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Ekosistem dapat diwakilkan atau digambarkan dalam berbagai KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 45 skala, namun Conservation International CI dan CSIRO menggunakan informasi dan data physiography bentukan lahan dan ketinggian yang dikombinasikan dengan tutupan lahan jenis-jenis vegetasi serta wilayah bio-geography untuk mendekati atau memperkirakan ekosistem. Kemudian pada data-data tersebut ditambahkan komponen data ketinggian yang membagi dan membedakan wilayah dataran rendah, sub-pegunungan, pengunungan dan alpin , serta data biogeografi.

Hasilnya adalah sebanyak perwakilan ekosistem regional di Papua seperti yang disajikan pada Gambar Dimana tingkat akurasi dari data physiography pada peta tersebut masih perlu dikaji, namun untuk analisis skala provinsi informasi yang terkandung pada peta tersebut masih relevan. Keanekaragaman Hayati Papua memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang unik yaitu gabungan dari keanekaragaman hayati khas Sundaland Asia dan Australia. Sejarah KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 46 geologi yang kompleks di Pulau New Guinea telah menghasilkan sejumlah pegunungan yang berbeda yang dipisahkan oleh hutan dan sungai dataran rendah yang luas, yang kemudian membentuk wilayah bio-geografi yang berbeda di Papua, dimana didalamnya terdapat spesies yang berlimbah yangterdiri dari spesies hewan dan tumbuhan endemik.

Sebagai salah satu dari 3 hutan belantara di dunia, Papua memiliki tingkat keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi high biodiversity wilderness areas. Kondisi keanekaragaman hayati di Papua jika dibandingkan dengan New Guinea dan Dunia disajikan pada Tabel dibawah ini serta keunikan atau keendemikan spesies di Papua pada Tabel New Guinea merupakan satu-satunya wiayah di dunia yang memiliki grup mamalia penting seperti Monotremes, Marsupial Mamalia dengan kantung dan Placental.

Mamalia Placental diwakili dengan jenis kelelawar dan tikus. Famili-famili burung yang penting yang terdapat di Papua adalah sebagai berikut: o Birds of Paradise Paradisaeidae — 24 species — Jumlah yang sangat terbatas berada juga berada di Maluku and Australia. Pusat spesies dari genu Ptilinopus 15 species dan Ducula 10 species. Termasuk didalamnya adalah spesies berikut: o Katak — spesies 69 spesies.

New Guinea Lanskap di Papua juga dapat dideskripsikan dari pola sebaran spesies. Deskripsi lanskap melalui pola sebaran spesies menjadi penting untuk menjaga keanekaragaman hayati didalam masing-masing lanskap tersebut. Eco-regionWWF: sumber: www. Lanskap-lanskap tersebut diatas didasarkan atas sebaran bio-geografi yang menyediakan pemahaman yang sangat mudah mengenai pola umum sebaran spesies, dimana dapat terlihat perbedaan pada jenis vegetasi pegunungan Vogelkop, Pengunaungan Tengah, dan Pengunungan Bagian Utara ; berbagai lanskap dari dataran rendah bagian utara dan selatan; biota yang berbeda dari pulau-pulau, dimana Yapen dan Biak memiliki perbedaan dalam sejarah tektonik begitu juga dengan pola spesies Biak memiliki banyak spesies endemik sedangkan Yapen memiliki sedikit spesies dan miskin akan flora dan fauna.

Wilayah Rawan Bencana Secara geografis Provinsi Papua berada pada pertemuan 2 lempeng raksasa yang berinteraksi saling bertubrukan menyudut oblique convergent. Di samping itu, hasil interaksi lempeng akan membentuk pegunungan dengan topografi yang tidak rata, bahkan dapat ekstrim berlereng sangat terjal yang berpotensi menyebabkan longsor, serta membentuk punggungan dan lembah akibat lipatan dan sesar yang jika aktif dapat menimbulkan kombinasi bencana alam, seperti gempabumi, longsor dan tsunami.

Wilayah Provinsi Papua juga terletak di daerah iklim tropis sebagaimana wilayah Indonesia lainnya dengan dua musim yaitu panas dan hujan dengan ciri-ciri adanya perubahan cuaca, suhu, dan arah angin yang cukup ekstrim. Kondisi iklim seperti ini digabungkan dengan kondisi topografi permukaan dan batuan yang relatif beragam, baik secara fisik maupun kimiawi, menghasilkan kondisi tanah yang subur.

Sebaliknya, kondisi itu dapat menimbulkan beberapa akibat buruk bagi manusia seperti terjadinya bencana hidrometeorologi seperti banjir, tanah longsor, kebakaran hutan dan kekeringan. Seiring dengan berkembangnya waktu dan meningkatnya aktivitas manusia, kerusakan lingkungan hidup cenderung semakin parah dan memicu meningkatnya jumlah kejadian dan intensitas bencana hidrometeorologi banjir, tanah longsor dan kekeringan yang terjadi secara silih berganti di beberapa wilayah di Papua.

Indentifikasi bahaya hazards di yang disebabkan oleh kejadian alam khususnya dengan faktor hidrometeorologi serta yang berdampak langsung terhadap kelestarian ekosistem di Papua. Provinsi Papua dapat digambarkan pada Tabel Badan Kesatuan Bangsa Prov.

Papua 3. Sosial Budaya dan Ekonomi 3. Kependudukan Pada tahun jumlah penduduk Papua mencapai 2. Jumlah penduduk Provinsi Papua terus bertambah sejak tahun sampai tahun , kecuali pada tahun Pertumbuhan penduduk tertinggi terjadi pada tahun yaitu sebesar Rincian perkembangan penduduk dapat dilihat pada Tabel Total luas wilayah geografis provinsi Papua adalah sebesar Luas wilayah agraris Provinsi Papua adalah sebesar 1.

Kabupaten Jayapura mempunyai luas wilayah agraris terbesar yaitu sebesar MAPPI NDUGA 1. SARMI YAPEN Pertumbuhan penduduk pada setiap kabupaten di Provinsi Papua berbeda beda angkanya. Pada tahun , Kabupaten Nduga adalah Kabupaten yang memiliki angka pertambahan penduduk tertinggi dibandingkan kabupaten lainnya yaitu sejumlah Dataran Tinggi Pegunungan Tengah Dogiyai Dataran Rendah Bagian Utara Jayapura Dataran Rendah Bagian Selatan Asmat Wilayah Kepulauan Biak Selisih perbandingan atau tingkat pertumbuhan tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam memperkirakan atau meramalkan jumlah penduduk di masa yang akandatang.

Sebagai bahan pertimbangan, perlu diuraikan perkembangan jumlah penduduk 6 enam tahun terakhir. Pada dasarnya pertumbuhan jumlah penduduk dalam suatu wilayah dipengaruhi pertambahan alami angka kelahiran lebih tinggi dibanding angka kematian dan adanya faktor migrasi yaitu besarnya jumlah penduduk yang masuk dan keluar dalam suatu wilayah yang dinilai.

Perkiraan jumlah penduduk dari tahun sampai adalah sebagai berikut: Tabel Perkampungan Perkampungan diartikan sebagai wilayah adat yang mencakup lokasi permukiman maupun lokasi kekuasaan adat dengan batas-batas yang jelas meliputi hutan, tanah, air dan sungai yang menjadi tempat penghidupan bagi masyarakat adat di suatu kampung.

Perkampungan merupakan konsentrasi kegiatan penduduk yang berfungsi sebagai pengembangan lahan permukiman kampung dan aktivitas penunjangnya. Tanah Sebagai Ruang Penghidupan Komunitas Papua Tidak ada satu pihak pun yang meragukan bahwa tanah, beserta seluruh yang tumbuh di atasnya dan yang terkandung di dalamnya merupakan hal fundamental bagi penghidupan rumah tangga dan komunitas di Papua.

