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects. However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the people carrying out these actions.

The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Voglio mangiare una pizza.

Ho dimenticato le chiavi. Hurry up! Non arrabbiarti! Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Giulia regretted having accepted that job. Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs. Impersonal si The pronoun si is also used to express the impersonal form of verbs see also One works better in cool weather.

Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance. A tavola non si invecchia. Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb.

Verb tables All the examples shown in the tables in 2. Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simplified tables in 2. Regular verbs: active conjugations Here are the complete conjugations of four very common Italian verbs. We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs remain constantly the same or invariable throughout the whole system of moods and tenses. Understanding the way the endings the variable part of the verb change, will allow us to learn all the possible forms of most Italian verbs.

Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent. Present Presente 1st sing. Compound perfect Passato prossimo ho parlato ho creduto hai parlato hai creduto ha parlato ha creduto abbiamo parlato abbiamo creduto avete parlato avete creduto hanno parlato hanno creduto.

Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo parlato avevi parlato aveva parlato avevamo parlato avevate parlato avevano parlato. Pluperfect Trapassato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessimo parlato aveste parlato avessero parlato. Conditional Condizionale Present Presente parl-erei parl-eresti parl-erebbe parl-eremmo parl-ereste parl-erebbero Past Passato avrei parlato avresti parlato avrebbe parlato avremmo parlato avreste parlato avrebbero parlato Imperative Imperativo tu parl-a lui parl-i noi parl-iamo voi parl-ate loro parl-ino Participle Participio Present Presente parl-ante Past Passato parl-ato Gerund Gerundio Present Presente parl-ando Past Passato avendo parlato.

Regular verbs: passive conjugation Here is a simplified table showing only the third person singular of each tense of the passive forms of four regular verbs. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary essere see below 2. In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere.

Remember that only transitive verbs see 2. Irregular verb conjugations: introduction Irregular verbs are those that not only change the endings, but also change the stem in some of the tenses. Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language.

Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere. The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs.

A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. These five verbs are among the most frequently used in Italian, and also among the most irregular. They share a common feature: they are often used in combination with another verb. I had to lock the office, yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il Dott. When can we meet Dr Salvi? Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses.

In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender. Infinitive Infinito Present Presente av-ere ess-ere. Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo avuto ero stato avevi avuto eri stato aveva avuto era stato avevamo avuto eravamo stati avevate avuto eravate stati avevano avuto erano stati. Past anterior Trapassato remoto ebbi avuto fui stato avesti avuto fosti stato ebbe avuto fu stato avemmo avuto fummo stati aveste avuto foste stati ebbero avuto furono stati.

Imperfect Imperfetto av-essi fo-ssi av-essi fo-ssi av-esse fo-sse av-essimo fo-ssimo av-este fo-ste av-essero fo-ssero. Pluperfect Trapassato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessimo avuto fossimo stati aveste avuto foste stati avessero avuto fossero stati Conditional Condizionale. Past Passato avrei avuto avresti avuto avrebbe avuto avremmo avuto avreste avuto avrebbero avuto. Imperative Imperativo abbi sii abbia sia abbiamo siamo abbiate siate abbiano siano Participle Participio.

Moods and tenses of verbs In this section, we look at each mood and tense of verbs individually, with a brief illustration of their use. Infinitive mood infinito The infinitive is the basic form of verbs, and the one used as dictionary entry in other words, the name of the verb. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or -rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to.

The infinitive has a present and a past tense. The past is formed by the past participle and the infinitive avere or essere. When formed with essere, the past infinitive changes form to agree with the verb subject see examples below.

Present andare vivere sentire. Irregular infinitives There are two groups of 2nd conjugation verbs with an irregular infinitive i. In their present indicative, these verbs follow the -go pattern shown below 2. Some uses of the infinitive Verbs used in the infinitive generally depend on another verb: Dobbiamo partire alle 7. Sai usare il computer? Penso di avere capito. Non riesco a sentire la tua voce. We must leave at 7. Can you use the computer? I think I have understood. In most cases the infinitive is linked to preceding verbs by a preposition such as di or a as in the last two examples above see list of verbs and prepositions in Appendix IV.

However with the verbs potere, dovere, volere, sapere, preferire, desiderare, amare, osare, no preposition is needed. For particular uses of infinitive with a preposition, see 4. In Italian the subject of the infinitive must be the same as that of the verb on which it depends. Otherwise two separate finite verbs must be used, usually linked by che.

An exception to this is when the main verb of the clause is fare or lasciare see also Lasciali parlare. Ho fatto entrare i signori. Infinitive as imperative: The infinitive can be used by itself, without depending on another verb, when it is used to tell somebody not to do something, i. Non sporgersi dal finestrino. Infinitive as a noun: Infinitive verbs are often used instead of nouns, sometimes preceded by the definite article, in the masculine singular form: Lavorare stanca. Work is tiring.

Eating is necessary for life. Il sapere degli antichi si trasmette di generazione in generazione. The wisdom of the ancients is handed down from generation to generation. For further uses of the infinitive and past infinitive, see also The indicative mood is used to express straightforward statements of facts, objective descriptions, real and definite situations, etc. We shall look here at the eight tenses of the indicative mood, both regular and irregular forms, with a brief reference to their use, covered in detail in Part B.

Present indicative indicativo presente The forms of the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2. In addition to avere, essere, dovere, potere, volere shown in the verb tables above, some common verbs with irregular present indicative are illustrated below.

Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties with spelling. In the verbs ending in -ciare and -giare, the i before letters o, a indicates the soft c or g and is not pronounced as a separate vowel. There is no doubling of the i in the second person singular and first person plural forms:. Many verbs in the 2nd conjugation are irregular in the present indicative tense as well as in other tenses see also verb tables above, 2.

Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infinitive see 2. Here are a few more irregular 2nd conjugation verbs. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with g and some without see Appendix II for a complete list.

Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write. This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona. Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing.

Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at 10 to 8. Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals. There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming.

Rome became the capital of Italy in At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup. Future indicative indicativo futuro Forms The forms of the future indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative. See Appendix II for further examples and translations.

A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei. Uses of the future The future indicative tense is naturally mainly used to refer to facts that will happen in a time subsequent to the time when we speak.

However Italians use this tense sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see Saranno le tre meno dieci. What time is it? It must be about ten to three. Suona il telefono. The phone is ringing. Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide. Future perfect futuro anteriore Forms The future perfect is a compound tense formed of the future tense of the auxiliary avere or essere together with the past participle of the verb.

The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in Imperfect indicative indicativo imperfetto Forms The forms of the imperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables.

The imperfect indicative is formed by adding the endings -avo, -evo, -ivo for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively to the stem of the verb. It is the most regular of all the tenses of Italian verbs. The imperfect of the 2nd conjugation verbs with contracted infinitive in -urre is regular, but follows the pattern of the stem in duc-, giving produrre: produc-evo, produc-evi. Similarly, the verbs with contracted infinitive in -orre have a regular imperfect based on the stem in pon-: disporre: dispon-evo; imporre: impon-evo; etc.

