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Ryan says it could happen again. Some think that new control mechanisms, involving civ ilians or double- checking, Should be installed. Others note that the character of a four-star general ought to be the best guarantee of military integrity.
Slay, contradicting his chief, says he was ordered to falsify reports. The first responsibility for assuring civilian control lies with the President, but Sen. S tennis because of his position and personal stature can surely make a weighty contribution of his own. Will It Be Only Eight?
Ever since the signing of the treaty In Brussels last January, the world has taken it for granted that the European Economic Community would expand from six to 10 member states cm next New Tear's Day. Even when the legislation necessary for British membership of the Common Market was barely surviving critical tests in the House of Commons, it was habitual to refer to the Community of Ten, as though it were almost an accomplished fact.
It has now been driven home rather abruptly to EEC members and other inter- ested governments that it may not happen after alL Britain and Ireland wifi certainly join the Common Market this coming Jan. About 2. Legally, the vote win not be binding on the Storting but In practice the referendum will decide the issue. Many of the ISO Storting members say they will follow the popular verdict when they vote an ratification. Recent opinion polls show gains for propo- nents of entry— but a majority still resolutely opposed.
Membership would inevitably mean greater prosperity for Danish fanners and relief from a long-stand- ing balance of payments problem. Yet polls show erosion of support for entry and the referendum result is In doubt. Not all opponents of the Common Market in- Norway and Denmark also oppose NATO membership: But some of the most active elements in the effort to keep the two coun- tries out ol the community are also ardent neutralists who seek to detach Norway and Denmark from any ties whatever to the West.
Much of tiie responsibility for disenchant- ment of Danes and Norwegians must rest, however, with the Community Itself, and particularly with France, which has done so much to diminish the idea and the ideal of Western European unity buttressed by vibrant supranational institutions.
If it were a democratic United States of Europe for which Jean Monnet called eloquently again this week that the two Scandinavian coun- tries were being asked to join, the outcome might be very different. It is already obvious that the debate on terrorism, will necessarily Include two points, one of which has never left the agenda the other which has never been on it: the Palestine consist and the Vietnam conflict.
As a matter of fact, several countries are going to ask the Assembly to replace the delegation of the Phnom Penh regime by the delega- tion of the united royal government of Prince Sihanouk. In a word, this Is the result of the incapacity of our government, 0 This recent quote from a Phnom Penh newspaper expresses the present mood in the Cambo- dian capital. The enthusiasm of the sum- mer of has given way to a general weariness and hopelessness oyer the war, which manifests itself in the increasing moral collapse of the upper Class and des- perate apathy among the masses.
Lon Nol has failed to mobilise the people for a coal- man effort. Even more blatantly than was to be expected. Marchand, the manager, who Is at present in London, informed our correspondent y e ster d ay that the transfer - win take place about the middle of next month. The capital of the new company Is 5 million franca Mr.
His fortune exceeds that of Mr. Rocke- feller. An even- ing out on the town tor Henry K i s s ing er is no longer merely a social occasion but a military operation, with oops watching the kitchen and the doors. All international meetings, whether ol athletes, diplomats or businessmen, are subject to this terror, and now the postal ser v ices of the world are being used to send explosive devices to Israeli emb a ss ie s , where the mall has to be sifted by experts In bullet- proof vests.
Secretary of State William Rogers, whose, quiet efforts to deal with this problem have fail- ed, Is now going to chal l enge the United Nations, and especially the Russians and the other permanent members of the UN Security Council, to agree to tough new regulations to punish the hijackers and bomb- throw era and those who finance and protect them. He will propose that the mem- bers of the UN agree not to provide arms and money to or- ganisations engaged in this In- ternational banditry, and mainly that they agree to extradite or punish skyjackers and cut off air traffic with any nation that refuses to cooperate.
Britain, Prance and the other major commercial airline nations to go along. Accordingly, they will seek to promote conditions in which, all nations will lire in peace and security Protecting the mails and inter- national meetings from political terrorists la a. But it la easier to stop commercial air travel to nations that refuse to cooperate than it is to with- hold all postal service.
The Soviet Union, is taring the worst agricultural problem since the s, and Nixon has agreed to sell It over a quarter of the American wheat crop at favorable prices to get Brezhnev over a very difficult political and economic problem. Uhder these circumstances, it Is not unreasonable for the Pres- ident to ask that the Nlxon- Brezhnev agreement of last May be applied to tiie world com- munications crisis even if this leads to a serious debate on the war in Vietnam, which should probably have been held at the united Nations long ago any- way.
Northern Ire- land, and the Paris peace talks. L'Osservatore Romano is aim- tog to Increase end broaden its coverage of world events, and to toe procesrmpy writ become less a document whose nuances are understood only by VatL- canologtets in world capitals. George S. Since the editorial was signed by Federico. Alessandrini, the Vatican press spokesman, it was taken to represent a certain cool- ness toward McGovern on the part of the highest levels of the Vatican. The paper has also commented on abortion bills in other coun- tries, on.
Vietnam, the SALT ac- cords, environment matters, racial equality,. As one senior American clergy- man at toe Vatican comments wryly: "The hams team always comes out looking pretty good. Gerry Ktt, probably the most conciliatory Catholic politician In Ulster and leader of the Social Democratic and Labor party, was telling callers flatly: "We are not going to Darling- ton.
It will be a lonely group. The Rev. This is a measure of the Importance be attaches to it. The Whit eta w assembly, then, is unlikely to be much more than an interesting gesture. It may be remembered only for sane Irish Republican Army efforts to blow up toe delegates. The most puzzling element in all this is toe cabinet's hasty de- cision cm Thursday night to an- The International. Her aid. Tribune welcomes letters from readers. Short letters have a better chance of being pub- lished.
Anonymous letters win not be considered -for publica- tion. By Bernard D. Nossiter n ounce the creation of toe ttbu- 'nate. Some early reports said they meant toe end of intern- ment. Although much about the new system to undear, the tri- bunals obviously mean no sueh thing. They change toe author- ity responsible for inter nmen t but not toe process ttseil.
But they acknow- ledge that toe new bodies will have power to put men away without following rules of evi- dence, without the due process of ordinary courts. It is still not known who will sit cm the tribunals, but they will not be confined exclusively— if at ah— to judges. It is not known whether suspects brought before them will have the right of coun- sel. Nor is it certain whether the sentences imposed by tribu- nals win run for any fixed length.
All these measures are justified an the grounds of the continuing violence in the wracked province. In sum, the big difference is that Whitelaw alone will no longer decide who stays in Long Kesh and who comes out. The tribunal members win do that. As a further gesture towards hard-line opinion here and In Ulster, ordinary courts will be given a sweeping new power. They will be able to convict persons who advocate the cause of illegal organizations like the IRA through their speaking or writing.
The point of this is to provide for toe imprisonment and set merely the internment of IRA leaders who can sot be caught to the act of bombing or shooting. AH this reflects the weariness of Heath, Whitelaw and toe British gp v g ma cnt with toe in- tractable. But the Whitelaw conference will not be as sterile as it looks. Lambert Greeoan. Civil War.
Per Leo purchased it for the Vatid which still publishes it and do! But the weekly foreign tangtm g e ec n. Spanish and Portuguese— a dr another Actually, the only official Vati : can paper is the Acte Apostolical Sedis, or acts of the Apostolic Bee, which prints all papal mes-' sages, speeches, instructions ant?
But it. The papers cany a smattering of advertis- ing, and ran no crime news or comics. Benedict the 15th used to mark up his paper to red and mue pens, with appropriate com- ments written to the margin. The English language edition was founded to and its 13, copies go to 52 countries, includ- es India, Pakistan, Indonesia Japan and Africa. Half the copies are sent to the United States. To be sure, there is little common ground among them.
The Unionist parly, tire, group- ing ot Protestant squires, busi- nessmen and preachers who dominated Ulster for 50 years, propose a new regime that would insure Protestant control of police. That is thoroughly un- acceptable to most of the province's. That is thoroughly un- acceptable to most of the province's one million Protestants. But the fact that the old par- ties have been compelled to produce plans is not unimportant.
Ihe papers ore there and they will be discussed. That is politics, however elementary. On the surface, then, Ulster looks more than ever like a hope- lew disaster area, split beyond redemption in tiro sectarian camps.
But alongside the dally story of horror and outrage, there is movement, however hmitant, on a track towards political solu- tion. Krauss's article IHT, sept. Talk about toe superpigeon that snows a cer under overnight; what about euperdog that has us leaping over the Paris streets, if we are alert enough to leap In time.
Better 10 million pigeons, than I am not suggesting we eat them: just have the owner promenade with shovel to hand. The Moroccans to Paris must be chuckling over William Erausa's back-page piece. Robert T. MacDonald Editor. Cables: to Dlreataur da to pahR. Herald, Posta eMtatu Walter H.