Bagi komunitas Papua, kebutuhan atas Tanah tidak sekedar hanya fisik, tetapi dia juga merupakan wujud dari kebutuhan ruang gerak dan ekspresi kehidupan. Oleh karenanya alam tanah tidak boleh dirusak, harus terus dipelihara secara baik, dan tidak boleh diperjual-belikan.

Pandangan atas tanah dan sumberdaya alam yang dikandungnya merupakan budaya yang terbentuk sepanjang penghidupannya. Tentu saja di dalam proses tersebut mereka juga membangun mekanisme untuk mempertahankan melalui struktur sosialpolitik dan sistem pengaturan pemanfaatan tanah sebagai ruang penghidupan.

Pengaturan yang terbentuk di antaranya tentang alokasi peruntukan wilayah, sistem penguasaan, dan pewarisan. Papua merupakan wilayah luas dengan kondisi biofisik dan sosial yang beragam, sehingga dikenal sebagai masyarakat yang terdiri atas suku-suku bangsa yang beraneka ragam kebudayaannya. Meski beragam suku, terdapat kesamaan di antara suku-suku yang ada di Papua.

Salah satu kesamaan adalah pandangan mengenai keseimbangan antara lingkungan, alam dan kehidupan manusia. Para antropolog berpandangan bahwa keterpisahan secara fisik dan sosial antar komunitas yang mendiami Pulau Papua menjadi faktor utama pembentuk keragaman budaya, sistem penghidupan, dan struktur sosial politik. Secara umum wilayah Papua dapat dibedakan dalam ekosistem dataran rendah utara, dataran rendah selatan, pegunungan tengah, serta pesisir dan pulau-pulau kecil. Seperti telah disinggung di atas, setiap komunitas adat Papua mempunyai aturan-aturan yang berkenaan dengan kekuasaan, pemilikan, pemakaian atas tanah dan teritorial.

Sebagaimana sistem penghidupan, bentuk dan corak politik pengaturan terkait sumberdaya alam juga beragam. Mansoben mengidentifikasi keberadaan empat sistem politik tradisional. Pada sistem ini, kekuasaan tertinggi dan satusatunya dipegang oleh individu sehingga tidak dikenal organisasi dan pembagian kerja di dalam komunitas.

Pemimpin dipilih dari warga pria yang baik secara fisik maupun sosial mempunyai kelebihan di antara lainnya. Bertubuh besar dan tegap, mempunyai kemampuan berburu, memimpin perang, pandai bernegoisasi, kaya, dan sifat murah hati. Sistem ini mirip dengan konfedarasi, dimana pemimpin besar menguasai sebuah wilayah besar yang membawahi pemimpin-pemimpin satuan komunitas wilayah. Sistem ini bisa digunakan di daerah pedalaman Papua. Kedua, sistem politik kerajaan. Sistem ini berlaku di wilayah pantai dan kepulauan yang sudah cukup lama berinteraksi dengan komunitas luar.

Sistem kerajaan ditengarai merupakan pengaruh dari sistem kerajaan di Maluku. Pola kepemimpinan bersumber pada pewarisan kedudukan pemimpin. Pewarisan bersifat senioritas baik dilihat dari urutan kelahiran maupun klan. Struktur dan organisasi kerja sudah mapan dengan kekuasaan sentral pada seorang raja. Sistem upeti dan pemungutan pajak sudah dikenal dalam masyarakat ini.

Ketiga, sistem politik ondoafi atau kepala suku. Hampir mirip dengan kerajaan, dalam sistem ini sudah dikenal organisasi yang terdiri dari seorang kepala, dan sejumlah pembantu dengan pembagian kerja yang jelas. Kepemimpinan dalam sistem ini juga dilakukan melalui pewarisan kedudukan. Perbedaannya dengan sistem kerajaan adalah unit wilayah teritori yang tunggal terbatas pada satu golongan atau klan saja, tidak mengenal daerah bawahan yang wajib membayar upeti.

Sistem ini kebanyakan bisa ditemui di daerah dataran rendah baik di utara maupun selatan. Keempat, sistem kepemimpinan campuran. Ciri sistem utama sistem ini adalah dalam hal kepemimpinan, yang kedudukannya bisa diperoleh melalui pewarisan dan pencapaian. Dalam kondisi stabil, pergantian pemimpin dilakukan melalui mekanisme pewarisan, dan pola pria berwibawa bisa muncul dalam situasi tertentu yang menuntut penampilan pemimpin untuk menjawab tantangan peperangan, bencana alam, dll.

Berbeda dengan sistem kerajaan dan ondoafi, dalam sistem campuran ini tidak mengenal birokrasi. Karakteristik wilayah penghidupan, sturktur sosial dan sistem politik yang dianut berpengaruh pada pola kepemilikan dan penguasaan tanah dan sumberdaya alamnya tenurial land system. Mansoben mengidentifikasi bahwa setidaknya terdapat tiga kelompok hak penguasaan, yaitu komunal berdasarkan gabungan klan, komunal menurut klen dan hak individual.

Di antara ketiga sistem tersebut, sistem penguasaan komunal baik gabungan klen dan berdasarkan klen lebih dominan dibandingkan yang individual. Suku atau kelompok yang pertama kali datang dan bermukim di suatu tempat dengan seluruh wilayah yang dijelajahinya menjadi pemilik langsung wilayah tersebut. Mereka menguasai tanah dan seluruh sumberdaya alam yang ada di dalamnya. Kelompok suku atau marga lain yang datang kemudian dan bermukim bersama pemukim pertama dapat memanfaatkan tanah berdasarkan aturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh pemukim pertama.

Meski sudah mempunyai wilayah mukim pertama, dimungkinkan bagi mereka melakukan penjelajahan ke wilayah baru. Penjelajahan ini dilakukan bila pada wilayah pemukiman lama mengalami bencana ataupun merasa terancam. Wilayah pemukiman yang lama tetap menjadi wilayah teritorial kelompok marga bersangkutan dan mereka mencari wilayah baru sebagai tempat pemukiman yang aman.

Kepemilikan dan penguasaan suatu wilayah melalui invasi suatu marga ke wilayah teritorial marga lain dengan cara perang. Kelompok marga yang menang akan menguasai marga yang kalah termasuk berhak menguasai dan memiliki seluruh sumberdaya yang ada dalam wilayah teritorial marga bersangkutan. Hak kepemilikan waris pada umumnya diturunkan kepada anak laki-laki tertua patrilineal.

Pola ini hampir berlaku bagi seluruh suku yang ada di Papua. Beberapa suku menggunakan sistem pewarisan ambilineal, yaitu anak laki-laki berhak atas tanah atau dusun milik ayah atau ibunya. Seperti halnya dalam kepemimpinan adat, hak kepemilikan dan penguasaan sumberdaya alam yang saat ini berlaku adalah pola perwarisan kepada anak laki-laki tertua melalui hukum Patrineal dan Ambilineal.

Anak laki-laki tertua inilah yang akan menjadi ketua marga dan mengatur pembagian dan pemanfaatan lahan dan sumberdaya alam yang tersedia untuk keperluan hidupnya KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 61 terutama untuk kegiatan meramu maupun pemanfaatan untuk kegiatan perladangan. Pewarisan kepemilikan dan penguasaan lahan didasarkan pada silsilah keluarga atau keturunan. Hak pemilikan dan penguasaan sumberdaya diamanatkan dari leluhur ke anak sulung suatu marga. Pola pewarisan ini menganut kepemilikan dan penguasaan secara komunal oleh kelompok marga dalam satu keturunan.

Secara umum, tanah di dalam kehidupan orang Papua dibagi menjadi empat bagian. Kedua, status tanah untuk kebun, berupa hutan yang dibuka untuk kegiatan berladang dan berburu secara berotasi. Apabila tanah tidak subur lagi maka bekas kebun dapat ditinggalkan untuk sementara waktu sekitar tahun diolah kembali.