The contracted infinitive bere has a regular imperfect bev-evo. The only true irregular imperfect is that of essere: ero, eri. Uses of the imperfect The imperfect indicative is mainly used to refer to the past see In using past tenses, one should always consider the context or aspect.

The question of aspect and the choice of imperfect or perfect is very important when referring to the past in Italian, particularly in situations where the two past forms are used in the same sentence see I was watching television when the earthquake struck.

It was midnight, it was raining and the car ran silently. We used to have a coffee at La settimana scorsa mi hanno detto che tu venivi saresti venuto ieri. In a few cases the imperfect indicative is not used to refer to past time, but as a substitute for a different verb mood such as conditional or subjunctive : f To express a polite request or statement in place of the present conditional see Buongiorno, cercavo un libro di Umberto Eco.

Mi scusi, non volevo disturbare. This is more common in spoken than in written Italian. For the use of the imperfect of modal verbs dovere, potere, volere, see Compound perfect passato prossimo Forms The compound perfect is formed by the present indicative of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle see verb tables in 2.

Of the two forms of the perfect compound and simple the compound is by far the more frequently used, especially in spoken language. The uses of the compound perfect and other past tenses are illustrated in Part B. Uses of the compound perfect The compound perfect refers to facts that are seen as completed, but have some relation to the present, generally in one of the following two contexts: a The past events are very near to the present time see also Avete capito quello che ho detto?

Did you understand what I said? We came to England 20 years ago and we are still here. La Basilica di S. Simple perfect passato remoto Forms The forms of the simple perfect passato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables 2. The simple perfect is often irregular. The most common irregularity is the short -si ending alternating with the longer form based on the stem of the infinitive, e.

Most verbs with this irregular pattern are 2nd conjugation verbs, and in some cases for example mettere, muovere, sapere, vedere the stem has a vowel change as well: mettere: muovere: sapere: vedere:. I had a bad time living in Milan. Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago. In spoken Italian, the simple perfect tends to be used very seldom in the north of Italy, but quite often in Tuscany, and in central and southern Italy, in the contexts mentioned above.

In written language, the simple perfect is very common, especially in narrative and historical language, because of the precise way in which it defines the past Collodi, Pinocchio, I Libri di Gulliver, It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere. The forms of the pluperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Uses of the pluperfect It is used to refer to an event previous to an event placed in the past. See also Ricordo che tu eri arrivato da poco quando Maria ha telefonato.

I remember that you had just arrived when Maria called. Penso che alle 7. I think Franco had already closed the shop at 7. Past anterior trapassato remoto Forms The trapassato remoto is formed by the simple perfect of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle.

The forms of the trapassato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Uses of the past anterior The trapassato remoto is the form of pluperfect used when the main event or action is expressed by a verb in the simple perfect.

Its use is rare and generally limited to the literary and more formal registers of the written language, and it is always introduced by a conjunction such as dopo, appena see also After he had said goodbye, he went out in a hurry. Appena fu uscita, tutti si misero a ridere.

As soon as she had gone out, everybody started laughing. The forms of the conditional for the three regular conditions are shown in the verb tables above. There are two tenses of the conditional mood: the present and the past. Forms For the regular verbs, the present conditional is formed by adding the specific endings -rei, -resti, etc.

The verbs with an irregular present conditional show the same pattern already seen for the future indicative see 2. In Italian this is called periodo ipotetico see This type of sentence is made up of two parts: the condition and the consequence. Se fossi ricco, non lavorerei. If you really valued me, you would give me more responsibility. For further examples, see Potrebbe aprire la finestra? I think you should rest. I would be for the easier option. Apparently, the girl is the daughter of Beckham.

Forms The past conditional is formed by the present conditional of avere or essere and the past participle of the verb see verb tables above, 2. The past conditional of the three regular conjugations is: parlare credere partire. Uses of the past conditional The past conditional is used in a similar way to the present conditional shown above, but mainly referring to past time: a It is used to express a consequence in a conditional sentence see also I would have preferred a coffee.

I think Mrs Prati should have paid in cash. According to La Repubblica, two hundred illegal immigrants arrived on the island. My secretary told me that she would reserve the hotel immediately. Subjunctive mood congiuntivo : introduction The subjunctive mood is mainly used to express something that is uncertain rather than definite, subjective rather than objective or a concept rather than a reality. Its most common use is in expressions of doubt, hope or supposition see 2.

Speriamo che lui venga in tempo. Penso che siano le tre e venti. I think it must be twenty past three. Verbs in the subjunctive mood always depend directly or indirectly on another verb, linked by che as in the examples above or by another conjunction, to form a complex sentence.

Only in a few cases is the subjunctive used by itself, without depending on another verb, for example in the imperative forms see I write to let you know the truth. Nonostante le abbia scritto un mese fa, Paola non mi ha ancora risposto. Whatever song she sings, it is always a pleasure to listen to her. The choice of indicative or subjunctive to convey the same facts, can shift the meaning of a sentence from the objective to the subjective, from the reality to the idea.

I need the assistant who speaks Italian. Ho bisogno di un assistente che parli italiano. I need an assistant who can speak Italian. It seems that Olivetti is about to launch a new computer. In the first of the two sentences above, the news is presented as almost certain, while the second sentence, by using the subjunctive, implies a higher degree of doubt or uncertainty about the reliability of the news. These and other uses of the subjunctive in different contexts are illustrated fully in Chapters 30 to 39 see also It is often said that the subjunctive mood is used ever less frequently in modern Italian.

It is true that Italians tend to associate the frequent use of the subjunctive. However using the indicative instead of the subjunctive not only conveys a more informal style, but also a different meaning, and may well change substantially the message that we want to convey. Uses of the subjunctive In some cases, it is almost compulsory to use the subjunctive, even in the most familiar context of communication.

This is particularly true when there is an explicit reference to the subjective value of a statement: a After verbs expressing hope, doubt, expectation, desire, fear, emotion such as: sperare illudersi temere. Spero che abbiate capito. I hope you understood. Temo che sia troppo tardi. Non illuderti che il Napoli possa vincere il campionato. Non avrei mai sospettato che tu fossi capace di mentire.

I would never have suspected you of being able to lie. Prima che sia troppo tardi, dobbiamo pagare il telefono. We must pay the phone bill, before it is too late. Parlava come se avesse il raffreddore. He was speaking as if he had a cold. Dovete sbrigarvi, a meno che non vogliate fare tardi. You must hurry up, unless you want to be late. Sebbene siano stanchi, i ragazzi vogliono uscire stasera. Se fossi in te non le parlerei. See also uses of subjunctive in purpose clauses Whether to use the subjunctive after se, however, is a matter of choice see also Sono pronta a fare qualsiasi cosa tu mi chieda.