A; -v. Prasad Dlrnr, India's minister, who is a top riser to Prime Minister. Western observers here view this move as a significant step forward by the Soviet Union in its prolonged drive to increase its Influence in South Asia. The U. S- reluctance to involve Itself further, in Indian development and the deterioration of economic conditions.
Russians to move in on a large scale. Treaty Paved Way India and the Soviet Union envisaged ; economic cooperation under their peace and friendship treaty signed in August last year. But a decision to draw the Soviet Union Into new areas of Tnriian Industrial projects was taken only last September, when relations between the United States and India soured on the Bangladesh issue.
William Dr. I4jinsky said. After the words of sympathy are of both parties on the for the PDAs problems, however, ee, which intends to he then took sharp issue with Dr. Edwards had. Lijinsky stated that ra- il Leone, who was making search studies dealing with the visit to the Vatican. Scientists LSpute was unmistakable. Nobel Prise, hen we advocate for her the Harvey Prize, it was annonno iy law and usage in fine ed Wednesday, er genuine traditions, both Willem Kolff, of the Uni- ts and lay.
Claude Shannon, of mit, ' conservative liberals ram- for his 1 WB studies in the nmthe- 1 k divorce measure through manual theory of qmTYiTfnicat i fl g. It was named after Los Angetea b urinrepinia n Leo M. MM ne ectrical power. Meanwhile, serious shortages in production and scarcity of es- sential materials such as steel, fertilizers and.
Prices are rising and unemployment is growing. There has been hardly any private in- vestment for Industrial ventures partly because of. The Soviet agreement will help expand production in existing state projects as well as help build plants for fertilizers, chemicals, oil exploration and several other lesser industries. So far, the Soviet Union has helped India to a limited extent in retting up a steel plant at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh, a bigger one at Bokaro in Bihar State, a heavy machinery project and a drug industry.
The Soviet Union, taking ad- vantage of the low labor costs in this country, is supplying steel for conversion into screws and cutlery and cotton far conversion into thread, for re-export. Indian industries are increasingly re- scheduling their projects accord- ing to the needs of the Soviet Union other Communist countries where they have a guaranteed market. Montherlant's body sprawled on his desk; he had shot himself In the mouth. Montherlant had been In failing health. He recently be- came blind in one eye and was losing sight in the other.
Three iettere declaring bis in- tention to commit suicide were found at his side. One was to the secretary, another to a close friend and a third to a court official. One commits suicide out of respect for life, alien your life has stopped being worthy of you.
The painter Edouard MacAvoy. I cannot bear the thought of becoming blind. John R. Chals- son. Chaisson had been deputy director of regulations lor the Atomic Energy Commission since his retirement last July. Chaisson held the second- ranking post in the Marine Corps when Gen. Leonard F. The appointment went, however, to Gen. Robert E. Cushman jr, whom President Nixon has made deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency in Joseph W.
Brooks Jr. Joel Brooks jr, 70, author of many books on fishing and fishing editor of Outdoor Life magazine, died Wednesday of a heart ailment in Rochester, Minn I have made arrangements. I will dispose of myself. I cannot bear to be a prisoner of my s;gfcr. My ophtalmologist tells me that it is a fault in the circulation of the retina and that nothing can be done.
Maybe in the street. Montherlant was the sec- ond member of the Acadcmie Franchise to die within 48 hours. Pierre-Henri Simon, Montherlant began writing essays, poems and short novels as a student. He came Into the literary limelight, however, at the age of 30 when he published "Les Best ia ires.
Ke had a lifelong passion for bullfightin?. A sturdy athlete and sports- man. Montherlant served cn the front in World War I and chronicled his reminiscences in a novel. Montherlant had been an amateur torero but had to stop all violent physical exercise in his mids after being trampled by a young bull at Aibacete. He then traveled widely throughout the Mediterranean area, publish- ing novels — many of which were cast In Spain. Montherlant, who was wounded in World War I.
He was suspended from the writers asso- ciation for one year in on charges of publishing articles in various magazines published dur- ing the Nazi occupation. Montherlant's career as dramatist began shortly after- ward, and it overshadowed his work as novelist. The Yard reported yesterday the earlier seizure of two tons of suspected pornographic literature in raids in southern England. The director of public prosecu- tions still has to decide whether to take to court the publisher of the , copies of magazines seized in the London area, the Yard reported.
The last three works of his career, however, were novels written in the past 20 years. Montherlant was unmar- ried and lived in virtual reclusion for years in his Paris apartment fiiled with Roman and Greek statuary.
He was elected to the Academie Fran raise in I Elveno Pastorelli. It is necessary to start restoration work at once, and it can only be lengthy. Bui the French president's rais- ing of the idea at his news con- ference in Paris yesterday could influence voters in referendums that Norway and Denmark will hold tliis weekend and next on tiie question of Common Market entry.
In both countries opinion polls liave shown that more people oppose entry than support it. Pompi- dou's statement. But there was a consensus in official circles that full membership for Spam was not possible until the govern- ment there took on a more demo- cratic character.
The opposi- tion leader, Poul Hurtling, said he did not believe Spain could be a market member as long as it had a nondemocratic government. He noted that Foreign Minister Maurice Schu- mann had proposed that Spain be granted a preferential trade agreement but that other EEC members had not replied. Peron, former Argentine dictator, because of threats against his life, official Spanish sources said today.
Peron aides notified security police several days ago that there was reason to assume that an attempt might be made on his life, the sources said. Security police headquarters then ordered special measures to protect Mr.
Peron, who is living in a villa on the northwestern outskirts of Madrid. EEC officials said tills reflected the views made clear by several members, particularly the Netherlands. The observer doubted whether internal political pres- sure would pprmit Italian sup- port for full Spanish member- ship as long as Gen.
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There is no plot to toe play, merely a gathering together of jftushionsfar ladies Sc men Linens and lingerie i E. A rtf New York. Not content with dis- playing their own dilapidated talents, the authors also pOlage the works of. Blake, Coleridge, and Shelley tb provide lyrics for some pretentious song-making. Inside this Slim, fnahtenohlA show, with its eager, young, over- ampUfed cast, is a corpulent did revue struggling to get out, crammed with jokes about mothers-in -law and treating women as sex objects.
To add farther injury. It Is ineptly and amteuriahly per- formed. Brodsky Gives First U. London, Wl, to Sept A selection. Reuseh is an architect, and therefore concerned with placing of - objects in spaoe. He has evolved a system, for encasing a black powder, free to move inside its encasement, in vast carefully designed perspex containers. Tbs resultant objects are extremely'. Johnston is an Bn gitsh sculp- tor who has made a profound study of a single material — lignum vitae— in which wood practically all the sculptures In the present exhibition are carved.
Having an , unusually complex graining coloration, li g nu m vitae demands sympathy with and truth to one's material as do lew others. Knox paints simple objects — a basket of dessert pears on a table, a beach, tent, an armchair, a tub of crocuses— bn a large scale and in a seomngiy naive way. Closer examination shows that the apparent naively conceals considerable sophistication of technique and observation, ar thaj : these things, as it we iwnmiiy thrown down upon fcl canvas, in fact stir in the view, complex trains, of thought on tl relationships between one obje - and toe next, and between group of objects, the space abo: it, and the extremely cample r.
The veteran Noguch has been chosen for the opening show, with a group of 13 sculp- tures. And there's a bonus in thr basement gallery In a mixed con- temporary sculpture exhibition o;. Caspar Friedrich was the great- est of German Ro mantics , hi work full of symbolism and o. There is also a large selection of Us engravings and drawings. We sell U. South-West acreage far below i existing land competitors. The coordination of the accounting activities of their separate plants and providing each accountant with the instructions necessary to make use of the same budget criteria are also included in his area of responsibility.
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Eng- lish language only. Your text and payment mast' be received- by September But show is in such total. The great Hery has been trans- a series of small; bay- its with newly con- ditions and lowered painted deep brown, throw each carving Against the earth look as if they were.
The adonna and Child te the viewer to linger, from humbly dressed i bent heads to richly ig matrons crowned Tystal diadems, ime floor, the museum. These- re- vere made to contain 13th. In -the myth at Erm ehe, the girl who wishes divine, krrer again,. Thus aba Is n enormous pQa of grain. And what emerges 1 this, despite -the occa- ight touches, is a sense ming. Erwitt is an acute r, and his shutter clicks as his mind. Visit or write. Uunfcb 22, LodwigsiraaM I prefer the pooh.
Stoong-colored tapestries, large and small, to. Hand- some and rather eooH. The oxen represent the biblical beasts who carried water for the priests from the molten sea in Solomon's Temple described In the' Book of Kings.