Ketiga, suatu padang yang sangat luas merupakan sejumlah bekas-bekas ladang yang ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Adakalanya padang ini tidak subur lagi untuk ditanami maka akan ditinggalkan menjadi hutan semak kembali. Keempat adalah tanah untuk pemukiman. Perekonomian Daerah Untuk mengetahui kemajuan atau perkembangan perekonomian suatu wilayah dapat dilakukan dengan mengetahui perbandingan atas besarnya peran suatu sektor kegiatan ekonomi di suatu daerah terhadap wilayah yang lebih tinggi.

Analisis Location Quotient LQ dapat digunakan untuk membandingkan kebutuhan tersebut karena analisis LQ merupakan alat analisis yang sederhana yang dapat digunakan dengan berbagai perubahan acuan dan periode waktu. Analisis LQ dimaksudkan untuk mengidentifikasi dan merumuskan komposisi pergeseran sektorsektor basis daerah denan menggunakan data PDRB yang selama ini digunakan sebagai indikator pembangunan suatu wilayah Rahardjo Adisasmita, Graha Ilmu, ; Hal ini dapat dikaitkan dengan pusat pelayanan transportasi khususnya melalui udara yang banyak dilakukan di daerah-daerah tersebut baik untuk melayani kegiatan perdagangan dan transportasi antar daerah di Provinsi Papua maupun dengan wilayah di luar Provinsi Papua.

Hal ini menegaskan kembali bahwa kegiatan investasi yang pada umumnya memerlukan jasa keuangan belum berkembang di Provinsi Papua. Untuk sektor bangunan, listrik dan air bersih, serta sektor jasa tidak dilakukan perhitungan LQ-nya karena sifat kegiatan atau investasi yang dilakukan hingga saat ini masih berasal dari kegiatan atau investasi pemerintah yang tentunya tidak tepat apabila dianggap sebagai keunggulan dari daerah yang bersangkutan.

Terdapat tiga hal dalam muatan kebijakan yang memang menjadikan otonomi di Papua bersifat khusus. Pertama, di Papua terdapat Majelis Rakyat Papua MRP , yang diharapkan menjadi lembaga representasi kultural orang asli Papua, yang memiliki wewenang tertentu dalam rangka perlindungan hak-hak orang asli Papua dengan berlandaskan pada penghormatan terhadap adat dan budaya, pemberdayaan perempuan, dan pemantapan kerukunan hidup beragama sebagaimana diatur dalam Undang-Undang ini.

Representasi kultural ini menjadikan hukum-hukum adat yaitu aturan atau norma tidak tertulis yang hidup dalam masyarakat hukum adat, mengatur, mengikat dan dipertahankan, serta mempunyai sanksi, khususnya yang berkenaan dengan hak atas tanah ulayat, yaitu hak persekutuan yang dipunyai oleh masyarakat hukum adat tertentu atas suatu wilayah tertentu yang merupakan lingkungan hidup para warganya, yang meliputi hak untuk memanfaatkan tanah, hutan, dan air serta isinya sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan, diakui keabsahannya sebagai hukum formal.

Kedua, kekhususan dalam pendapatan daerah untuk Papua. Sebagaimana diatur pada UU No. Perdasus adalah Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Papua dalam rangka pelaksanaan pasal-pasal tertentu dalam Undang-undang dan Perdasi adalah Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Papua dalam rangka pelaksanaan kewenangan sebagaimana diatur dalam peraturan perundang-undangan.

Berdasarkan UU No. Artinya, basis ikatan adat dalam hal tersebut adalah territorial yang biasanya juga masih terikat dalam satu keturunan yang sama. Ikatan dengan tanah dan kesamaan sistem penghidupan merupakan inti azas territorial. Basis legal penguasaan wilayah komunitas adat adalah sejarah penguasaan, sehingga wajar jika setiap komunitas adat di Papua mempunyai klaim atas wilayah beserta kekayaan yang ada di dalamnya. Batas wilayah yang mereka klaim serupa dengan daya dukung yang dibutuhkan bagi penghidupan, biasanya dibatasi dengan tanda-tanda alam seperti gunung, batu, pohon besar, sungai dan lain sebagainya.

UU No 21 Tahun secara normatif dapat dijadikan media untuk memberi perlindungan terhadap kepentingan komunitas adat terkait penguasaan ruang dengan kerangka hukum nasional. Perlindungan Hak-Hak Masyarakat Adat tercantum dalam Pasal 43 ayat , sebagai berikut: 1 Pemerintah Provinsi Papua wajib mengakui, menghormati, melindungi, memberdayakan dan mengembangkan hak-hak masyarakat hukum adat dengan berpedoman pada ketentuan peraturan hukum yang berlaku.

Penjelasan pasal 43 Undang-Undang Otonomi Khusus mengatakan bahwa hak ulayat adalah hak bersama para warga masyarakat hukum adat yang bersangkutan. Subjek hak ulayat adalah komunitas hukum adat tertentu, bukan perorangan, dan juga bukan pemimpin adat, meskipun banyak di antara mereka yang menjabat secara turun temurun. Penguasa adat adalah pelaksana hak ulayat yang bertindak sebagai petugas masyarakat hukum adatnya dalam mengelola hak ulayat di wilayahnya. Berdasarkan hukum Agraria nasional, hak ulayat diakui sepanjang menurut kenyataannya masih ada, tetapi hak ulayat yang sudah tidak ada tidak akan dihidupkan kembali.

Sehubungan dengan itu, demi adanya kepastian mengenai masih adanya hak ulayat di lingkungan masyarakat adat tertentu dibuktikan oleh: 1 masih adanya sekelompok warga masyarakat yang merasa terikat oleh tatanan hukum adat tertentu sebagai warga bersama suatu persekutuan hukum yang merupakan suatu masyarakat hukum adat; 2 masih adanya suatu wilayah tertentu yang merupakan lingkungan hukum dan penghidupan sehari-hari para warga masyarakat hukum adat tersebut; 3 masih adanya penguasa adat yang melaksanakan ketentuan hukum hak ulayatnya.

Ketiga Perdasus tersebut secara normatif mengatur bahwa pengakuan atas keberadaan masyarakat hukum adat mensyaratkan tiga kriteria utama yang harus dipenuhi: a keberadaan wilayah adat yang jelas dan batas-batasnya diakui; b ada norma hukum dan kelembagaan adat yang mengatur kewenangan dan kewajiban dalam wilayah tersebut; c justifikasi hubungan religi dan historis atas tanah dan sumber daya alam yang dikuasai dalam wilayahnya. Dalam hal pemilikan dan penguasaan tanah, masyarakat hukum adat MHA dapat memilih untuk melepaskan haknya kepada Negara untuk diberikan kepada pihak lain atau meminjamkan hak tersebut dalam jangka waktu tertentu.

Namun dalam hal pemanfaatan hutan, izin pemanfaatan hutan ada di tangan Gubernur. MHA berhak memanfaatkan kawasan hutan hanya bila sesuai dengan fungsi yang sudah ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah. Pada konteks pengelolaan sumberdaya alam secara umum, berdasarkan Perdasus No. Undang-Undang no. Menempatkan penduduk Papua ke dalam proses penataan ruang merupakan sebuah keharusan, mengingat penataan ruang sebagaimana diamanatkan oleh UU No. Oleh karenanya, dalam konteks Papua, pemetaan keberadaan wilayah adat sebagai bagian dalam rencana pengelolaan dan peruntukkan ruang menjadi kebutuhan.

Tipologi Ekoregional Tipologi ekoregional terbentuk berdasarkan gabungan karakteristik ekologi, sosial, budaya dan ekonomi. Berdasarkan keragaman kondisi Papua yang telah dijelaskan di atas, karakteristik Papua dapat dikelompokan dalam empat tipe ekoregion. Dataran Rendah Utara Zona dataran rendah di Provinsi Papua terhampar meluas dari sepanjang pantai hingga ke wilayah tepi jajaran pegunungan. Wilayah Kabupaten Mamberamo memiliki zona dataran rendah yang luas, namun pada wilayah Kabupaten Keerom dan Kota Jayapura zona dataran rendah relatif sempit.