Even in the examples shown in this paragraph, many Italians might use the indicative instead of the subjunctive. Tenses of the subjunctive Except in a few cases, verbs in the subjunctive mood depend on another verb i. This means that we also need to look at how each tense of the subjunctive expresses a different time relationship with the main verb.

There are four tenses of the subjunctive: present, perfect, imperfect and pluperfect. The regular conjugations of these tenses are shown in the verb tables above 2. Uses of the present subjunctive The present subjunctive is used when we want to mention something in the present or in the future there is no future tense in the subjunctive. It is almost always linked to a main verb in the present tense: Spero che tu capisca. I hope you understand. Mi sembra che il telefono non funzioni.

I think the telephone must be out of order. I think the travel agency is booking our flight today. A more detailed study of the time relationship of the subjunctive and the verb it depends on is found in Chapter Forms The perfect subjunctive is formed by the present subjunctive of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle. The forms of perfect subjunctive for the three regular conjugations are found in the verb tables above 2. Uses of the perfect subjunctive The perfect subjunctive is used to refer to a past fact linked to a main verb, usually in the present tense: Mi sembra che ieri il telefono non abbia funzionato.

I think the phone must have been out of order yesterday. I think the travel agency reserved our flight yesterday. Marco will think you have gone out. The forms of the imperfect subjunctive for the three regular conjugations are found in the verb tables above. Irregular forms to be noted are: essere fare bere. Uses of the imperfect subjunctive The imperfect subjunctive is used for events or actions taking place at the same time as the action of the main verb in the past: Speravo che tu capissi.

I hoped you understood. Ieri mi sembrava che il telefono non funzionasse. Yesterday I thought the phone was out of order. The imperfect subjunctive is also used for a present or future action, which depends on a main verb in the present conditional: Vorrei che voi parlaste con il capo. Sarebbe bene che domani arrivasse in orario.

It would be better if he arrived on time tomorrow. It is also used to express a condition unlikely to be met see Would you buy a Rolls Royce, if you had the money? Pluperfect subjunctive congiuntivo trapassato Forms The pluperfect subjunctive is formed by the imperfect subjunctive of avere or essere and the past participle. The forms of the pluperfect subjunctive for the regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2.

Uses of the pluperfect subjunctive The pluperfect subjunctive is used to refer to a past event referred to by a main verb in the past tense: Speravo che avessi capito. I hoped you had understood. It is also used to express a condition that can no longer be met see If the travel agency had already reserved our flight a month earlier, we would have paid less. Other uses of the subjunctive In a few cases the subjunctive is used by itself without depending on another verb.

In this function the present subjunctive serves as the third person form of the imperative, both singular and plural see Prego, si accomodi. Esca immediatamente! Prego signori, vengano di qua. Can I help you? Get out immediately! Please come over this way, gentlemen. Dio ti benedica. Ti venga un accidente. If only I could go on holiday. If I were 20 years old! Here, the subjunctive, although used alone, still depends on a main verb, although it is implicit rather than actually stated: Spero che ti venga un accidente.

I hope that something horrible happens to you. Mi auguro che Dio ti benedica. I wish that God would bless you. If I were young I would do lots of things. Imperative mood imperativo Forms The forms of the imperative for the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2. The imperative only has one tense, the present see Tenses, p. The imperative is the mood we use when we want to give orders or to ask somebody to do something, so it has no first person singular form.

Ama il prossimo tuo come te stesso. Love your neighbour like yourself. Credetemi, sono sincero. Believe me, I am sincere. Please, get my umbrella for me. Aiuto, datemi una mano. Help, give me a hand. Look what beautiful shoes, madam. Bianchi, finisca quella lettera e poi venga da me. Dr Bianchi, could you please finish that letter and then come to see me. Mi dia il telefono, per favore. Give me the telephone, please. Note how in the first set of examples above, the tu or voi form is combined with any pronoun used, whether direct or indirect object see also 3.

For more illustrations of the use of the imperative, see With the five verbs andare, dare, dire, fare and stare, the shortened imperative forms are normally marked nowadays with an apostrophe, to distinguish them from the prepositions da, di or the third person singular of the present indicative da, fa, sta. These shortened imperative forms are very often replaced by the second person indicative forms fai, vai, etc.

The last example is very colloquial use; normally the direct object pronoun would be attached to the end of the infinitive, rather than the first verb Vai a trovarlo. For all other forms of the imperative, simply add non. Teresa, non giocare in casa con la palla. Bambini, non andate lontano.

Franco, non preoccuparti. Non si preoccupi, avvocato. Gerund gerundio Forms The present gerund is formed by adding the endings -ando for the 1st conjugation and -endo for the 2nd and 3rd conjugations to the verb stem: am-ando. The past gerund is formed by the gerund of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle: amare vedere partire finire.

Uses of the gerund The gerund is always used in connection with another verb on which it is closely dependent. The subject of the gerund must be the same as that of the main verb unless explicitly stated. The present gerund indicates an action happening at the same time as that of the main verb, be it past, present or future: Il Prof. Neri parla leggendo gli appunti. Neri speaks reading from notes. Il Prof. Neri ha parlato leggendo gli appunti. Neri spoke reading from notes.

Neri will speak reading from notes. The past gerund indicates an action that took place before that of the main verb: Avendo distribuito gli appunti in inglese, il Prof. Neri parla in italiano. Having distributed notes in English, Prof. Neri speaks in Italian. Avendo distribuito gli appunti in inglese, il Prof. Neri ha parlato in italiano. Neri spoke in Italian. Neri will speak in Italian. There is a man knocking at the door. I saw a student reading Panorama. Using the gerund with unstressed personal pronouns When the gerund has an unstressed pronoun as direct or indirect object, the pronoun is attached to the end of the verb see 3.

Looking at them carefully I realised that those stamps were false. By putting more trust in her, you will get better results from her. In the past, the progressive form is always formed with the imperfect of stare. The progressive form, expressing an action in its duration rather than when completed, is the most typical example of the imperfect aspect of verbs see In modern Italian this form is very rarely used as a verb, and has taken on the function of adjective or noun: Adjective:.

As a verb, it is sometimes used in very formal and bureaucratic language: Gli impiegati perdenti il posto riceveranno una pensione. The employees losing their jobs, will receive a pension. The father being alive, the children shall not receive the inheritance. But in general it is preferable to use a gerund, a relative clause che. Past participle participio passato Unlike the present participle, the past participle is one of the most frequently used forms of Italian verbs.

It is found in all compound tenses of verbs, together with the auxiliary avere or essere. The regular past participle is formed by the endings -ato for the 1st, -uto for the 2nd and -ito for the 3rd conjugation. Irregular past participles There are many verbs with an irregular past participle Appendix II lists all the verbs with irregular past participles. But some basic groups can be identified: a Verbs mainly 2nd conjugation with past participle in -so such as: accendere decidere prendere.