There is a frieze of sculptures depicting the baptism of Christ around the out- side of the great bowl. Thus, Old and Hew Testaments are linked in one work. Churches and palaces, museums and national archives have been generous in lending their treasures for this exhibition. There are chalices and manu- scripts; altar crosses and incense pots; bookbindings as precious as old pain ti n g s, coated in beaten silver, inset with ivory, clasped in gold.
All are aspects of art In a civilization dominated by the need to provide tangible evidence on earth, of heavenly glories. The catalogue is a thick, scholarly tome with splendid photographs. Open un. Indeed, the paintings should be far more ex- pensive in absolute figures, for painting traditionally rates higher than the so-called decorative arts — pottery, lacquer work, etc.
Few Japanese paintings appear at auction. This is particularly true of paintings done In the 18th and 13th century. The exhibit Ion through the end of September' of 84 paintings mostly of that period, at tile Karan Paul Gal- lery, 43 Great Russell Street, London, therefore offers an op- portunity to form an idea of current prices.
The exhibition offers a reason- able cross-section of the paint- ings of average quality, from the most traditional type of landscape derived from the earlier Chinese academic schools to the wildest Zen productions.
All the works are illustrated in the catalogue with brief descriptions— and prices. Zen Pointings A few random prices at recent London and Paris auctions show that Japanese lacquer work docs not have to be signed or highly original to fetch the maximum. At Christie's an June 5. It was decorated with autumn flowers, herbs and butterflies.
At the Paris sale of Mr. On the average. Going by the Kegan Paul price list, painting seems to be, comparatively, cheaper. The paintings arc character- ized by a high degree of ;s instruc- tion ; the human figure is dashed off with a few strokes. A strong satirical strata holds an itveoedi- ate appeal to the Wes tefb eye.
Such Is, for example, a itartraib 1 36 by 39 inches'! Another drawing 13 by 50 inirfces. Sixty-fire pound; is rot much to pay for it if you consider the prices of an Ibiro with a good signature from that period. Paintings reflecting the earlier Chinese styles are in the satire approximate price range. An early 19th-century picture if. The Institute for Agricultural Market Research said weeks of frequent rain, loir temperatures and morning fog have badly af- fected the quality of grapes now being harvested in much of Italy.
It said rotting causes growers to discard as much as 40 percent of the crop, and wholesalers have complained some bad grapes still are left, in consignments reaching big cities. What saleable product is left is fetching low prices because of low sugar content, the institute said.
It gave no estimate of the size of this year's vintage, but said that exports as of Sept. Grape production in was nine million tons, down half a million from the previous year because of a severe drought which was partly offset by last-minute rains. Kitaj and Joe Ttisan. Padv x Glarnlschstrasse 10 Masters of the 1 5th and 20th Centuries DoSa Drawings As Sculptures. Sculpture Vatu sept- rota open all day Saturday. European masters Impressionists, fauvas post-rmprsssionrsts TAJ.
Paiattaqs J. Solly Brnoer Fuchs. Basel Tel: 33 54 Sept 36 til! Pasltea rchien JTtjoral. Mhos, art posters. But from a strictly aesthetic rieivpoiat, the two Zen works, which have great- er originality, should be more expensive. Quite clearly Japanese paint- ing of the isth century is not yes priced according to criteria related to the art trends of 10th- century Japan. Surprisingly, some earlier Zen works are not necessarily more expensive.
A portrait 23 by 53 inches 1 of the Buddhist patriarch Daruma, by Shunjo, a pupil of a famous 18 th-century master. In this case, as in a few otiiers. I suspect that prices were determined more by the price which the dealer had to pay to get the paintings than by their intrinsic value. Itro Works Among the more unusual works in the exhibition, two deserve attention from an historical point of view. Judg- ing from their exaggerated mi- micry, they are not enjoying it.
The barber bends over them with a Mephistophelean smile. Com- pared with the vivid humor of the better Zen -. The other rare piece is by thB 19th-century artist Shiba Kokan. It is. Bub unusual as it may seem to a specialist, it is. I remember seeing them in an earlier exhibition. The average Western buyer is probably not sufficiently interest- ed in Japanese art history to pay such prices, which can be Justified primarily by historical arguments.
And Western mu- seums oi Eastern art do not gen- erally concern themselves with the paintings of this late period. Rarity Will the difference in price be- tween Japanese paintings and objets d'art of the 18 th and 10th century last much longer? One reason lor the disparity lies, paradoxically, in the comparative rarity of the paintings.
Art lovers can easily become acquainted in inros because there are thousands of them. They have a miniature- like quality and their bright colors make them instantly accessible. Japanese painting is different. To understand it— and therefore to appreciate it— requires a much higher degree of ConnoisseurshJp and some familiarity with Japa- nese culture — Japanese literature, the Japanese brand of Buddhism — without which Zen painting, for example, is in danger of being mistaken for an exotic oddity.
It is so closely licked with cal- ligraphy as to almost require first hand linguistic knowledge. The likelihood of Western art lovers suddenly boning up on classical Japanese Is remote. This year's show includes more than 5, paintings, objets d'art. Each is supposed to be in perfect condition. All of the exhibits are lor sale, except a piece collection of Persian jewels lent by Empress Farah of Iran, and a few historical pieces, including Oscar Wilde's desk and the cradle given by the City of Paris to Louis 3CVT and Marie Antoinette on the birth of the dauphin.
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BS Zu rlch — 66 25 Vt m Kappers 1 One Month.. Ifie 20 15li HcclaM J3I 47'. Sfi 99 35V 6I'. W MTO ,. By Gene S mith SK. Chancellor of the Ex- , nthony Barber pledged nonwealth members will a voice in projected in- 2 monetary reforms. He pointed out that his com- pany -had already set up a wholly- owned subsidiary, Hi-Met. In Japan, making it the only Japanese metals company to process metals here.
Hitachi Metals, according to Mr. Kobno that the search for an. Amiran partner has "one of our highest priori- ties. But if we can go into a market and produce there and return profits to the country, then , the barriers win come down. Kohno indicated that his company would also like to into joint marketing ventures with.
American companies since "there is no reason why CLS. There is no reason to have a differ- ent view of the 28 th such conference which be- gins here Monday. This is recognition, first of all, 'that these affairs are largely ceremonial, much like the annual meetings of a ccrparatton.
The state of shock still exists, and no one is ready yet to pick up the pieces and build a new mosaic. It wBl take time. On the World Bank side, the problem of trans- ferring more resources from the rich nations to the poor is still there— and gets no better. In between president Robert McNamara's annual poignant speeches cm the subject nothing much gets dona Talk Will Be Plentiful There win be talk about these issues, plenty of. And, to the extent that ventilation of problems educates the public and crystallizes opinion among the movers and shakers of the financial world, these annual meetings are no doubt highly essential.
This year, the most to be expected from these sessions is that they will officially launch the new Committee of 20 on its way to discussions of basic changes that will modernize the whole com- plicated system. A working group of deputies may also find a chairman— a position of great importance over the next few years. Far Apart on Objectives The European nations on the one hand, and this country on the other, appear to be so far apart In major objectives that one can envision a long struggle ahead.
My reading of the official American mood i? The mercantile approach, in other words, is basic oh both sides of the At- lantic. That cannot be done, of course, until the present US. So the big question relates cot so much to the many technicalities of SDRs, convertibility, float- ing rates, and so on— but to the bread-and-butter issue: How Trilling is the rest of the world to permit the UH. Banger of Protectionism A shift in the trade balances among the United States, Europe and Japan can no doubt be achieved— but probably at the cost of Jobs in those countries that enjoy large surpluses.
The clear danger, of course, is a worldwide drift into protectionism. On monetary reform itself, there is ho dearth of plans and schemes. There is something of a consensus that there should be a phasing out of gold and dollars in favor of SDRs.
Various experts have long since supplied all of the tech- nical details that anybody could want. And this past spring. Federal Reserve Board chairman Arthur F. Burns in Montreal provided a reason- able set of principles that could guide the re- forms.
Further reports and further studies are not needed. What is required is a political decision to move ahead. And that is a decision that nobody seems ready to make. IS per Cl. It 1A Burroughs, of the United reported that it had made preliminary s about Pairing a minority interest in tional computers. But the British gov- t made clear it would not approve of con- the firm leaving British hands. Namco is a semi- aent firm. KugetiaJger Fab- l begin ball-bearing production in October European merket.
Officials say the sub- which was set up last February, will be C f producing one million units a month, tapany also says it plans' to issue in Japan. Proceeds from the issue will be used. The company also plans to transfer its seven French-built Caravelle airliners to a char- ter subsidiary. Sabena 's losses are blamed on competition from charter flights on the summer tourist routes and on its failure to fill the jumbos with a paying load. Nissin Plans Mexican Venture Nissin steel, of Japan, is negotiating with Altos Hornes de Mexico, a government-owned corpora- tion, to establish a joint venture to produce stainless steel in Mexico.