Persebaran penduduk pada wilayah dataran Utara hampir merata antara daerah pantai dan dataran rendah dan perbukitan. Berkebun dan meramu sagu merupakan kegiatan utama masyarakat yang tinggal di wilayah ini. Ikan dan hasil binatang buruan menjadi sumber pangan tambahan.

Mereka senang mengembara dalam kelompok kecil. Berdasarkan pendekatan proses-proses hidrologi yang dibentuk oleh proses geologi dan topografi didalam sebuah lanskap, wilayah dataran rendah di bagian Utara Papua memiliki tipe management unit Tidal Lowlands. Pada wilayah ini proses hidrologi yang dominan berpengaruh adalah pasang surut air laut dan efek yang dimilikinya dalam mengubah pola drainase dan sedimentasi — pada saat air pasang, aliran drainase yang harusnya mengalir turun akan tergenang karena efek dari air pasang ini.

Akibat dari pola pasang surut harian dan juga bulanan serta efeknya yang menyebabkan pola aliran drainase terhambat, maka proses hidrologi di wilayah ini bergerak ke samping menyebrang blok dan dibatasi oleh sungai-sungai. Pembangunan di wilayah ini biasanya melibatkan drainase yang dapat mempengaruhi wilayah yang lebih besar dari areal pembangunan.

Untuk itu jika di wilayah ini terdapat rencana pembangunan lahan pertanian, maka lokasinya harus dipisahkan dari lokasi wilayah konservasi agar dapat efisien. Begitu juga jika akan dibangun wilayah konservasi, maka pembangunannya harus dipisahkan dari KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 70 wilayah pertanian, mengingat karakteristik dari lanskap tersebut. Sehingga tidak terjadi conflict management unit.

Penutupan lahan di wilayah ini didominasi oleh hutan lahan kering, hutan rawa primer dan sekunder, dengan sedikit hutan mangrove primer, pertanian lahan kering bercampur semak dan savannah. Hutan dataran rendah ini mengandung sangat banyak jenis spesies dan merupakan habitat terkaya per kilometer persegi jika dibandingklan dengan habitat hutan lainnya. Pohon pada hutan bukit dapat bertumbuh sampai dengan 50m lebih, didominasi oleh pohon Pometia, Ficus, Intsia, Terminalia, Garcinia, Myristica, Maniltoa.

Sedangkan ciri savana adalah padang rumput yang luas dengan pepohonan yang agak jarang. Jasa-jasa ekosistem pada wilayah ini dapat dilihat pada table 1 dibawah. Sedangkan karakteristik bencana pada wilayah ini dapat dilihat pada table 2 dibawah. Pegunungan Tengah Topografi pada wilayah ini didominasi oleh perbukitan dan pegunungan memanjang sekitar kilometer berarah timur-barat yang ditempati oleh hutan hujan tropis dengan beberapa puncak gunung ditutupi oleh salju abadi di bagian tengah.

Pada bagian tengah rangkaian pegunungan tinggi terdapat Pegunungan Jayawijaya yang terkenal karena terdapat 3 puncak tertinggi yang walaupun terdapat pada garis khatulistiwa namun selalu diselimuti oleh salju abadi di Puncak Jayawijaya dengan ketinggian 5, m, Puncak Trikora 5, m dan Puncak Yamin 5, m. Kelompok masyarakat yang mendiami wilayah ini terdiri dari beberapa suku bangsa dengan pola pemukiman tetap secara berkelompok di lembah-lembah Pegunungan Mooke dan Sudirman.

Komunitas hidup dalam rumah-rumah besar dengan ikatan horisontal yang kuat. Penghidupan utama komunitas di wilayah ini adalah berternak babi dan pembudidayaan Ubi jalar dan pisang. Selain berburu dan memetik hasil dari hutan sebagai sumber pangan tambahan. Berdasarkan pendekatan proses-proses hidrologi yang dibentuk oleh proses geologi dan topografi didalam sebuah lanskap, wilayah dataran rendah di bagian Utara Papua memiliki tipe management unit Uplands Watersheds atau DAS Dataran Tinggi.

Pada wilayah ini proses hidrologi sangat dipengaruhi oleh sistem Daerah Aliran Sungai, yang terdiri dari sistem hulu dan hilir. Sehingga berbagai bentuk pengelolaan untuk unit ini akan berpengaruh dari hulu hingga hilir, namun tidak berpengaruh pada unit disebelahnya. Sebagai contoh jika terdapat kenaikan erosi atau sedimentasi di sebuah sistem DAS, maka hal ini akan mempengaruhi wilayah hilirnya, namun tidak akan mempengaruhi wilayah DAS di sebelahnya.

Selain itu juga dimungkinkan untuk melakukan konversi atau alih fungsi lahan pada wilayah di sebelah DAS wilayah konservasi namun alih fungsi tersebut harus tetap mempertahankan alur hidrologi dan mengontrol erosi. Sedangkan penutupan lahan di wilayah ini didominasi oleh hutan lahan kering primer dan sekunder, savannah, serta hutan rawa primer. Habitat zona pegunungan atas berbeda sekali dengan hutan di bawahnya. Lahan rawa pasang surut yang berada di wilayah Kabupaten Mimika, Asmat dan sebagian di Mappi dan Merauke yang telah dibentuk oleh proses-proses tersebut memiliki batuan geologi muda dan terdiri atas wilayah lahan gambut yang kompleks, rawarawa air tawar dan air asin, serta mangrove.

Sungai-sungainya merupakan sungai pasang surut yang sistem hidrologinya dipengaruhi oleh pasang surut air laut hampir sepanjang tahun. Masyarakat yang tinggal di wilayah rawa-rawa dataran rendah seperti suku adat Kamoro dan Asmat memenuhi kebutuhan dasar hidupnya umumnya dengan berburu dan mengumpulkan sumber makanan seperti sagu, serta memancing di wilayah yang cukup luas di daerah ini.

Sistem lahan ini terdiri dari permukaan datar dan bergelombang, diukir dengan lembah-lembah sungai yang berdasar rata dan sungai kecil yang berawa-rawa. Lahan-lahan kering ini merupakan bentang alam yang terkikis sejak lama secara KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 73 geologis dengan tanah yang kering, dan alluvium baru yang hanya terdapat di pertemuan lembah sungai dan rawa-rawa.

Kesuburan yang rendah dan erosi merupakan ciri dari bentang alam ini. Banjir yang dalam biasa terjadi di lembahlembah sungai yang rendah dan rawa-rawa. Genangan dangkal dari curah hujan terjadi pada sisa-sisa dataran tinggi tua yang datar dengan sistem drainase yang buruk.

Sedangkan pengelolaan ruang untuk lahan kering dataran rendah perlu memperhatikan kesesuaian lahan untuk pertanian di daerah lempeng yang tererosi. Lahan yang cocok untuk pertanian kebanyakan terletak di bagian selatan dataran ini, namun adanya iklim muson dan panjangnya musim kemarau menjadi hambatan bagi daerah ini untuk bercocok tanam. Di bagian Utara, kombinasi antara tingginya curah hujan, kelerengan dan tekstur tanah yang ringan menyebabkan wilayah ini rawan erosi dan tidak sesuai untuk lahan pertanian.

Lebih lanjut kesesuaian untuk pembangunan di wilayah rawa-rawa lebak dan lembah sungai serta sungai-sungai kecil akan sangat bergantung pada fenomena banjir, teknologi, pertimbangan lingkungan dan dampak hidrologi pada bagian muara. Faktor-faktor penting dalam pengelolaan pola ruang spasial di lahan dataran tinggi adalah dengan mengenali hal-hal berikut: ketidakpastian dan kesesuaian lahan pertanian yang terbatas, nilainilai konservasi dan tradisi serta hak-hak masyarakat adat.