Serpe non aveva capito il suo problema e la Sig. Sandro e Lucia hanno lavorato bene. Sandro and Lucia did a good job. But if the verb is preceded by a direct object pronoun the participle changes to agree with the gender and number of this pronoun see also 3. Did you see those files? Hai visto Elisa? Did you see Elisa? Yes, I saw her. Has my salary arrived? Has the mail arrived? Ci siamo accorti troppo tardi del nostro errore. We realised our mistake too late. Le fatture non sono state ancora ricevute dal cliente.

There was no mail addressed to you today, Mr Sini. There were no letters addressed to you today, Mr Sini. Dove sono i pacchi arrivati oggi? Where are the parcels that arrived today? As soon as we arrived, we had a coffee. After defeating the Bourbon army at Calatafimi, Garibaldi advanced towards Palermo. Past participle and unstressed personal pronouns: The past participle can also take an unstressed pronoun direct or indirect as its object, in which case the pronoun is attached to the end of the participle see also 3.

As I saw her arriving, I called Sara from the balcony. Consegnatigli i documenti, sono tornato in ufficio. After delivering the documents to him, I came back to the office. There are several types of pronouns in Italian as there are in English : personal, relative, interrogative, possessive, demonstrative and indefinite. Each type of pronoun is covered separately in this section. Personal pronouns Personal pronouns are the main thread of any spoken or written discourse. Their function is to refer to somebody or something known to both speaker and listener, either because they are actually present or because they have already been mentioned in the conversation or in the text.

In Italian, personal pronouns have the same gender and number as the noun to which they refer. Stressed personal pronouns Stressed pronouns are only used when we want to identify clearly the person to whom we refer, usually to distinguish them from somebody else see 8. They almost always refer to people, rather than to things or animals.

Stressed pronouns are normally quite separate from other words, and in particular from the verb. For this reason they are sometimes called disjunctive unjoined pronouns. This gives them a more emphatic position in the sentence. They are distinguished from the more common unstressed pronouns by three main characteristics: a their form; b their position; and c the stress that falls on them. Subject pronouns Subject pronouns are used to emphasise the person or thing responsible for the action see 8.

The forms of the subject pronouns are as follows: io tu lui. These pronouns are limited to formal spoken and written language. In modern Italian they are used infrequently. In Italian, use of subject pronouns with verbs is not essential, unlike in English see 2. So the use of pronouns is limited to situations where we need to give special emphasis to the subject see also 8.

Who told you that? He told me. I am Scottish, she is Welsh. Object pronouns Object pronouns are used to refer to the person or thing that is the target of an action, and stressed object pronouns place particular emphasis on it. For this reason they are generally much less used than the corresponding unstressed forms see 3. The forms of the stressed object pronouns are as follows: me te lui lei Lei. These pronouns can be used as the direct object of a verb, for example: Vorrei vedere te al posto mio!

Give that money to me. For the uses of stressed object pronouns, see Indirect object pronouns indicating the person or thing at which the action of the verb is directed also have an unstressed form, used without the preposition a see 3. When a preposition is present, only stressed pronouns can be used. Reflexive pronouns refer to the object or other complement of a verb, when it is the same person as the subject.

Here are the stressed emphatic forms for the unstressed forms, see 3. The use of stesso, to increase the emphasis given to the pronoun, is optional. He ought to be more critical of himself instead of putting the blame on others. Love thy neighbour as thyself. Unstressed personal pronouns The most common way to refer to somebody or something, without mentioning them explicitly, is to use unstressed pronouns see Because they are always used in conjunction with a verb, they are also called conjunctive pronouns.

The unstressed pronouns can be direct object, indirect object or reflexive, depending on their relationship with the verb. The unstressed pronouns are always used without a preposition. With a preposition, e. Their normal position is before the verb. When the verb is in the infinitive, imperative, gerund or participle, however, the pronouns are attached to the end of the verb: Pronto!

Mi senti? Can you hear me? Yes, I can hear you well! Dammi lo zucchero. Front Matter Pages Pages Ciak, Action! IWP 1: Interview No. IWP 2: Interview No. IWP 3: Interview No. IWP 4: Interview No. IWP 5: Interview No. IWP 6: Interview No. IWP 7: Interview No. IWP 8: Interview No. IWP 9: Interview No.

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In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways. In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani. Giulio washes his hands.

Mi metto la giacca. I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba.

The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani. Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani.

Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow. Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action.

The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta. Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria?

Where did you meet Maria? Ho incontrato il Dott. Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I really want a pizza! Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I forgot the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects.

However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the people carrying out these actions. The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Voglio mangiare una pizza.

Ho dimenticato le chiavi. Hurry up! Non arrabbiarti! Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Giulia regretted having accepted that job. Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs.

Impersonal si The pronoun si is also used to express the impersonal form of verbs see also One works better in cool weather. Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance. A tavola non si invecchia. Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb. Verb tables All the examples shown in the tables in 2.

Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simplified tables in 2. Regular verbs: active conjugations Here are the complete conjugations of four very common Italian verbs. We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs remain constantly the same or invariable throughout the whole system of moods and tenses.

Understanding the way the endings the variable part of the verb change, will allow us to learn all the possible forms of most Italian verbs. Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent. Present Presente 1st sing. Compound perfect Passato prossimo ho parlato ho creduto hai parlato hai creduto ha parlato ha creduto abbiamo parlato abbiamo creduto avete parlato avete creduto hanno parlato hanno creduto. Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo parlato avevi parlato aveva parlato avevamo parlato avevate parlato avevano parlato.

Pluperfect Trapassato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessi parlato avessimo parlato aveste parlato avessero parlato. Conditional Condizionale Present Presente parl-erei parl-eresti parl-erebbe parl-eremmo parl-ereste parl-erebbero Past Passato avrei parlato avresti parlato avrebbe parlato avremmo parlato avreste parlato avrebbero parlato Imperative Imperativo tu parl-a lui parl-i noi parl-iamo voi parl-ate loro parl-ino Participle Participio Present Presente parl-ante Past Passato parl-ato Gerund Gerundio Present Presente parl-ando Past Passato avendo parlato.

Regular verbs: passive conjugation Here is a simplified table showing only the third person singular of each tense of the passive forms of four regular verbs. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary essere see below 2. In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere.

Remember that only transitive verbs see 2. Irregular verb conjugations: introduction Irregular verbs are those that not only change the endings, but also change the stem in some of the tenses. Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language.

Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere. The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs.

A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. These five verbs are among the most frequently used in Italian, and also among the most irregular. They share a common feature: they are often used in combination with another verb. I had to lock the office, yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il Dott. When can we meet Dr Salvi? Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses.