Plans call for the venture to be owned' 51 percent by Altos Hornes: 35 percent Jointly by Nissin and Mitsui, the Japa- nese trading firm; and the remainder by other Mexican interests. Nissin and Altos Hornos are working out plans for establishing the venture by Facilities would include a factory capa- ble of producing 1, tons of stainless steel a month.
Montedison to Sell Brasil Unit Montecatird Edison has decided to sen its sub- sidiary Heliogas, a company marketing liquid gas In Brazil in a virtually monopolistic position. Swiss Federal Banking Commission, investment Fund jtment, has approved the deposit bank takeover agreement scember 27, Berne, Aug.
The commission said It is seek- ing information on the average markup, base period profit mar- gin. Similar questions were sent to four UJS. True, the cash-protection of the Raytheon Bond backed by Con- tinental Casualty Company and the Raytheon "Code of Ethics" create initial customer confidence and thus stimulate sales right now.
Your Raytheon Tube Distributor will be happy to give you the whole story on the Raytheon Bonded Program, and tell you whether or not you can qualify for this double- barreled asset. Call him today. Cane B. Thousands of new job opportunities will be available for you right in your own state, now that the govern- ment has lifted restrictions on new TV stations. I receive S86 for 40'diy trip. Oumont Cmerson, Admiral and ether leading firms. Leonard C. Radio City Station New York R-3 Dear Mr.
I understand I am un- der no obligation and no salesman will call. Now — can be stacked for even greater gain. Certain had their troubles, m many cases J? Con- tains highest quality compo- nents throughout for lasting accuracy and dependability. The plan includes counter cards, folders, catalog material, etc. Weller Electric Corp. Built around a shooting-gallery theme, the display uses audience par- ticipation to gain additional appeal.
Any one of the three permits serv- icing of over 50 different models of radio arid TV sets. Individual kits are recom- mended for Western, Central, and East- ern states. Precision Apparatus Co. The lectures and demonstrations are scheduled to be presented in cities throughout the United States and Canada during Permo, Inc. Radio Merchandise Sales, Inc. The company also participated in a forum at Bridgeport, Conn. Officially, the RTMA reported pro- duction of 5,, TV sets and 8,,- radios for the first 11 months of , as compared with 4,, TV sets and 11,, radios produced in the period.
Boston was close to the million mark, and the new TV areas of Denver, Colo. New Plants and Expansions Aerovox Corp. Acme will be operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Aerovox under the continuing management of Hugh P.
Moore, president. Radio Apparatus Corp. At the same time he announced the appointment of Verne Roberts and Paul Redhead as director of sales and sales manager, respectively, of the newly formed group. Both are well known in the industry. General Cement Manufacturing Co. G, Ellis, general sales manager. This is the company's third plant in that city. Main offices re- main at Taylor Ave, in Rockford. Granco Products, Inc. The company will design, manufacture, and distribute u.
Radio Corporation of America an- nounced plans to build a factory in Spain for the production of phonograph records, record players, and TV home receivers. Crest Laboratories relocated its fac- tory and offices in expanded facilities in Rockaway Beach, N. The new facili- ties, quadrupling the company's former space, will produce transformers. Blonder-Tongue Laboratories, Inc. It will be used for the manufacture of TV boost- ers and distribution amplifiers. David Bogen Co.
Radio Craftsmen, Inc. It accurately and rapidly localizes trouble in any stage of a TV receiver. It's use accomplishes in minutes tasks that normally take hours. This calls lor speed in locating and repairing cable sheath leaks— a hard job where cable networks fork and branch to serve every neighborhood and street. At Bell Telephone Laboratories, a team of mechanical and electrical engineers devised a way to fill a complex cable system with dry air under continuous pressure.
Pressure readings at selected points detect cracks or holes, however small. Repairman can reach the spot before service is impaired. It's another example of how Bell Laboratories works out ways to keep your telephone service reliable— and to keep down the cost to you.
Air compressor and tank are at right. Long cyl- inders on rack dry air before it enters cables. He's checking the air pressure in a branch cable, one of scores serving a town. The readings along the cable are plotted as a graph to find low-pressure points which indi- cate a break in the protecting sheath. Master meters keep watch over the various cable networks which leave a telephone office in all directions to serve a community.
Air enters the system at 7 pounds pressure, but may drop to 2 pounds in outermost sections— still enough to keep dampness out. If not, get your copy from your distributor without delay! It's the most comprehensive of all such manuals and it's yours FREE! Also included for the first time in this new edition is a Printed Circuit Guide for the resistor-capacitor plates used by 46 manu- facturers as well as a complete capacitor color code chart, two extra features to make the Sprague TV Replacement Capacitor Manual even more invaluable to every television technician!
If your distributor is temporarily out of stock, you can also get copies by writing Sprague Products Co. Please enclose 10c to cover handling and postage. Learn how to select and get the most out of recording equipment. Tells you how to select the proper amplifier for given applications, how to test amplifier performance, how to elimi- nate hum.
Explains microphone, speaker and pickup principles and selection factors. Shows how to utilize inverse feed-back, ex- panders and compressors. Covers hundreds of subjects — a vast wealth of reliable infor- mation found in no other single volume. If you work in the field of Audio, this book be- longs in your library. Arcturus Electronics, Inc. Replogle as president and!
Frederick D. Gearhart, Jr. Stromberg-Carlson opened a sales and sales engineering office for its Sound Division in Dallas to serve an eight-state area in the South. American Phenolic Corp. Sarkes Tarzian, Bloomington, Ind. When completed the building will double the company's production capacity. Business Briefs. International Resistance Co. The talk was part of IRC's long-range j plan to increase customer service. The Electronic Parts Show management reports that compa- nies, with a total of display units, reserved space at the annual show to be held in Chicago May The RTMA held an industry-wide engineering conference in New York City to explore all phases of the prob- lem created by spurious receiver and transmitter radiations.
General Electric will double its production of germanium diodes this year to meet the rising demand by television manufacturers. Louis, Mo. Electronic Instrument Co. Howard W. Miller Co. John F. Rider Publisher, Inc. END Hi W! Gonset Part Closer spacing restricts r. Sharp forward pattern minimizes the need for "probing'' when installing.
Amplitude of spurious lobes is sufficiently low to reject ghosts in over 99 per cent of installations. Construction avoids use of insulation. Ideal for use in locations where very strong rear reflections pro- duce unusually difficult ghost problems. Gain 4 to 5 db over specified - fre qtiency range referred to a resonant half wave di- pole.
Not intended for fringe area use, but rather as a moderately priced antenna having excellent rear rejection. Use of a folded dipole eliminates the need for an insulator, and permits a good impedance match to ohm or ohm line. Ideal for use where high gain is required and Strong reflections from the rear make necessary an antenna which is virtually "dead" off the back.
RE S. Main St. Burba nk Colif. We surveyed hundreds of service men like yourself. We found that Mai lory Vibrators were preferred over others because of their long life and dependability. There is good reason for that vote of confidence.
It is the same reason why more Mallory Vibrators are used as original equipment than all other makes combined. The patented, tuned mechanism in Mallory Vibrators assures completely dependable performance, every time. Less wear because of slow contact Low resistance because of high contact pressure Reduced arcing because of clean 9 fast break You can depend on Mallory Vibrators for highest quality. Ask for Mallory, by name, the next time you call your distributor.
It is a sure way to beat the call-back problem. They last a Lifetime! Newest and Fastest-Growing Science. At that time Dr. Karl G. Jansky, of the Bell Telephone Laboratories of New York, discovered that unusual and previously unobserved radio signals, emanating from the direction of the Milky Way, were received on Earth. Astronomers and physicists alike paid little attention to the new discovery.
This antenna, bowl-shaped like a search- light, could be pointed into any direction in the sky, like a telescope. Reber, like Dr. Jansky, found that the strongest signals originated somewhere in a plane near the center of our galaxy. He soon noted that the signals did not seem to come from the biggest or brightest stars.
Reber at the time theorized that the radio signals really did not come from the stars themselves, but that they originated in the huge hydrogen gas clouds which we know exist in interstellar space. W T ith better modern instrumentation that was not avail- able in , a great deal of progress has been made toward solving many unsolved riddles of the cosmos. Today we know that most stars — including our own sun — give out radio energy at various frequencies.
Man once more realizes that even one of his greatest achievements, radio, is old and ancient hat! Radio waves, it now appears, have existed for at least five billion years — perhaps longer. This, then, explains the sudden and feverish international activity in radio astronomy. Nearly all the major countries are in the race. Much of the work unquestionably is going on in secret, much of it behind the Iron Curtain. MARCH, the generous funds that are being poured into the various installations.