Ekosistem di zona pesisir terdiri dari wilayah mangrove yang sangat luas -- khususnya di bagian Utara, terumbu karang dan hamparan rumput laut — khususnya di bagian selatan, serta vegetasi pesisir lainnya seperti semak belukar, hutan cemara dan pohon kelapa. Informasi mengenai distribusi terumbu karang dan rumput laut serta kondisi keduanya sangat terbatas, padahal ekosistem tersebut terancam keberadaannya oleh pembangunan berskala besar dan perubahan iklim.

Zona Pesisir Papua merupakan zona pesisir terluas di Indonesia dengan panjang garis pantai mencapai lebih dari 3, Km yang termasuk didalamnya vegetasi pesisir dan pantai sepanjang Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat. Wilayahnya memiliki topografi yang relatif datar dan tidak didominasi oleh rawa pasang surut, didalamnya juga terdapat pantai-pantai berpasir yang luas dengan campuran vegetasi pesisir, dari mulai gigir pantai hingga daratan hutan tinggi.

Habitat-habitat ini umumnya berpopulasi padat dan memiliki persentasi luas lahan pertanian yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lanskap lainnya di Papua. Papua memiliki wilayah mangrove terluas di Indonesia dan terkaya di dunia karena lokasinya terletak diantara pusat keanekaragaman hayati Indo-Melasian dan Australia.

Hutan mangrove merupakan ekosistem utama didalam zona pesisir, di Papua zona ini didominasi oleh hamparan hutan mangrove yang luas yang terletak disepanjang pantai utara dari delta Barat Mamberamo hingga pantai Waropen, dan sepanjang pantai Selatan dari Mimika hingga sungai Digul dan pinggiran Pulau Kimaan.

Keberadaan mangrove penting untuk sektor perikanan di Papua dan menyediakan lahan untuk bersarang bagi spesies muara yang penting seperti ikan, kepiting udang yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk perikehidupan dan ekonomi masyarakat lokal. Ketentuan baru ini diharapkan dapat mengakomodasi dinamika perubahaan saat ini dan mengantisipasi situasi dalam 20 tahun mendatang.

Beberapa pertimbangan yang digunakan dalam penyusunan Raperdasi RTRWP Papua ini antara lain: 1 kewenangan Pemerintah Provinsi dalam menetapkan rencana tata ruang wilayah provinsi bahwa berdasarkan ketentuan Pasal 23 Ayat 6 Undang-Undang Nomor 26 Tahun tentang Penataan Ruang, 2 kondisi dan karakteristik khas Papua, 3 pemberlakukan Otonomi Khusus bagi Papua dan 4 landasan pengaturan tata ruang yang ada, yaitu Peraturan Daerah Propinsi Irian Jaya Nomor 3 Tahun sudah tidak sesuai lagi sehingga perlu ditinjau kembali.

Kebijakan Penataan Ruang Papua Kebijakan penataan ruang terdiri atas: a. Strategi Penataan Ruang Papua a. Strategi pengembangan kawasan tertinggal untuk mengurangi kesenjangan tingkat perkembangan antar kawasan, terdiri atas: 1 membuka akses dan meningkatkan aksesibilitas antara kawasan tertinggal dan pusat pertumbuhan wilayah; 2 mengembangkan prasarana dan sarana penunjang kegiatan ekonomi; 3 meningkatkan akses masyarakat ke sumber pembiayaan; 4 meningkatkan kualitas dan kapasitas sumber daya manusia dalam pengelolaan kegiatan ekonomi; 5 menetapkan kawasan strategis provinsi bagi wilayah tertinggal; 6 mendorong dan mengembangkan sarana dan prasana pendidikan; dan 7 mendorong dan mengembangkan sarana dan prasarana kesehatan.

Strategi peningkatan aksesibilitas dan kualitas pelayanan pendukung peran pusat kegiatan,terdiri atas: 1 meningkatkan kualitas jaringan prasarana dan mewujudkan keterpaduan pelayanan transportasi darat terutama transportasi sungai, laut, dan udara dengan skala prioritas terkait dengan daya dukung lingkungan; 2 mendorong pengembangan prasarana telekomunikasi terutama di kawasan terisolasi; 3 meningkatkan jaringan energi untuk memanfaatkan energi terbarukan dan tak terbarukan secara optimal serta mewujudkan keterpaduan sistem penyediaan tenaga listrik; dan 4 meningkatkan kualitas jaringan prasarana serta mewujudkan keterpaduan sistem jaringan sumber daya air.

Strategi pengembangan dan peningkatan fungsi kawasan dalam pengembangan perekonomian yang produktif, efisien, dan mampu bersaing dalam perekonomian nasional maupun internasional, terdiri atas: 1 mengembangkan pusat kegiatan berbasis potensi sumber daya alam dan kegiatan budi daya unggulan sebagai penggerak utama perekonomian wilayah; 2 menciptakan iklim investasi yang kondusif dan mengintensifkan promosi peluang investasi; dan 3 meningkatkan pelayanan prasarana dan sarana penunjang kegiatan ekonomi.

Strategi pengendalian perkembangan kegiatan budi daya agar tidak melampaui daya dukung dan daya tampung lingkungan hidup, terdiri atas: 1 mengelola sumber daya alam tak terbarukan untuk menjamin pemanfaatannya secara bijaksana dan sumber daya alam yang terbarukan untuk menjamin kesinambungan ketersediaannya dengan tetap memelihara dan meningkatkan kualitas nilai serta keanekaragamannya; 2 meminimalkan potensi kejadian bencana dan potensi kerugian akibat bencana dalam pengembangan kegiatan budidaya; 3 memberlakukan syarat membangun kegiatan budidaya kawasan terbangun minimal mampu menahan resiko kegempaan; 4 mengembangkan kegiatan budidaya berbasis kelautan sebagai upaya mengembangkan pulau-pulau kecil; dan 5 mengendalikan kegiatan sektor pertambangan.

Strategi pelestarian dan peningkatan eksistensi masyarakat adat dalam sistem perkampungan dan sosial budaya asli, terdiri atas: 1 menetapkan kawasan strategis provinsi berdasarkan nilai sosial budaya; 2 melestarikan penerapan nilai budaya asli; 3 melestarikan situs warisan budaya asli; dan 4 meningkatkan kepariwisataan. Rencana Sistem Pusat Kegiatan Rencana sistem pusat kegiatan, terdiri atas: 1 rencana sistem perkotaan; dan 2 rencana sistem perkampungan.

Sistem perkampungan dikembangkan secara sinergis dengan sistem perkotaan, sebagai arahan dalam menentukan pembangunan sarana sosial ekonomi sesuai peran dan fungsinya. Pengembangan sistem perkampungan diarahkan pada kegiatan: 1 permukiman kampung; dan 2 budidaya pertanian tanaman pangan, perkebunan, peternakan, dan perikanan sesuai dengan pola hidup masyarakat kampung. Keberadaan perkampungan diakomodasi sebagai bagian dari kawasan permukiman, dengan pembatasan pengembangan pada radius tidak lebih dari meter bagi perkampungan yang secara historis berada dan menjadi bagian dari kawasan lindung,lokasi kampung harus memiliki koordinat.

Rencana Sistem Sarana Prasarana Sistem jaringan prasarana sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 16 huruf b, terdiri atas: 1 sistem jaringan transportasi; 2 sistem jaringan energi; 3 sistem jaringan telekomunikasi; 4 sistem jaringan sumber daya air; 5 sistem prasarana pengelolaan lingkungan; dan 6 sarana lainnya.

Rencana Struktur Ruang Provinsi Papua 4. Rencana Pola Ruang Papua Rencana pola ruang terdiri atas: 1 kawasan lindung; dan 2 kawasan budidaya. Rincian peruntukan kawasan dan fungsi kawasan hutan Provinsi Papua dalam Raperda RTRW Provinsi Papua dibandingkan dengan kawasan sebelumnya kawasan update adalah seperti pada Tabel berikut.