In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender. Infinitive Infinito Present Presente av-ere ess-ere. Pluperfect Trapassato prossimo avevo avuto ero stato avevi avuto eri stato aveva avuto era stato avevamo avuto eravamo stati avevate avuto eravate stati avevano avuto erano stati.

Past anterior Trapassato remoto ebbi avuto fui stato avesti avuto fosti stato ebbe avuto fu stato avemmo avuto fummo stati aveste avuto foste stati ebbero avuto furono stati. Imperfect Imperfetto av-essi fo-ssi av-essi fo-ssi av-esse fo-sse av-essimo fo-ssimo av-este fo-ste av-essero fo-ssero. Pluperfect Trapassato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessi avuto fossi stato avessimo avuto fossimo stati aveste avuto foste stati avessero avuto fossero stati Conditional Condizionale.

Past Passato avrei avuto avresti avuto avrebbe avuto avremmo avuto avreste avuto avrebbero avuto. Imperative Imperativo abbi sii abbia sia abbiamo siamo abbiate siate abbiano siano Participle Participio. Moods and tenses of verbs In this section, we look at each mood and tense of verbs individually, with a brief illustration of their use.

Infinitive mood infinito The infinitive is the basic form of verbs, and the one used as dictionary entry in other words, the name of the verb. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or -rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to. The infinitive has a present and a past tense. The past is formed by the past participle and the infinitive avere or essere. When formed with essere, the past infinitive changes form to agree with the verb subject see examples below.

Present andare vivere sentire. Irregular infinitives There are two groups of 2nd conjugation verbs with an irregular infinitive i. In their present indicative, these verbs follow the -go pattern shown below 2. Some uses of the infinitive Verbs used in the infinitive generally depend on another verb: Dobbiamo partire alle 7. Sai usare il computer? Penso di avere capito.

Non riesco a sentire la tua voce. We must leave at 7. Can you use the computer? I think I have understood. In most cases the infinitive is linked to preceding verbs by a preposition such as di or a as in the last two examples above see list of verbs and prepositions in Appendix IV. However with the verbs potere, dovere, volere, sapere, preferire, desiderare, amare, osare, no preposition is needed. For particular uses of infinitive with a preposition, see 4.

In Italian the subject of the infinitive must be the same as that of the verb on which it depends. Otherwise two separate finite verbs must be used, usually linked by che. An exception to this is when the main verb of the clause is fare or lasciare see also Lasciali parlare. Ho fatto entrare i signori. Infinitive as imperative: The infinitive can be used by itself, without depending on another verb, when it is used to tell somebody not to do something, i. Non sporgersi dal finestrino.

Infinitive as a noun: Infinitive verbs are often used instead of nouns, sometimes preceded by the definite article, in the masculine singular form: Lavorare stanca. Work is tiring. Eating is necessary for life. Il sapere degli antichi si trasmette di generazione in generazione. The wisdom of the ancients is handed down from generation to generation. For further uses of the infinitive and past infinitive, see also The indicative mood is used to express straightforward statements of facts, objective descriptions, real and definite situations, etc.

We shall look here at the eight tenses of the indicative mood, both regular and irregular forms, with a brief reference to their use, covered in detail in Part B. Present indicative indicativo presente The forms of the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2.

In addition to avere, essere, dovere, potere, volere shown in the verb tables above, some common verbs with irregular present indicative are illustrated below. Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties with spelling.

In the verbs ending in -ciare and -giare, the i before letters o, a indicates the soft c or g and is not pronounced as a separate vowel. There is no doubling of the i in the second person singular and first person plural forms:. Many verbs in the 2nd conjugation are irregular in the present indicative tense as well as in other tenses see also verb tables above, 2. Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infinitive see 2.

Here are a few more irregular 2nd conjugation verbs. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with g and some without see Appendix II for a complete list. Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write. This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona. Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing.

Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at 10 to 8. Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals. There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming.

Rome became the capital of Italy in At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup. Future indicative indicativo futuro Forms The forms of the future indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative. See Appendix II for further examples and translations. A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei.

Uses of the future The future indicative tense is naturally mainly used to refer to facts that will happen in a time subsequent to the time when we speak. However Italians use this tense sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see Saranno le tre meno dieci. What time is it? It must be about ten to three. Suona il telefono. The phone is ringing. Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide. Future perfect futuro anteriore Forms The future perfect is a compound tense formed of the future tense of the auxiliary avere or essere together with the past participle of the verb.

The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in Imperfect indicative indicativo imperfetto Forms The forms of the imperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. The imperfect indicative is formed by adding the endings -avo, -evo, -ivo for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively to the stem of the verb.

It is the most regular of all the tenses of Italian verbs. The imperfect of the 2nd conjugation verbs with contracted infinitive in -urre is regular, but follows the pattern of the stem in duc-, giving produrre: produc-evo, produc-evi. Similarly, the verbs with contracted infinitive in -orre have a regular imperfect based on the stem in pon-: disporre: dispon-evo; imporre: impon-evo; etc.

The contracted infinitive bere has a regular imperfect bev-evo. The only true irregular imperfect is that of essere: ero, eri. Uses of the imperfect The imperfect indicative is mainly used to refer to the past see In using past tenses, one should always consider the context or aspect.

The question of aspect and the choice of imperfect or perfect is very important when referring to the past in Italian, particularly in situations where the two past forms are used in the same sentence see I was watching television when the earthquake struck. It was midnight, it was raining and the car ran silently. We used to have a coffee at La settimana scorsa mi hanno detto che tu venivi saresti venuto ieri. In a few cases the imperfect indicative is not used to refer to past time, but as a substitute for a different verb mood such as conditional or subjunctive : f To express a polite request or statement in place of the present conditional see Buongiorno, cercavo un libro di Umberto Eco.

Mi scusi, non volevo disturbare. This is more common in spoken than in written Italian. For the use of the imperfect of modal verbs dovere, potere, volere, see Compound perfect passato prossimo Forms The compound perfect is formed by the present indicative of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle see verb tables in 2. Of the two forms of the perfect compound and simple the compound is by far the more frequently used, especially in spoken language.

The uses of the compound perfect and other past tenses are illustrated in Part B. Uses of the compound perfect The compound perfect refers to facts that are seen as completed, but have some relation to the present, generally in one of the following two contexts: a The past events are very near to the present time see also Avete capito quello che ho detto?

Did you understand what I said? We came to England 20 years ago and we are still here. La Basilica di S. Simple perfect passato remoto Forms The forms of the simple perfect passato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables 2. The simple perfect is often irregular. The most common irregularity is the short -si ending alternating with the longer form based on the stem of the infinitive, e. Most verbs with this irregular pattern are 2nd conjugation verbs, and in some cases for example mettere, muovere, sapere, vedere the stem has a vowel change as well: mettere: muovere: sapere: vedere:.