Thus, Great Britain will be spending over one million dollars on the world's largest and most modern radio telescope at Manchester University. Its huge para- bolic lattice-bowl antenna measures feet in diameter. It swings in a cradle between metal-lattice towers which are feet high. The whole assembly is mounted on a metal platform which runs on a circular railroad track. Thus the telescope antenna can be pointed toward any region in the sky.
Clockwork then guides the telescope and will keep it on any selected point in the heavens. Why all this great and feverish activity on such a seem- ing highly scientific and improbable endeavor? Why, on top of spending millions on radio telescopes, do all the above- mentioned countries add extensive — and expensive— faculty centers of radio astronomy to their present seats of learn- ing? The answer is not difficult to find. Radio astronomy is in an exactly parallel position today to that which existed in atomic science in the twenty years before , the date of the first atomic explosion.
Many scientists realize that reception on Earth of inter- stellar radio signals, which have taken from one hundred to one billion years to reach us, poses important problems concerning their origin. At present there is some indication that a solution of such problems may be of vast scientific importance, contributing to the understanding of many fields of science — even the atom.
Scientists, too, suspect that there may be an important connection between cosmic rays and radio energy — both may turn out to be closely related. What does man stand to gain by the understanding of the origin of radio waves from interstellar space? No one can tell. We do not immediately expect to gain from it vast amounts of power — this lies in the future.
We are, however, certain that the knowledge of cosmic radio mani- festations is as fundamental to the future of science as was Maxwell's electromagnetic theory to the development of our present radio communication. To feed and clothe them, man will require more and still cheaper power. Only by understanding Nature's still unknown, immense energy sources can we hope to achieve prosperity for all mankind and consequently a real planetwide Peace.
The "Middle" control was transferred to the amplifier in later models. The control panel can be moved to any convenient point where the operator can hear what the audience hears, and can watch the stage for cues. The simplest method of remote control is electronic mixing, using d. The chief advan- tages of this method are that low-level audio signals go direct to the amplifier inputs instead of first passing through noisy switching circuits, anJ the con- trol lines carry only hum-free d.
The d. Either way there must be sufficient de- coupling and filtering to keep hum or noise off the grid used for gain control. Simple resistor-capacitor filters are sufficient. On PA jobs where two or more microphones are required there will be less danger of acoustic feedback if only one microphone is alive at any time, or at least if only those microphDnes actu- ally needed at the moment are alive.
This is no problem with direct micro- phone switching, but a remote-control switching circuit is not easy to design. If bias voltage is switched, loud clicks or plops come from the system. The three- section filter eliminates audible switch- ing transients without noticeable delay. The problem is to provide the quick- est possible change of bias without any audible effect.
The solution is an auto- matic switching circuit. See Fig. Various arrangements were tried for smoothing out the switching clicks, from a single R-C combination to a multisection low-pass filter. A single resistor-capacitor section produced a loud click unless the values were made so large that the time delay became unbearably long; with multisection filters the click was transformed into a plop — the filters changed the propor- tions of the component frequencies in the switching voltage transient.
High-speed switching means that some disturbance — in the form of a simple step transient — is bound to get into the amplifier. The problem is to make this transient inaudible, while still attaining satisfactory operating speed. To do this, all the component fre- quencies in the step must be inaudible. We dug out an old copy of Fletcher- Munson loudness contours, from which we found that the slope of the curves at the low-frequency end is approxi- mately 18 db per octave near the threshold of audibility.
This should give the highest possible speed of action without producing any audible effect — and it worked! When this system is in use there is not the slightest indication that at one instant a certain mike is dead, and a second later it is alive. Two systems were modified to incor- porate this method of switching. The first was simply a twin version of Fig. There are three remote-control microphone inputs with universal input transform- ers so that microphones of any imped- ance can be used.
After mixing, the frequency spectrum is divided into three channels, with individual low-, medium-, and high-frequency ampli- fiers. Two of the channels have remote gain control operating the middle channel at fixed gain eliminates an extra control. Tubes were scarce over here when the original amplifier was built, and the 6J7 and the ZfuS a Brit- ish type can be used interchangeably.
With the control bias applied to grid 1, 12 volts provides complete cutoff. This is much less than would be needed with remote-cutoff tubes, and no micro- phone has large enough output to pro- duce appreciable distortion due to the curvature of the tube characteristic even in the second stages. Grid 1 control was chosen in prefer- ence to suppressor control because the earlier KTZ63, for which the Z63 is now a replacement, was a tetrode. One or more microphone inputs may be selected, mixed, and divided into low-, medium-, and high-frequency amplifier channels with independent gain controls.
Use care in selecting tubes, to find suitable nonmicrophonic samples. Spe- cial low-noise pentodes such as the , , and British EF37A might be better for this application, but this does not invalidate the method. The control-panel circuit is shown in Fig. The remote-control connection is through an octal plug and socket on a 7-wirc cable. The lower one SI, S2, or S3 in Fig, 4 is a simple on-off toggle switch: when it is off, that mike circuit is definitely off.
When it is ON, the mike is controlled by the remaining switches and controls. The additional switch above each gain con- trol S4, S5, or S6 has three positions, marked A, ON, b; in the center ON position, the mike circuit is on, subject to control only by gain controls Rl, R2, or R3. But in either side position A or B it is further subject to control by the tone-control switch S7.
Two pairs of tone-compensation con- trols — one pair shown as R4 and R5, and the other pair shown as R6 and R7 — are provided for low- and high- frequency gain. The mid-frequency gain is preset in the amplifier. Besides selecting tone-control settings, this switch will also select mike circuits set to position A or b on the individual mike-circuit switches. This layout may seem complicated, but a little thought will show that it provides extremely versatile control.
Suppose two individuals are talking alternately into two different mikes. Using S4 and S5, one mike can be set to A position and the other to B position, and the master tone-control switch S7 can be used to switch from one to the other as each speaks in turn ; tone- control group A can be set to give the most pleasing result with mike and voice A, independent of the b position AUDIO setting. S7 changes the tone setting automatically every time the mikes are switched.
If desired, a third mike can cut in on either a or b position, by having its three-way circuit switch S6 in the ON position, and just bringing it in with its ON-OFF switch S3. This system can be adapted for use with an echo chamber like the one described by Charles L. Hansen in Radio-Electronics for July, At the right moment the changeover between the tone controls is made with a flick of the a-b switch S7.
If for any reason the new arrangement would be better on B circuit, and the present arrange- ment is already on B circuit, then the present setup can be transferred to A circuit first. Set the live mike-selector switches to the middle ON position, set both tone controls in the same position, and change over from b to a with S7. Then switch the live mike-selectors to a. Now preparation can proceed on the B circuit. This does not interfere with the program.
A little thought is needed to master the principle of operation, but once understood, its extreme ver- satility is ample reward. Two more points should be made clear before concluding. The values used for the switching-filter circuits, three ,ohm resistors and three 0. But if more than usual gain is required, due to using a low-sensitivity microphone at long range, switching clicks may come through, particularly when switching off. One method of preventing this without modifying the circuit, is to turn the gain control down first; then switch off; and then reset the gain con- trol to the desired level ready for the next switching on.
Less switching voltage will be needed with this method, but the first method has been found satisfactory for the comparatively few occasions where clicks are audible Some readers may feel that 6J7's will not give much range of control, but will act like on-off switches. Try it. You will find that any tube can be used as a variable-mu tube, pro- vided the signal level is small enough so the tube curvature does not cause distortion. The range of gain variation is as great as can be obtained with a re mote -cutoff tube, end www.
Their purpose is to minimize frequency drift if the line voltage varies. Less well known, but of even greater value, is the use of volt- age regulators, especially gas-tube types, as hum and decoupling filters in high-fidelity audio amplifiers. They provide a highly effective and low-cost method of improving the hum level and transient response, and can transform an excellent amplifier into a superla- tive one.
I have used this device for many years and it is one of the fea- tures of the Golden Ear amplifier. Audio Engineering, April, A voltage regulator is the equivalent of" a highly effective low-pass filter con- sisting of a series impedance A and a shunt impedance R Fig.
We know from Kirehoff's law that when a cur- rent is introduced at a junction of sev- eral branches it will divide among the branches in inverse proportion to their resistances or in the case of a. In a power supply we are dealing with both d. We need a series circuit, which will offer a high impedance to the a. We achieve it by using either resist- ance or inductance for the series ele- ment and capacitance for the shunt element.
The capacitor has very high resistance to d. Thus we can bypass a good deal of the a. Unfortunately, it takes very bulky inductors and capaci- tors to do the job at hum frequencies 60 and cycles. And when the hum level must be held to 60 db or more below the signal level — which means reducing the ripple to one-ten-thou- sandth or even one-hundred-thousandth of its value at the rectifier output, four or five filter sections are required. This is where the VR tube can per- form a valuable service.