Kawasan Lindung Kawasan lindung terdiri dari: 1 kawasan hutan lindung; 2 kawasan yang memberikan perlindungan terhadap kawasan bawahannya; 3 kawasan perlindungan setempat; 4 kawasan suaka alam, pelestarian alam, dan cagar budaya; dan 5 kawasan rawan bencana alam. KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 87 Dalam klasifikasi peruntukan dan fungsi kawasan hutan pada Tabel di atas, yang sudah dapat dipastikan sebagai kawasan lindung adalah fungsi kawasan hutan konservasi dan hutan lindung seluas Luas kawasan lindung ini belum termasuk Kawasan Perlindungan Setempat yang tersebar di kawasan Budidaya.

Kawasan Budidaya Kawasan budidaya terdiri atas: 1 kawasan peruntukan hutan produksi; 2 kawasan hutan rakyat; 3 kawasan peruntukan pertanian; 4 kawasan peruntukan perkebunan; 5 kawasan peruntukan perikanan; 6 kawasan peruntukan pertambangan; 7 kawasan peruntukan industri; 8 kawasan peruntukan pariwisata; dan 9 kawasan peruntukan permukiman.

Kawasan budidaya yang meliputi kawasan budidaya kehutanan meliputi luasan Kawasan Strategis Nasional sebagaimana dimaksud merupakan kawasan yang diprioritaskan penataan ruangnya mempunyai pengaruh sangat penting dalam lingkup nasional. Kawasan Strategis Nasional di Provinsi Papua terdiriatas: a.

Kawasan strategis provinsi seperti disajikan pada Gambar meliputi: a. Kawasan Strategis Provinsi Papua 4. Arahan Pemanfaatan Ruang Wilayah Struktur ruang dan pola ruang wilayah diwujudkan melalui rangkaian kegiatan pemanfaatan ruang wilayah. Pemanfaatan ruang wilayah dilaksanakan melalui penyusunan dan pelaksanaan program pemanfaatan ruang beserta perkiraan pendanaannya.

Rencana pemanfaatan ruang mencakup pengembangan struktur tata ruang, pola ruang dan penetapan kawasan strategis. Arahan Pengendalian Ruang Wilayah Pengendalian pemanfaatan ruang wilayah dilaksanakan secara terkoordinasi oleh pemerintah dan pemerintah daerah sesuai kewenangan. Koordinasi pengendalian pemanfaatan wilayah provinsi dilakukan oleh Gubernur Provinsi Papua. Pengendalian pemanfaatan ruang dilakukan melalui: a. Analisis dilakukan dengan panduan pertanyaan-pernyataan berikut di bawah ini.

Apakah Ranperdasi sudah menggunakan perspektif PB? Pada huruf b latar belakang peraturan ini disebutkan bahwa berdasarkan ketentuan Pasal 23 Ayat 6 Undang-Undang Nomor 26 Tahun tentang Penataan Ruang menetapkan rencana tata ruang wilayah Provinsi diatur dengan Peraturan Daerah.

Secara spesifik, faktor pendukung yang melatarbelakangi peraturan ini adalah bahwa secara geografis, letak Provinsi Papua bagian Timur berbatasan dengan negara tetangga Papua New Guinea, bagian Utara dengan Samudera Pasifik, bagian Selatan dengan Laut Arafuru, dan bagian Barat dengan Provinsi Papua Barat, maka Provinsi Papua sangat strategis bagi kepentingan nasional maupun internasional, sedangkan secara ekosistem kondisi alamiah Provinsi Papua sangat khas, karena memiliki cuaca dan iklim tropis yang merupakan aset dan sumber daya yang besar bagi Provinsi Papua, di samping keberadaannya yang sangat strategis, Provinsi Papua berada pada kawasan lindung dan kawasan rawan bencana yang jika tidak diatur yang secara alamiah dapat mengancam keselamatan penduduk di Provinsi Papua.

Dari latarbelakang tersebut, peraturan ini sebenarnya berangkat dari spirit pembangunan berkelanjutan. Menyadari berbagai keunggulan lebih yang dimiliki Papua maka merasa perlu diatur dan secara lebih alamiah. Spirit pembangunan berkelanjutan juga diterjemahkan kedalam azas dan tujuan peraturan ini. Apakah peraturan ini memuat ke-khasan Papua?

Kekhasan Papua dalam konteks ini didefinisikan sebagai segala sesuatu yang berasal bisa sebuah benda, kegiatan, atau mekanisme dari asli Papua. Secara khusus, ke-khasan Papua diakomodir dalam strategi Penataan Ruang Pasal 14, yakni Strategi pelestarian dan peningkatan eksistensi masyarakat adat dalam sistem perkampungan dan sosial budaya asli sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 6 huruf h, terdiri atas: 1 menetapkan kawasan strategis provinsi berdasarkan nilai sosial budaya; 2 melestarikan penerapan nilai budaya asli; 3 melestarikan situs warisan budaya asli; dan 4 meningkatkan kepariwisataan.

Apakah peraturan ini dapat mengakomodir kebutuhan dasar Papua dan menyediakan ruang keberlanjutan sistem penghidupan komunitas? Kebutuhan dasar Papua dalam konteks ini diartikan sebagai kebutuhan pangan, sandang, papan, kesehatan, dan pendidikan. Proses akomodasi kebutuhan tersebut dalam peraturan ini diterjemahkan pada mekanisme pemenuhan dalam bentuk fisik. Dalam kebijakan penataan ruang Pasal 6 huruf c disebutkan peningkatan aksesibilitas dan kualitas pelayanan pendukung peran pusat kegiatan.

Kebijakan tersebut bisa dijadikan pendukung pemenuhan kebutuhan dasar Papua. Lebih jelas disebutkan pada KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 91 Pasal 8 mengenai Strategi pengembangan kawasan tertinggal untuk mengurangi kesenjangan tingkat perkembangan antar kawasan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 6 huruf b, terdiri atas: 1 membuka akses dan meningkatkan aksesibilitas antara kawasan tertinggal dan pusat pertumbuhan wilayah; 2 mengembangkan prasarana dan sarana penunjang kegiatan ekonomi; 3 meningkatkan akses masyarakat ke sumber pembiayaan; 4 meningkatkan kualitas dan kapasitas sumber daya manusia dalam pengelolaan kegiatan ekonomi; 5 menetapkan kawasan strategis provinsi bagi wilayah tertinggal; 6 mendorong dan mengembangkan sarana dan prasana pendidikan; dan 7 mendorong dan mengembangkan sarana dan prasarana kesehatan.

Apakah peraturan ini dapat melindungi kekayaan dan ke-khas-an ekosistem Papua? Dalam Pasal 2 disebutkan bahwa Ruang Lingkup Peraturan Daerah ini meliputi ruang darat, ruang laut, dan ruang udara termasuk ruang di dalam bumi yang tercakup dalam batas-batas administrasi Provinsi Papua. Berkaitan dengan hal tersebut, boleh jadi ekosistem yang dimaksud dalam konteks ini adalah ekosistem darat, laut, dan udara.

Jika pertanyaannya kemudian adalah apakah peraturan ini dapat melindungi ekosistem? Maka jawabannya adalah bisa. Namun sejauh apa peraturan ini dapat melindungi ekosistem? Disebutkan pada Pasal 4 bahwa peraturan ini disusun berasaskan a. Semestinya jika melihat hal tersebut ekosistem yang dimaksud dalam peraturan ini sudah pasti dan seharusnya terlindungi. Tujuan dari peraturan ini sendiri secara khusus dalam Pasal 5 huruf G adalah mewujudkan pengembangan ekonomi masyarakat berbasis sumber daya alam dan jasa lingkungan berkelanjutan.