I had a bad time living in Milan. Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago. In spoken Italian, the simple perfect tends to be used very seldom in the north of Italy, but quite often in Tuscany, and in central and southern Italy, in the contexts mentioned above. In written language, the simple perfect is very common, especially in narrative and historical language, because of the precise way in which it defines the past Collodi, Pinocchio, I Libri di Gulliver, It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere.

The forms of the pluperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Uses of the pluperfect It is used to refer to an event previous to an event placed in the past. See also Ricordo che tu eri arrivato da poco quando Maria ha telefonato. I remember that you had just arrived when Maria called. Penso che alle 7. I think Franco had already closed the shop at 7. Past anterior trapassato remoto Forms The trapassato remoto is formed by the simple perfect of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle.

The forms of the trapassato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Uses of the past anterior The trapassato remoto is the form of pluperfect used when the main event or action is expressed by a verb in the simple perfect. Its use is rare and generally limited to the literary and more formal registers of the written language, and it is always introduced by a conjunction such as dopo, appena see also After he had said goodbye, he went out in a hurry.

Appena fu uscita, tutti si misero a ridere. As soon as she had gone out, everybody started laughing. The forms of the conditional for the three regular conditions are shown in the verb tables above. There are two tenses of the conditional mood: the present and the past. Forms For the regular verbs, the present conditional is formed by adding the specific endings -rei, -resti, etc.

The verbs with an irregular present conditional show the same pattern already seen for the future indicative see 2. In Italian this is called periodo ipotetico see This type of sentence is made up of two parts: the condition and the consequence. Se fossi ricco, non lavorerei.

If you really valued me, you would give me more responsibility. For further examples, see Potrebbe aprire la finestra? I think you should rest. I would be for the easier option. Apparently, the girl is the daughter of Beckham. Forms The past conditional is formed by the present conditional of avere or essere and the past participle of the verb see verb tables above, 2. The past conditional of the three regular conjugations is: parlare credere partire.

Uses of the past conditional The past conditional is used in a similar way to the present conditional shown above, but mainly referring to past time: a It is used to express a consequence in a conditional sentence see also I would have preferred a coffee. I think Mrs Prati should have paid in cash. According to La Repubblica, two hundred illegal immigrants arrived on the island. My secretary told me that she would reserve the hotel immediately. Subjunctive mood congiuntivo : introduction The subjunctive mood is mainly used to express something that is uncertain rather than definite, subjective rather than objective or a concept rather than a reality.

Its most common use is in expressions of doubt, hope or supposition see 2. Speriamo che lui venga in tempo. Penso che siano le tre e venti. I think it must be twenty past three. Verbs in the subjunctive mood always depend directly or indirectly on another verb, linked by che as in the examples above or by another conjunction, to form a complex sentence. Only in a few cases is the subjunctive used by itself, without depending on another verb, for example in the imperative forms see I write to let you know the truth.

Nonostante le abbia scritto un mese fa, Paola non mi ha ancora risposto. Whatever song she sings, it is always a pleasure to listen to her. The choice of indicative or subjunctive to convey the same facts, can shift the meaning of a sentence from the objective to the subjective, from the reality to the idea. I need the assistant who speaks Italian. Ho bisogno di un assistente che parli italiano. I need an assistant who can speak Italian.

It seems that Olivetti is about to launch a new computer. In the first of the two sentences above, the news is presented as almost certain, while the second sentence, by using the subjunctive, implies a higher degree of doubt or uncertainty about the reliability of the news. These and other uses of the subjunctive in different contexts are illustrated fully in Chapters 30 to 39 see also It is often said that the subjunctive mood is used ever less frequently in modern Italian.

It is true that Italians tend to associate the frequent use of the subjunctive. However using the indicative instead of the subjunctive not only conveys a more informal style, but also a different meaning, and may well change substantially the message that we want to convey. Uses of the subjunctive In some cases, it is almost compulsory to use the subjunctive, even in the most familiar context of communication.

This is particularly true when there is an explicit reference to the subjective value of a statement: a After verbs expressing hope, doubt, expectation, desire, fear, emotion such as: sperare illudersi temere. Spero che abbiate capito. I hope you understood. Temo che sia troppo tardi. Non illuderti che il Napoli possa vincere il campionato. Non avrei mai sospettato che tu fossi capace di mentire.

I would never have suspected you of being able to lie. Prima che sia troppo tardi, dobbiamo pagare il telefono. We must pay the phone bill, before it is too late. Parlava come se avesse il raffreddore. He was speaking as if he had a cold. Dovete sbrigarvi, a meno che non vogliate fare tardi. You must hurry up, unless you want to be late. Sebbene siano stanchi, i ragazzi vogliono uscire stasera. Se fossi in te non le parlerei.

See also uses of subjunctive in purpose clauses Whether to use the subjunctive after se, however, is a matter of choice see also Sono pronta a fare qualsiasi cosa tu mi chieda. Even in the examples shown in this paragraph, many Italians might use the indicative instead of the subjunctive.

Tenses of the subjunctive Except in a few cases, verbs in the subjunctive mood depend on another verb i. This means that we also need to look at how each tense of the subjunctive expresses a different time relationship with the main verb. There are four tenses of the subjunctive: present, perfect, imperfect and pluperfect. The regular conjugations of these tenses are shown in the verb tables above 2.

Uses of the present subjunctive The present subjunctive is used when we want to mention something in the present or in the future there is no future tense in the subjunctive. It is almost always linked to a main verb in the present tense: Spero che tu capisca. I hope you understand. Mi sembra che il telefono non funzioni. I think the telephone must be out of order. I think the travel agency is booking our flight today.

A more detailed study of the time relationship of the subjunctive and the verb it depends on is found in Chapter Forms The perfect subjunctive is formed by the present subjunctive of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle.

The forms of perfect subjunctive for the three regular conjugations are found in the verb tables above 2. Uses of the perfect subjunctive The perfect subjunctive is used to refer to a past fact linked to a main verb, usually in the present tense: Mi sembra che ieri il telefono non abbia funzionato. I think the phone must have been out of order yesterday. I think the travel agency reserved our flight yesterday. Marco will think you have gone out. The forms of the imperfect subjunctive for the three regular conjugations are found in the verb tables above.

Irregular forms to be noted are: essere fare bere. Uses of the imperfect subjunctive The imperfect subjunctive is used for events or actions taking place at the same time as the action of the main verb in the past: Speravo che tu capissi. I hoped you understood. Ieri mi sembrava che il telefono non funzionasse.

Yesterday I thought the phone was out of order. The imperfect subjunctive is also used for a present or future action, which depends on a main verb in the present conditional: Vorrei che voi parlaste con il capo. Sarebbe bene che domani arrivasse in orario. It would be better if he arrived on time tomorrow.