It is an ideal hum filter, and it is very much less costly and bulky than any conrbination of capacitors and inductors or resist- ors capable of equal filtering action. The use of VR tubes as hum filters combines perfectly with their use as decoupling filters. Amplifier "definition" The ideal amplifier delivers an exact counterpart of the input signal to the load.
It neither adds to nor subtracts anything from the form of the signal. An amplifier may distort a signal by subtracting some of the tonal values through frequency discrimination, or by adding harmonic distortion and inter- modulation. Another addition affects the definition of the amplifier. An amplifier with good definition maintains the distinctness of the indi- vidual elements of the signal.
Defini- tion in an amplifier can be compared to resolution in a camera. A camera with good resolution will show individ- ual blades of grass and individual hairs in a coiffure; a camera with poor reso- lution blurs the separate components so that they cannot be distinguished. Similarly, an amplifier with good defi- nition reproduces the individual notes and instruments distinctly; one with poor definition will blur the individual tone elements and instruments until they cannot be distinguished separately.
Definition in an amplifier is very largely a function of transient response. An amplifier with good transient re- sponse is nonresonant, nonregenerative and nonoscillating. It is always merely a reproducer, never a generator. Un- fortunately, this is much easier to stipulate than to achieve. Most ampli- fiers are regenerators or oscillators of the triggered type. At some point in the frequency range they are resonant, pos- sess a feedback loop, and will break into momentary oscillation if triggered by a sti-ong-enough impulse.
These oscillations are not always audible as such in the output. They are manifested not as constant tones but as "hang- over" effects, and consist of a series of echoes of the signal. They may even be pleasing to some because they give a resonant effect which sometimes simulates room resonance.
But they re- duce the definition of the amplifier, blurring the individual elements and instruments instead of maintaining their distinctness. Transient oscillations Fig. The figure at a represents the wave-train of a damped soft pedal piano trill plotted on amplitude-time co-ordinates.
There are definite valleys between the separate tones in the original signal. The result is indicated at 6. The separation between pulses is no longer distinct and sharp, and the total effect is blurred. In fact, the effect is very much like that of playing the same trill undamped — that is, with the loud pedal depressed. Moreover, if the amplifier is reso- nant at any frequency, it can be trig- gered into oscillation at this point by any strong transient regardless of its frequency. In good amplifiers the reso- nant points will be at the inaudible ex- tremes of the frequency range and the oscillations themselves will not he audi- ble.
Nevertheless the oscillations will have two disastrous effects: first, they create intermodulation distortion; sec- ond, they are usually of much higher amplitude than the signal and may drive one or more stages of the ampli- fier into the nonlinear regions of their curves and produce violent distortion of every possible form, even at low signal levels.
To be a true reproducer, an amplifier must be as nearly nonresonant, non- regenerative and nonoscillating as pos- sible. To achieve these qualities we make the amplifier frequency response flat away below and away above the audible range from 10 to , cycles in good amplifiers.
We also try to eliminate or reduce the bad effects of feedback loops in the amplifier. Feedback loops are inescapable in any amplifier when several stages are fed from the same power supply. The dashed lines are the feedback loops created by the common plate-supply line.
If capacitor C does not bypass all audio voltage on the line to ground, part of the audio voltage in the output stage will be fed back to the first and second MARCH, I stages. Regeneration will occur where the feedback is in phase with the stage signal, and oscillation will start if the amplifier has a resonant point.
With 3 resistance-coupled stages or 2 transformer-coupled stages the feed- back will always be in' phase over some portion of the f requency range. To minimize feedback we must insert low- pass filters in the feedback loops — filters which will pass the d. Typical R-C decoupling networks are shown in Fig. These will reduce feedback at normal frequencies; but adequate by- passing below 50 cycles calls for enor- mous values of shunt capacitance.
For this reason cheap amplifiers cut off the low -frequency response very sharply at about cycles. But as we have already noted, really high-fidelity amplifiers must be designed for a pass-band from 10 to , cycles. How are we going to decouple effectively at a frequency as low as 10 cycles? One way is to use two or more power supplies.
Some expensive ampli- fiers actually do this. A much simpler and equally effective device, is to use one or more VR tubes at appropriate points in the power-supply loop. VR decoupling Any regulator which holds a d. As a shunt unit a VR tube is effective down to subaudible frequencies. The installation of VR tubes for decoupling and hum filter- ing is simple and inexpensive.
Only one VR tube is necessary in most amplifiers. The need for decoupling and hum filter- ing is progressive; we need much less attenuation of hum and feedback in the final stages of an amplifier than in the input stages. By combining brute- force inductance-capacitance filters with AUDIO a single VR tube we can usually achieve almost complete hum and feedback sup- pression in amplifiers of five or even six stages assuming that the final stage and the drivers are push-pull and that no interstage transformers are used.
The most effective point for a VR tube is the input stage, or the pre- amplifier for a low-level phono pickup. If a com- mercial amplifier is used, the 10, ohm resistor and VR tube can be in- serted at the B plus-input point. If the preamp is home-built, the l 5-uf filter capacitors and 33,ohm series re- sistors can be eliminated. In any case,, the ,ohm resistor in the fre- quency-correction network can be re- moved.
This resistor limits the bass compensation at very low frequencies to guard against motorboating. Application to any other input cir- cuit is just as simple. The VR tube is simply inserted in the B plus line in place of the usual decoupling network. The stage in which the VR tube is con- nected should he designed for a plate supply of li30 volts. Most amplifiers designed for a volt plate supply will work all right with a volt sup- ply. In any case, the improved de- coupling extends the low-frequency limit and a larger cathode bypass capacitor at least 25 uf , and a larger grid-coupling capacitor should be in- stalled.
In all cases the series resistor R should be adjusted so that a mini- mum current of 10 ma flows through the VR tube. Two or more stages may be fed by one VR tube provided the total current does not exceed 30 or 40 ma.
The addition of a VR circuit to a well-designed audio amplifier with a very wide, flat frequency range will produce a marked improvement in tran- sient response, especially at very low frequencies. In large part this is due to the use of two VR tubes — one at the phono-preamp and one at the stage feeding the push-pull drivers. The expedient is highly recommended to high-fidelity enthusiasts and design- ers.
Audio amplifiers using Class AB pentodes and beam power output tubes require a regulated screen voltage for maximum output. This can he supplied by one or more VR tubes operated in series. Use tubes whose total operating voltages equal or approximate the required screen operating voltage. The 0B3 operates at 90 volts, the 0B2 and 0C3 at volts, and the 0A2 and 0D3 operate at volts. The VR ob- solete but often available on the sur- plus market supplies 75 volts.
As we have seen, the single tube with a split load is good if you do not need too much drive; and the anode-follower or see- saw circuit gives more output, but less gain. For conventional audio work the tubes and supply voltages you plan to use will determine whether you take the single-tube or two-tube phase-split- ting circuit. There are some special jobs, though, for which these push-pull driver types are not suitable.
The most important of these is when you want to go down to extremely low frequencies, or even all the way to zero frequency. The anode follower see Part III, in the February issue includes one coupling capacitor, so that it will not stay bal- anced once the capacitor starts to take control; the split-load circuit Part II, January, has the disadvantage that the two output terminals are at different d.
A symmetrical direct-coupled deflection amplifier for a cathode-ray oscilloscope calls for a phase splitter which provides two out- puts at the same average d. It has other uses too, but we shall come back to those after we have examined its characteristics. The circuit itself is known as the "long- tailed pair," or more prosaically, as the Schmitt cathode-coupled phase inverter. If you look at the basic circuit in Fig. This circuit is related to the anode-follower discussed last month in a rather interesting way.
The anode-follower circuit, you may re- member, could be described simply by saying that the second tube is driven by the difference in the plate-voltage swings of the two tubes. The second tube of the long-tailed pair has its grid grounded, and the effective drive to this tube is applied at the cathode. The driving voltage is equal to the cathode resistance R k multiplied by the differ- ence in plate currents of the two tubes. Suppose we raise the potential of grid 1 by 1 volt, causing an extra cur- Fig, pair" 1 — Circuit of the "long-tailed cathode-coupled phase-inverter.
The cur- rent in tube 2 will drop by an amount L, and the cathode potential will change by I-L Rv. This change is the input to tube 2, and if R k is very large, we can have I-L very small and still get some drive into tube 2. In fact, we can draw Fig. If you look at Fig.
Drive for tube 2 is Og. The only way to get equal swings at the two plates is to use slightly different plate-load resistances R M and R L2. We can do some very simple calcula- tions to see the sort of difference. The rigorous approach This result, obtained by very simple reasoning, applies quite well if tube 1 and tube 2 are pentodes, though it leaves a rather tricky gap if you won- der how to bypass the screen grids right down to zero frequency. It shows that the circuit looks good, anyway.