Perlu digaris bawahi bahwa pengembangan dan pembangunan dalam peraturan ini diharapkan berkelanjutan. Pihak-pihak tersebut bisa berasal dari pemerintah, organisasi non pemerintah, organisasi kemasyarakatan, perguruan tinggi, dunia usaha dan kelompok masyarakat. Identifikasi Isu Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Papua Isu pembangunan berkelanjutan di Provinsi Papua digali berdasarkan potensi permasalahan yang menjadi hambatan pencapaian visi pembangunan berkelanjutan, yakni tercapainya kualitas hidup yang setinggi-tingginya bagi masyarakat Papua.

Identifikasi isu pembangunan berkelanjutan dibangkitkan dari analisis silang antara KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 94 arah kebijakan penataan ruang Papua dengan: 1 karakteristik spesifik Papua; dan 2 prinsip-prinsip pembangunan berkelanjutan. Isu penting pembangunan berkelanjutan di Provinsi Papua adalah seperti pada Tabel berikut. Perubahan sosial dan marjinalisasi hak, peran dan kepentingan masyarakat lokal Keamanan kawasan perbatasan Pemekaran wilayah administratif Kebijakan dan sistem perijinan pemanfaatan SDA 5.

Komponen lingkungan yang dievaluasi meliputi komponen biofisik dan sosekbud. Sedangkan kebijakan dan rencana pola ruang menyangkut alokasi peruntukan dan sebaran spasial Kawasan Lindung dan Kawasan Budidaya. Kawasan lindung yang tersebar di luar HL dan HK belum direncanakan. Perbedaan klasifikasi peruntukan kawasan kawasan hutan, bukan kawasan hutan dan fungsi kawasan hutan HK, ,HL, HPT, HP, dan HPK dengan klasifikasi pola ruang kawasan lindung, kawasan budidaya perlu telaah kesetaraannya dan implikasinya dalam konteks pemanfaatan ruang dan pengendalian pemanfaatan ruangnya.

Karena pada dasarnya, yang menimbulkan dampak adalah tindakan pemanfaatan ruangnya. Perubahan Iklim Global Bukti ilmiah yang kuat telah menunjukkan bahwa sejak revolusi industri, pembakaran bahan bakar fosil dan perusakan hutan-hutan telah menyebabkan konsentrasi gas-gas rumah kaca yang terperangkap di atmosfer meningkat dalam jumlah yang signifikan dengan kecepatan dan jumlah yang sangat besar dibandingkan dengan fluktuasi alamiah IPCC, c.

Jika konsentrasi gas-gas rumah kaca di atmosfer terus meningkat, maka temperatur rata-rata di permukaan bumi akan naik sekitar 1,80 C sampai 40 C diatas ketinggian 2. Hal ini yang dinamakan pemanasan global. Kondisi-kondisi tersebut berpengaruh merugikan masyarakat di wilayah pedesaan karena kebanyakan dari mereka bergantung hidup pada alam dan ekosistem yang menyediakan air minum, tumbuhan dan hewan untuk makanan serta tanaman obat-obatan.

Gas rumah kaca merupakan gas-gas yang terdapat di atmosfer yang menyebabkan efek rumah kaca. Gas-gas tersebut sebenarnya muncul secara alami di lingkungan, tetapi juga dapat ditimbulkan akibat aktivitas manusia. Gas rumah kaca antara lain terdiri dari uap air, karbondioksida, metana, dan nitrogen oksida. Gas rumah kaca yang terbanyak adalah uap air yang mencapai atmosfer akibat penguapan air dari laut, danau, dan sungai.

Karbondioksida merupakan gas rumah kaca terbanyak kedua yang timbul baik dari proses alami letusan vulkanik, pernafasan hewan dan manusia yang menghirup oksigen dan menghembuskan karbondioksida serta dari pembakaran material organik dan bahan bakar fosil. Karbondioksida dapat berkurang karena terserap oleh lautan dan tumbuhan untuk digunakan dalam proses fotosintesis.

Jika pohon atau tumbuhan ditebang, dibakar atau dibiarkan membusuk maka atom karbon yang diserap tersebut akan dilepas kembali oleh tumbuhan dan berubah menjadi karbondioksida yang dilepaskan ke atmosfer. Dengan demikian dapat dipahami jika hutan memiliki peran penting dalam siklus karbon baik sebagai Carbon Sink yang menyerap karbondioksida maupun Carbon Source yang melepaskan karbondioksida.

Namun aktivitas manusia telah meningkatkan jumlah karbondioksida yang dilepas ke atmosfer secara significan dibandingkan dengan proses alamiah dari siklus karbon. Aktivitas tersebut antara lain terkait dengan pembakaran bahan bakar fosil seperti transportasi, penyediaan energi listrik, pembangunan industri, dan lainnya serta perusakan hutan dan deforestasi untuk pembukaan lahan pertanian yang dapat melepaskan karbondioksida ke atmosfer.

Di saat yang sama jumlah pepohonan yang mampu menyerap karbondioksida makin berkurang akibat perambahan hutan untuk diambil kayunya ataupun untuk perluasan lahan pertanian. Dalam pola ruang Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua telah ditentukan lokasi dan luas dari masing-masing jenis kawasan hutan yang terdiri dari hutan lindung, kawasan konservasi, hutan produksi, hutan produksi konversi dan areal penggunaan lain.

Secara hukum, kawasan hutan produksi konversi HPK dan areal penggunaan lain APL dapat dikonversi menjadi wilayah non-hutan untuk keperluan permukiman atau perkebunan atau pemanfaatan lahan lainnya. Di lapangan banyak ditemui tutupan lahan hutan primer maupun hutan sekunder yang terdapat pada kawasan HPK dan APL ini. Jika alih fungsi lahan dari hutan primer atau hutan sekunder menjadi non hutan di kawasan HPK dan APL terjadi, maka hal ini yang disebut sebagai degradasi dan deforestasi hutan yang terencana.

Sedangkan deforestasi dan degradasi hutan yang tidak terencana kebanyakan akibat dari pembalakan kayu dan hutan secara ilegal. Untuk merencanakan pembangunan wilayah maupun pembangunan ekonomi yang rendah karbon, kajian mengenai potensi emisi karbon yang dilepas ke atmosfer akibat alih fungsi lahan di kawasan HPK dan APL menjadi penting untuk dilakukan sebagai dasar perencanaan. Karena potensi lahan di Provinsi Papua untuk industri perkebunan kelapa sawit masih terbuka luas dan menguntungkan secara ekonomi, mengingat masih banyak wilayah di Provinsi Papua yang memiliki tingkat kesesuaian lahan yang baik untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit.

Namun di sisi lain pembukaan lahan untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit berkontribusi secara significan untuk melepaskan emisi karbon ke atmosfer yang menjadi penyebab pemanasan global. Sumber emisi karbon dari pembukaan lahan untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit tidak saja berasal dari pembukaan hutan logging , tapi juga dari proses pembersihan lahan clearing , pembakaran burning , drainase pada lahan gambut, serta proses penanaman pohon atau bibit kelapa sawit yang melibatkan aktivitas seperti pemupukan dan transportasi untuk keperluan perkebunan yang dapat menghasilkan emisi karbon.

Untuk menghitung dan menganalisis potensi emisi karbon yang dilepas ke atmosfer jika terjadi alih fungsi lahan di kawasan HPK dan APL menjadi perkebunan kelapa sawit, terdapat beberapa asumsi dan pembatasan boundaries sebagai berikut: 1 Hitungan dan analisis dilakukan pada kawasan HPK dan APL yang berpotensi untuk dialih fungsikan menjadi perkebunan kelapa sawit di Provinsi Papua.