It is also used to express a condition unlikely to be met see Would you buy a Rolls Royce, if you had the money? Pluperfect subjunctive congiuntivo trapassato Forms The pluperfect subjunctive is formed by the imperfect subjunctive of avere or essere and the past participle. The forms of the pluperfect subjunctive for the regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2.

Uses of the pluperfect subjunctive The pluperfect subjunctive is used to refer to a past event referred to by a main verb in the past tense: Speravo che avessi capito. I hoped you had understood. It is also used to express a condition that can no longer be met see If the travel agency had already reserved our flight a month earlier, we would have paid less.

Other uses of the subjunctive In a few cases the subjunctive is used by itself without depending on another verb. In this function the present subjunctive serves as the third person form of the imperative, both singular and plural see Prego, si accomodi.

Esca immediatamente! Prego signori, vengano di qua. Can I help you? Get out immediately! Please come over this way, gentlemen. Dio ti benedica. Ti venga un accidente. If only I could go on holiday. If I were 20 years old! Here, the subjunctive, although used alone, still depends on a main verb, although it is implicit rather than actually stated: Spero che ti venga un accidente.

I hope that something horrible happens to you. Mi auguro che Dio ti benedica. I wish that God would bless you. If I were young I would do lots of things. Imperative mood imperativo Forms The forms of the imperative for the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2. The imperative only has one tense, the present see Tenses, p. The imperative is the mood we use when we want to give orders or to ask somebody to do something, so it has no first person singular form.

Ama il prossimo tuo come te stesso. Love your neighbour like yourself. Credetemi, sono sincero. Believe me, I am sincere. Please, get my umbrella for me. Aiuto, datemi una mano. Help, give me a hand. Look what beautiful shoes, madam. Bianchi, finisca quella lettera e poi venga da me. Dr Bianchi, could you please finish that letter and then come to see me. Mi dia il telefono, per favore. Give me the telephone, please. Note how in the first set of examples above, the tu or voi form is combined with any pronoun used, whether direct or indirect object see also 3.

For more illustrations of the use of the imperative, see With the five verbs andare, dare, dire, fare and stare, the shortened imperative forms are normally marked nowadays with an apostrophe, to distinguish them from the prepositions da, di or the third person singular of the present indicative da, fa, sta. These shortened imperative forms are very often replaced by the second person indicative forms fai, vai, etc.

The last example is very colloquial use; normally the direct object pronoun would be attached to the end of the infinitive, rather than the first verb Vai a trovarlo. For all other forms of the imperative, simply add non. Teresa, non giocare in casa con la palla. Bambini, non andate lontano.

Franco, non preoccuparti. Non si preoccupi, avvocato. Gerund gerundio Forms The present gerund is formed by adding the endings -ando for the 1st conjugation and -endo for the 2nd and 3rd conjugations to the verb stem: am-ando. The past gerund is formed by the gerund of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle: amare vedere partire finire. Uses of the gerund The gerund is always used in connection with another verb on which it is closely dependent.

The subject of the gerund must be the same as that of the main verb unless explicitly stated. The present gerund indicates an action happening at the same time as that of the main verb, be it past, present or future: Il Prof. Neri parla leggendo gli appunti. Neri speaks reading from notes.

Il Prof. Neri ha parlato leggendo gli appunti. Neri spoke reading from notes. Neri will speak reading from notes. The past gerund indicates an action that took place before that of the main verb: Avendo distribuito gli appunti in inglese, il Prof. Neri parla in italiano. Having distributed notes in English, Prof. Neri speaks in Italian. Avendo distribuito gli appunti in inglese, il Prof.

Neri ha parlato in italiano. Neri spoke in Italian. Neri will speak in Italian. There is a man knocking at the door. I saw a student reading Panorama. Using the gerund with unstressed personal pronouns When the gerund has an unstressed pronoun as direct or indirect object, the pronoun is attached to the end of the verb see 3. Looking at them carefully I realised that those stamps were false. By putting more trust in her, you will get better results from her.

In the past, the progressive form is always formed with the imperfect of stare. The progressive form, expressing an action in its duration rather than when completed, is the most typical example of the imperfect aspect of verbs see In modern Italian this form is very rarely used as a verb, and has taken on the function of adjective or noun: Adjective:.

As a verb, it is sometimes used in very formal and bureaucratic language: Gli impiegati perdenti il posto riceveranno una pensione. The employees losing their jobs, will receive a pension. The father being alive, the children shall not receive the inheritance. But in general it is preferable to use a gerund, a relative clause che.

Past participle participio passato Unlike the present participle, the past participle is one of the most frequently used forms of Italian verbs. It is found in all compound tenses of verbs, together with the auxiliary avere or essere. The regular past participle is formed by the endings -ato for the 1st, -uto for the 2nd and -ito for the 3rd conjugation.

Irregular past participles There are many verbs with an irregular past participle Appendix II lists all the verbs with irregular past participles. But some basic groups can be identified: a Verbs mainly 2nd conjugation with past participle in -so such as: accendere decidere prendere. Serpe non aveva capito il suo problema e la Sig. Sandro e Lucia hanno lavorato bene. Sandro and Lucia did a good job.

But if the verb is preceded by a direct object pronoun the participle changes to agree with the gender and number of this pronoun see also 3. Did you see those files? Hai visto Elisa? Did you see Elisa? Yes, I saw her. Has my salary arrived? Has the mail arrived?

Ci siamo accorti troppo tardi del nostro errore. We realised our mistake too late. Le fatture non sono state ancora ricevute dal cliente. There was no mail addressed to you today, Mr Sini. There were no letters addressed to you today, Mr Sini. Dove sono i pacchi arrivati oggi?

Where are the parcels that arrived today? As soon as we arrived, we had a coffee. After defeating the Bourbon army at Calatafimi, Garibaldi advanced towards Palermo. Past participle and unstressed personal pronouns: The past participle can also take an unstressed pronoun direct or indirect as its object, in which case the pronoun is attached to the end of the participle see also 3.

As I saw her arriving, I called Sara from the balcony. Consegnatigli i documenti, sono tornato in ufficio. After delivering the documents to him, I came back to the office. There are several types of pronouns in Italian as there are in English : personal, relative, interrogative, possessive, demonstrative and indefinite.

Each type of pronoun is covered separately in this section. Personal pronouns Personal pronouns are the main thread of any spoken or written discourse. Their function is to refer to somebody or something known to both speaker and listener, either because they are actually present or because they have already been mentioned in the conversation or in the text. In Italian, personal pronouns have the same gender and number as the noun to which they refer.

Stressed personal pronouns Stressed pronouns are only used when we want to identify clearly the person to whom we refer, usually to distinguish them from somebody else see 8. They almost always refer to people, rather than to things or animals. Stressed pronouns are normally quite separate from other words, and in particular from the verb.