And now we come up against the main problem of the writer of technical ar- ticles: do you want it easy, or do you want it right? Sometimes the writer can put in all the mathematics— if he is French he seems to put in nothing but the mathematics — sometimes he collects a dense mass of small-print equations at the end. Usually he must tack between the Scylla of editorial condemnation and the Charybdis of long-haired readers who write and point out the smallest deviation from rigor. My own preference is to start off with the exact mathematical solution, and then simplify.
Any reader who wants to get more detail can then build up on the sound foundations I have provided. If you try to simplify first, you will have nothing to build on later. It will be much easier to understand the long-tailed pair if we redraw the circuit in the form of Fig. This is not as elegant and symmetrical as Fig.
Tube 2, you now see, is a grounded- grid stage, a subject we discussed re- cently in Radio-Electronics October, , issue. I shall save myself a lot of trouble by using some of the results I worked out in that article. Let us look at the first stage first. The tube has a plate load R h1 , and there Fig. MARCH, is some negative feedback because of the unbypassed cathode resistor. That last paragraph is tough but true. We can choose R,. Ener- Fig. Oscilloscope applications For applications in which a good stable balance is needed, a much higher value of R k would be used.
But 50, ohms is a very long tail. The reader who has been watching these numbers carefully may be getting a little worried. If each tube draws 5 ma there will be a total of 10 ma through the cathode resistor. All this talk of 50, ohms implies a drop of volts across R k , and even if we cut R k to 20, ohms, we need a volt supply if we are to work with the grids around ground potential. This is not a serious matter in oscilloscope circuits, because negative high-voltage supplies are generally used.
In some other cir- cuits, where the grid of tube 1 is con- nected directly to the plate of a pre- ceding tube it is an advantage to have the whole tube circuit lifted up above ground. But volts is rather high, and when an extra-large cathode impedance is needed for special high- balance jobs, special circuit tricks are usually adopted.
One very important circuit uses a pentode in place of R k. A 6AQ5, for example, will pass 10 ma with only 20 volts on the plate, but the impedance so far as constancy of current is con- cerned will be very high, certainly above , ohms. The form the circuit takes is shown in Fig. R B is tapped off the total cath- ode resistance at the desired bias point. Another way of providing the neces- sary high impedance in the cathode cir- cuit is to use a saturated diode for R k.
The tungsten-filament diodes used as noise sources in receiver testing give full emission saturate at a relatively low plate voltage, and increases in plate voltage give almost no change in current. The only disadvantage in us- ing them is that the diode current de- pends on the filament temperature, so that the filament current must be stabi- lized. Our purpose in seeking such highly accurate balance is not to get If you look back at Fig. In fact, this ground connection is there only because we assumed a grounded input: we are really using the voltage G-G, as the input, and deriving two equal antiphase outputs from this.
Suppose, however, that we connect both grids together, and then apply a signal. There will be an in-phase signal at the plates, but it will be relatively small, since the large cathode resistance R k provides a great deal of feedback. We can easily calculate what will happen, because we can assume that each tube has 2R k in its cathode and then treat one tube alone.
This gives a gain of about 0. For push-pull input, applied between the grids in- stead of to grids in parallel, the gain is 30, so the balance ratio is 0. If a pentode is used for the cathode resistor this figure can be in- creased still more.
This circuit is used in electroencepha- lography: the two grids are connected to electrodes applied to the head of the patient, and the tiny brain currents produce a push-pull voltage between the electrodes. Stray cycle fields pro- duce a relatively large push-push volt- age which must be eliminated, of course, because it would mask the brain signals even if it did not overload the final stages of the recording amplifier.
For use with oscilloscopes there are two possibilities. In the first, the two grids can be regarded as the two input terminals, and we have the feature that push-push voltages are discrimi- nated against, while push-pull voltages are applied to the deflecting plates of the oscilloscope tube. This is excellent if you wish to work around zero voltage. But if you are interested in the vari- ations of a voltage which is always well away from zero, this push-pull input is not very satisfactory, because the d.
The arrangement of Fig. The grid of Tube 2 is connected to point A, which provides a positioning voltage to bring the spot near the center of the screen. The grid of tube 1 takes the input signal, which is converted to push-pull to avoid de- focusing and trapezium distortion key- stoning. A capacitor shown in dotted lines may be added to keep supply hum off the grid of tube 2, where it would be amplified as an ordinary sig- nal. A resistor also shown dotted is sometimes added to improve the smooth- ing.
In some oscilloscopes the time constant of this R-C filter is so long that the spot goes on drifting long after you have taken your hand off the posi- tioning control. Stages of this kind can be connected in cascade if you have generous power supplies. You just apply Ohm's Law to find the resistance values.
Although this circuit is not used much for audio amplifiers, we should examine how it can be used, and in par- ticular how we can get away from this negative voltage line. A simple and ap- parently symmetrical form of circuit is shown in Fig. This circuit is not as sym- metrical as it looks, as you will see if you consider it as redrawn in Fig. At high frequencies the grid of tube 2 is grounded, but at low frequencies, when C r , 2 is no longer a low impedance, the grid is returned to somewhere be- tween ground and the top of R k.
At zero frequency, the coupling resistance is down to R B , which is too small to pro- vide any satisfactory sort of balance. At high fre- quencies the only sources of trouble are tube capacitance, in particular the grid- cathode capacitance which is effectively in parallel with R k , since grid 2 is grounded. If you now look back at Fig. Every few years I come back to this point of indecision. It's a good simple circuit, but where will I get that negative supply?
For special jobs, with double input, it is possible to elaborate the long-tailed pair to give a really well-balanced system, though the bal- ance is usually not as good as you can get with a transformer. But the long- tailed pair stays balanced down to zero frequency. I hope that in these four articles I have succeeded in making it clear that it doesn't cost any more to make your push-pull circuit really balanced. The shoddy circuits described in Part I will add to your troubles if you want to use a reasonable amount of negative feed- back, and as far as I can see they amount to nothing more than a public avowal that you "couldn't care less.
Unable to lick the prob- lem using 6. The control grids are operated with zero bias in this circuit. Fixed bias can be applied by inserting dropping resistors in the heater line and returning the grids to the point which gives the desired bias with respect to its negative heater pin. The tap on the bleeder must be adjusted so the voltage does not exceed the sum of the voltage drops across the tubes. If biasing resistors are used this voltage must be raised according- ly.
SCOTT AUTOMATIC volume expanders also called contrast expand- l ers were developed in an effort to restore the original dynamic volume range to broadcast and recorded music which had been limited or compressed to prevent overmodulat- ing the transmitter or overcutting the record. While FM broadcasting and LP and 45 r. Com- monly used volume expanders are of three basic types, namely: variable- gain, constant-gain variable-output, and inverse-feedback.
An example of the variable-gain type is shown in Fig. Ansley Phantom Conductor Fig. This unit is designed for use between a crystal pickup and audio amplifier. The variable-gain expander tube is a 6L7 pentagrid mixer, a tube designed for superheterodyne circuits having separate oscillators and for other appli- cations where dual gain control circuits are desired in a single tube.
In audio applications, grids 1 and 3 may be used as separate control grids. The amplifi- cation of a signal applied to either grid can be controlled by varying the bias voltage applied to the other grid. The full output of the pickup is de- veloped across the expansion control and Rl and R2 in series.
A portion of the a. Oper- ating voltages for cathode and signal grid are taken from taps on a voltage divider consisting of R6, R7, and R8. The bias voltage for the injector grid grid 3 is obtained from a movable slider on R8 and is applied to it through R4 and R5 in series. The signal appearing across the ex- pansion control is amplified by the 6C5 control amplifier and then rectified by the 6HG.
When the 6H6 conducts, it develops a positive voltage across R5 which adds to the fixed bias to reduce the potential difference between grid 3 and the cathode and to increase the amplification of the signal applied to grid 1.
The tap on R8 is adjusted so the 6L7 plate current is microamperes with no signal input. The setting of the ex- pansion control determines the amount of signal applied to the and subse- quently, the amount of dynamic d. I www. A 6SA7 replaces the 6L7 as the variable-gain amplifier.
One triode of the 6C8-G replaces the 6C5, the other has its plate and grid strapped together as a substitute for the 6H6. In this unit, the signal voltage is applied to grid 1 of the 6SA7 and to the control grid of the triode section of the 6C8-G.
The dynamic bias voltage from the rectifier is applied to grids 1 and 3 to provide a greater control over the available amplification. The 0. The ,ohm resistor Rl isolates the grids and prevents the a. Single-ended variable-gain volume ex- panders produce a peculiar form of distortion when the incoming signal is modulated by the ripple and harmonic content of the dynamic bias developed by the control rectifier. Ripple and har- monics cannot be readily removed from the bias signal by filtering because this increases the time constant of the cir- cuit to the point where the expander will not follow staccato passages.