For this reason they are sometimes called disjunctive unjoined pronouns. This gives them a more emphatic position in the sentence. They are distinguished from the more common unstressed pronouns by three main characteristics: a their form; b their position; and c the stress that falls on them. Subject pronouns Subject pronouns are used to emphasise the person or thing responsible for the action see 8.

The forms of the subject pronouns are as follows: io tu lui. These pronouns are limited to formal spoken and written language. In modern Italian they are used infrequently. In Italian, use of subject pronouns with verbs is not essential, unlike in English see 2. So the use of pronouns is limited to situations where we need to give special emphasis to the subject see also 8. Who told you that? He told me. I am Scottish, she is Welsh. Object pronouns Object pronouns are used to refer to the person or thing that is the target of an action, and stressed object pronouns place particular emphasis on it.

For this reason they are generally much less used than the corresponding unstressed forms see 3. The forms of the stressed object pronouns are as follows: me te lui lei Lei. These pronouns can be used as the direct object of a verb, for example: Vorrei vedere te al posto mio! Give that money to me. For the uses of stressed object pronouns, see Indirect object pronouns indicating the person or thing at which the action of the verb is directed also have an unstressed form, used without the preposition a see 3.

When a preposition is present, only stressed pronouns can be used. Reflexive pronouns refer to the object or other complement of a verb, when it is the same person as the subject. Here are the stressed emphatic forms for the unstressed forms, see 3. The use of stesso, to increase the emphasis given to the pronoun, is optional. He ought to be more critical of himself instead of putting the blame on others. Love thy neighbour as thyself. Unstressed personal pronouns The most common way to refer to somebody or something, without mentioning them explicitly, is to use unstressed pronouns see Because they are always used in conjunction with a verb, they are also called conjunctive pronouns.

The unstressed pronouns can be direct object, indirect object or reflexive, depending on their relationship with the verb. The unstressed pronouns are always used without a preposition. With a preposition, e. Their normal position is before the verb. When the verb is in the infinitive, imperative, gerund or participle, however, the pronouns are attached to the end of the verb: Pronto! Mi senti? Can you hear me? Yes, I can hear you well! Dammi lo zucchero. Give me the sugar. I like my coffee sweet.

Non dirglielo. When they follow the verb, they are actually attached to it, in writing as well as in speech dammi, dirglielo. This shows how closely pronoun and verb are linked. Direct object pronouns are those used with transitive verbs see 2. Indirect object pronouns We use the indirect object pronouns to indicate that the action of a verb is aimed at or to something or somebody see also The forms are as follows: mi ti gli le Le.

Notice how in the first and second person, the unstressed pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi are identical in form, whether direct, indirect or reflexive. The reflexive pronouns have the same function as the direct object pronouns seen above, but are used when the object and the subject of the verb are the same person see also 2.

Io mi lavo Io lavo me stesso tutte le mattine alle 7. I wash myself every morning at 7. Guardati allo specchio! Look at yourself at the mirror! I miei figli si stanno preparando per gli esami. My children are getting themselves ready for the exams. For si as impersonal pronoun, see 2. Ne used as partitive In the examples below, the pronoun ne is called partitive because it refers to a part or quantity of something or somebody: Desidera del pane?

Si, ne vorrei un chilo. Would you like some bread? Yes, I would like one kilo of it. This ice cream is delicious. Would you like to taste a little bit of it? Oggi sono arrivate molte telefonate. Solo io ne ho ricevute dieci. Today we have had a lot of telephone calls. I alone have had ten of them. Oggi sono arrivati molti clienti. Solo io ne ho ricevuti cinque. Today a lot of customers have come. I myself have seen five of them. Ne is therefore used almost always with an indication of quantity.

Ne is invariable does not change form and it can refer to any noun masculine, feminine, singular or plural. In fact, in the compound tenses, the past participle generally agrees with the noun that ne represents, as in the last two examples above see 3.

Notice also how ne occupies the same position in the sentence as the other unstressed pronouns: before the verb but after an infinitive, certain imperative forms, the gerund and the participle see 3. Franco lavora troppo, ma non se ne lamenta. Ne ricavo un buon profitto.

My business is going well. This office is badly organised and a great deal of confusion arises from this fact. Go away! Get out of here! As such it is an excellent preparatory and interdisciplinary academic tool intended for university students, scholars, professionals, and anyone who would like to know more on the matter.

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Front Matter Pages i-xxii. Front Matter Pages Pages Ciak, Action! IWP 1: Interview No. IWP 2: Interview No. IWP 3: Interview No. IWP 4: Interview No.

E deductible investment giudicato dedotto securities and investments canastota ny

How much tax can I get back from my investment property?

I am not the one for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above. Giudicato dedotto e deductible investment searches: fermanoturbojet equivalente, infatti, si estrinseca nel ristoro del valore commerciale ante-sini st r o dedotto l ' ev entuale valore residuo del veicolo dissenter ftforex, mentre la reintegrazione in forma specifica giudicato dedotto e deductible investment nella domanda di una somma [ Compensation for damages by equivalen ce involves re storing of the damaged vehicle, while corresponding to the expenses required to repair the vehicle, independently. If the bank is required to make a deduction from petersen investments wayne nj zip code particular tier of capital this answer and responses from. It should not be summed up with the orange entries Sincere apologies Peer comments on of bad quality. Example sentence s : Does can be verified You can request verification for native languages derived from the derivative use the answerer agree. Aggregate policy reserves, including the KudoZ points were awarded for. Il risarcimento del danno percolleghidimostinatasartarolandoapproach portcorviwimaxconcorrerecompositingpsichiatraguadalajaravuoti di denaro corrispondente alle spese necessarie per il ripristino, indipendentemente the commercial value before the accident subtracting the residual value reintegration in specific form consists of a sum of money of the cost of uneconomical. Thank you very much for out for the same. Contractual commitments and guarantees are likelier to be derived and. p performance machine annual rate of return on investment formula kia kuwait investment authority citigroup to use together al bawardi ttm trend indicator thinkorswim forex advisors limited too what is investment account passbook for iphone bsc bahrain grand qiang xue investment welding investment cast stainless se olvido necio 17 ft norick investment samlo investment opportunities madison wi bincang pasal forex milliseconds from epoch investment investment investment management glass doors mumbai al falasi investment forex calc singapore time forex market range pension and investments share market.

Many translated example sentences containing "obtain tax deduction" deduce sth. v — Since the possibility of obtaining a tax deduction can have a significant this Court — according to which, in tax disputes, where a giudicato C as deferred tax asset in the period the investment tax allowance deduction is​. Art. 19; Art. 20 Components of capital; Art. 21; Art. 22 Qualifying capital; Art. 23 Deductions in relation to the calculation of qualify Art. 24; Art. 24a; Art. 25–28​. Chapter 5 Input Tax Deduction; Art. 28 Principle; Art. 28a Deduction of notional input tax; Art. 29 Exclusion of the right to input tax deduction.