To eliminate this effect and to permit the use of a short time constant, Ampli- fier Corp. A push-pull audio signal is applied to the control grids in each of the push-pull variable-gain tubes and the dynamic bias is applied to the tubes in parallel. In this way, transients, ripple, and harmonics are balanced out because they are in phase on the grids and out of phase in the plate circuit.
A modern version of the push-pull ex- pander is used in the model DC amplifier produced by Amplifier Corp. Constant-gain expanders In a constant-gain variable-output expander, the output of a constant-gain stage is applied to a voltage divider in which one element is variable from zero to infinite resistance. The princi- ple of this very interesting type of expander is illustrated by Fig. The input voltage from a constant-gain source is applied across a voltage divider consisting of Rl and R2.
The output voltage Eo can be varied from approximately Em when R2 is infinite to zero when R2 is zero. In practice, R2 is replaced by the plate-cathode re- sistance of a vacuum tube. A control amplifier and signal rectifier supply dynamic bias to the tube represented by R2. A part of the voltage output of the 6Q7 is fed into the grid of the 6J7 expander- amplifier control tube which is biased to cutoff by returning its grid to the center tap on the power transformer.
The plate of the 6J7 is coupled directly to the suppressor grid of the 6K7 expander stage through a 1-meg- ohm resistor. The control grid of the 6K7 is tied to the suppressor through a filter consisting of 0. The time constant of this filter network permits only very large changes in 6J7 plate current to affect the grid voltage of the 6K7.
The 6K7 and 6J7 are connected in series across the R supply. The 6J7 plate receives much of its voltage from the ,ohm resistor connected to the 6K7 cathode. The voltage drop across this resistor biases the suppres- sor of the 6K7 expander tube. Since the 6J7 expander amplifier is biased to cutoff, a fairly large signal must be applied to its grid to produce an appreciable change in plate current. With low signals, the 6J7 remains cut off, and there is no voltage drop across the ,ohm plate resistor.
Since there is no voltage drop across the re- sistor, the 6K7 suppressor is at cathode potential and the tube conducts heavily. Under these conditions, the plate- cathode resistance of the 6K7 is low compared to Rl and much of the out- put of the 6Q7 is lost in the voltage divider consisting of Rl in series with the plate-cathode resistance of the 6K7. On loud passages, the 6J7 draws heavy current and the voltage drop across the ,ohm plate load re- sistor is sufficient to place a heavy bias on the suppressor of the 6K7.
This in- creases the plate-cathode resistance of the 6K7 and permits a greater voltage to be fed to the grid of the 6N6 a. Masco constant-gain circuit Fig. Vl-a and V2-a are conventional voltage amplifiers. V2-b is the bias rectifier, and Vl-b is the expander tube whose plate-cathode resistance is repre- sented by R2 in Fig. When the signal applied to the grid of control amplifier V2-a is low, the dynamic bias voltage developed by V2-b is not high enough to cause a substan- tial increase in the plate-to-cathode re- sistance of Vl-b.
The resistance of Vl-b is low and a large part of the signal developed in the plate circuit of Vl-a is dissipated across Rl. When a strong signal reaches the grid of V2-a, the dynamic bias reduces the plate current and increases the internal resistance of Vl-b so that a greater portion of the output of Vl-a reaches the grid of the following stage.
The attack and release times of the expander are determined by the charge and discharge time-con- stants of the capacitors connected be- tween the plate of the rectifier V2-b and the grid of Vl-b. Inverse-feedback expanders If inverse feedback is applied to one or more stages in an amplifier, the gain of these stages may be varied by vary- ing the feedback voltage.
These units use an inverse-feedback type of ex- pander. The output of Vl-a is applied simul- taneously to the variable-gain stage Vl-b and to control-voltage amplifier V2-a. V2-b is a half-wave shunt rec- tifier connected to develop a positive output voltage.
This voltage is filtered by Rl, R2, and CI and fed to the paral- leled grids of V3, the feedback control stage, which is initially biased to cutoff by a positive voltage on its cathode taken from the 6B4 bias resistor. The cathode of Vl-b is unbypassed and its grid is returned to a point on the cathode biasing resistor. This causes degenerative feedback which reduces the gain of the stage to a level consid- erably below that which would be ob- tained without feedback.
The amount of feedback depends on the a. The plate-to-plate impedance of V3 is reflected into the secondary of Tl which parallels the cathode resistance of Vl-b. When V3 is cut off, its plate- to-plate impedance is so high that it has little or no effect on the cathode impedance of Vl-b. When the positive dynamic bias volt- age on the grids of V3 reaches a point which permits conduction, the plate-to- plate impedance drops.
Since this im- pedance is in parallel with the cathode impedance of Vl-b, the amount of cath- ode feedback decreases and the gain of Vl-b rises. The grids of V3 are fed in parallel and the plates work in push-pull. In this way, the feedback control stage effectively eliminates thumps and tran- sients which would normally be caused by rapid rises in the dynamic bias volt- age.
In it we have a two-stage variable-gain am- plifier with a db feedback loop Rl, R2, and CI connected between the plate of V2 and the cathode of VI. The secondary of the feedback control trans- former is connected between ground and the junction of Rl and R2 to form a T network. The control amplifier circuit is simi- lar to that used in Fig. However, this circuit was used in a recording-play- back amplifier so it incorporates volume compression as well as expansion. The control amplifier V3-a is connected to the phono-radio input when used as an expander and to the second variable- gain stage when used as a compressor.
This switching is handled by section Sl-b of the expand-compress switch. Switch sections Sl-a, Sl-c and Sl-e reverse the polarity of the rectifier and cut in separate filter circuits for com- pression and expansion. When the switch is set for expansion, the rectifier V3-b develops a positive control bias and V4 is biased to cutoff. When the input signal level is low, little or no voltage is developed by the control rectifier and the plate-to-plate imped- ance of V4 is high.
A sudden rise in signal voltage pro- duces a high positive bias voltage at the output of V3-b. The positive voltage on the grids of V4 causes the plate-to- plate impedance to drop and lower the impedance reflected into the secondary of TL This decreases the impedance of the shunt leg of the T, reduces the voltage fed back to the cathode of VI and allows the gain to rise. When the circuit is used as a volume compressor, the cathode biasing voltage across R5 limits the total plate current of V4 to about The high plate current results in a very low plate im- pedance being reflected into the shunt leg of the T feedback loop.
This reduces the voltage being fed from the plate of V2 to the cathode of VI so the ampli- fication of VI and V2 is about normal. When the audio signal rises above a given level, V3-b develops enough nega- tive bias voltage to reduce the plate current and increase the plate-to-plate impedance of V4 and the impedance that is reflected into the shunt leg of the feedback loop. The increase in the shunt impedance increases the feedback voltage and causes a corresponding de- crease in the gain of VI.
The attack-time of the compressor is about. This compares favorably with the 0. The decay or hangover time of the expander circuit can be increased by replacing the ohm bleeder resistor with a higher resistance. A 1,ohm resistor is switched into the circuit to replace the secondary of Tl when the expand-com press-normal switch is turned to normal.
Lamp-operated expander Fig. Inverse feedback for the cathode of the driver stage is obtained from a voltage divider Rl and R2 across the secondary of the output transformer. R2 is paralleled by two type 47 pilot lamps in series. When the signal level is low, there is comparatively little voltage across the lamps and their re- sistance is low enough to practically short-circuit R2 and permit maximum voltage to be fed back into the cathode of the driver stage.
Loud passages in- crease the voltage in the transformer secondary and cause the lamps to heat. Their resistance rises and decreases the amount of feedback applied to the driver cathode. Arrow points at antennn. But, because TV, unlike radio, will not go up, over, or around mountains, hills, or even large buildings, many new problems are encountered.
In towns which are large enough to support elaborate layouts and in other areas where the expense of coaxial cables, aerial towers, master amplifiers, and distribution units can be borne by large groups, the problem presented will be only one of engineering.
The television lessons learned by resi- dents of Mount Baldy, a resort com- munity deep in the Sierra Madre of Southern California, may be helpful to many small groups living in locations where TV reception is hindered by geographical reasons and where funds available are limited because of the size of the group. This picturesque mountain resort is situated in a deep canyon at an eleva- tion of 4, feet, a scant hour drive from the heavily populated Los Angeles ares..
At first glance the TV problem at Mount Baldy did not look difficult. Mount Wilson, the site of all seven transmitters for the Southern Cali- fornia area, was only 25 miles away. But when Cecil May and E. Leslie, full- time residents, tried out antennas on their cabin roofs, they found that Mount Sunset and Lookout Peak, towering 3, feet above the valley, blocked off the Mount Wilson transmitters.
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