Setelah 5 tahun tersebut tidak ada lagi pembangunan perkebunan kelapa sawit. Metode ini melibatkan beberapa faktor dan data seperti ketinggian, kelerengan, kedalaman KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua 98 lahan gambut, suhu, curah hujan, jenis tanah, eksposure matahari dan jumlah bulan kering. Dalam penghitungan dan analisis emisi tersebut dilakukan proyeksi untuk mengetahui potensi emisi karbon pada 20 tahun mendatang dengan membandingkan pola ruang dan kawasan hutan yang ditetapkan pada Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua yang akan disahkan dengan Update Kawasan tahun Hasil analisis dan perhitungannya dapat dilihat pada grafik dibawah ini.

Pada grafik diatas dapat terlihat bahwa emisi CO2 yang dilepaskan akibat alih fungsi lahan pada kawasan HPK dan APL yang telah ditetapkan pada pola ruang Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua lebih kecil dibandingkan pada pola ruang yang ditetapkan pada update kawasan pola ruang yang berlaku saat ini. Pada grafik juga terlihat jelas bahwa di awal pembangunan perkebunan kelapa sawit terjadi kecenderungan kenaikan emisi karbon baik pada pola ruang Raperda RTRWP Papua maupun update, namun pada tahun ke-5 terdapat kecenderungan penurunan emisi.

Hal ini dapat dijelaskan karena pada awal pembangunan perkebunan kelapa sawit, emisi karbon yang dilepas berasal dari banyak sumber selama proses pembangunan perkebunan kelapa sawit tersebut, seperti proses penggundulan hutan logging , pembersihan lahan land clearing , pembakaran lahan dan pohon burning , drainase di lahan gambut, serta proses penanaman bibit pohon yang didalamnya menggunakan pupuk dan pestisida. Setelah 5 tahun berikutnya emisi karbon cenderung menurun karena selain proses yang disebutkan tadi telah selesai, juga pohon kelapa sawit telah tumbuh dan dapat berfungsi sebagai carbon sink yang dapat menyerap karbon.

Perubahan Kualitas Tutupan Lahan dan Deforestasi Kebijakan pola ruang dalam Raperda RTRWP Papua yang berimplikasi kepada deforestasi dapat dijelaskan melalui perubahan peruntukan dan fungsi kawasan hutan seperti telah disajikan pada Tabel Bab Kebijakan Penataan Ruang Papua.

Perubahan ini ditujukan untuk memantapkan kawasan hutan dengan pertimbangan bahwa kondisi hutannya masih baik. Dengan demikian maka pengurangan luas kawasan hutan secara netto seluas Perubahan peruntukan kawasan hutan menjadi APL seluas Perubahan fungsi kawasan hutan yang bersifat ofensif seluas Perubahan fungsi kawasan hutan yang bersifat konservatif seluas 5.

Secara umum perubahan fungsi kawasan hutan yang direkomendasikan lebih banyak bersifat konservatif. Dampak kebijakan penataan ruang dalam Raperda RTRWP Papua terhadap deforestasi secara keseluruhan dalam periode — mencapai diperkirakan mencapai 2. Peta Proyeksi Areal Deforestasi Papua a.

Hidrologi a. Peningkatan intensitas dan cakupan wilayah bencana. Bencana yang cukup signifikan terkait dengan sistem hidrologi adalah banjir dan longsor. Banjir dapat terjadi akibat faktor alam seperti curah hujan yang tinggi dan lama, lokasi banjir berada pada topografi yang relatif datar dengan pola sungai yang berbelok-belok meandering dan dataran banjir yang luas, keadaan struktur tanah atau batuan yang lambat meresapkan air, dan kapasitas sungai yang tidak dapat menampung dan mengalirkan air ke laut.

Di samping itu, faktor manusia juga berperan menyebabkan banjir, di antaranya bertambahnya penduduk sehingga menempati daerah bantaran sungai dan dataran banjir alamiah sehingga mengurangi kantongkantong air dan daerah parkir banjir, dan hilang atau berkurangnya daerah resapan akibat perubahan fungsi lahan untuk berbagai keperluan. KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua Sedangkan longsor dapat terjadi pada wilayah yang memiliki topografi miring hingga curam dengan material penutup yang cukup tebal, serta kondisi air tanah yang relatif dangkal.

Selain itu, faktor geologi juga dapat menimbulkan longsor seperti kontak batuan yang kedap sehingga menjadi bidang gelincir, kondisi fisik batuan yang mengandung banyak kekar, serta kondisi kegempaan. Longsor juga dapat terjadi akibat faktor pemicu yang berasal dari curah hujan, getaran dan gangguan lingkungan seperti penggunaan lahan.

Kajian ini akan fokus pada kedua jenis bencana tersebut. Dalam sebuah kajian analisis risiko bencana, beberapa faktor yang perlu diperhitungkan dalam analisis terdiri atas: bahaya hazard , kerentanan vulnerability dan kapasitas capacity.

Kapasitas dapat mencakup cara-cara fisik, kelembagaan, social dan ekonomi serta karakteristik ketrampilan pribadi maupun kolektif. Sehingga risiko bencana merupakan besarnya kerugian yang mungkin terjadi — seperti kehilangan nyawa, cedera, kerugian harta benda, serta gangguan terhadap kegiatan ekonomi — yang disebabkan oleh suatu fenomena tertentu. Sedangkan kawasan lainnya seperti hutan lindung, kawasan konservasi, hutan produksi tidak memiliki dampak yang signifikan karena pada kawasan tersebut secara legal tidak diperkenankan untuk dihuni oleh masyarakat.

Dampak dari bencana banjir dan longsor akan berisiko tinggi jika terjadi di wilayah permukiman penduduk. Grafik dibawah ini menunjukkan faktanya. Potensi banjir ditentukan oleh faktor intensitas curah hujan, kondisi kualitas tutupan lahan penyangganya, karakteristik tanah dan geologi, serta fisiografi lapangan.

Dalam konteks pola ruang, faktor yang dikelola adalah kondisi tutupan lahan. Pola ruang yang memaksimalkan kondisi kualitas tutupan akan mengurangi dampaknya terhadap potensi banjir. Yang memerlukan kewaspadaan dan antisipasi lebih adalah potensi banjir di APL mencapai luasan Potensi longsor ditentukan oleh faktor intensitas curah hujan, kondisi kualitas tutupan lahan, karakteristik tanah dan geologi, serta fisiografi lapangan.

Pola ruang yang memaksimalkan kondisi kualitas tutupan akan mengurangi dampaknya terhadap potensi longsor. Analisis keberlanjutan lanskap dalam konteks hidrologi Pola ruang dalam perencanaan spasial yang berkelanjutan perlu disusun dengan mempertimbangkan konteks lanskap yang dibentuk dari proses-proses ekologi yang dominan. Lanskap dapat dideskripsikan sebagai wilayah geografis yang heterogen secara spasial yang dibentuk oleh interaksi berbagai ekosistem yang berbeda, dari mulai ekosistem alami di daratan dan lautan seperti hutan, padang rumput dan danau hingga ekosistem yang dibentuk oleh manusia lahan pertanian dan perkotaan.

Wilayah-wilayah yang spesifik di dalam lanskap — seperti wilayah konsesi hutan, perkebunan, konservasi — tidak terisolasi secara mandiri namun justru berinteraksi secara kompleks dengan wilayah di sebelahnya dalam sebuah kesatuan wilayah yang heterogen. Untuk mengelola efektivitas dari wilayah-wilayah yang direncanakan missal: sebagai wilayah konservasi, perkebunan maupun pengelolaan sumber daya alam berkelanjutan , maka perlu memperhatikan interaksi-interaksi positif dan negatif dengan wilayah disekitarnya.

Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan memahami dan mengidentifikasi proses-proses ekologi yang dominan didalam sebuah lanskap, sehingga delineasi dan penentuan sustanaible management unit atau unit pengelolaan yang berkelanjutan dapat diperoleh guna menentukan pola dan cara pengelolaannya di dalam sebuah perencanaan spasial. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, Provinsi Papua memiliki sekitar unit pengelolaan management unit yang terbagi ke dalam 3 unit pengelolaan yaitu: DAS dataran tinggi uplands watersheds , dataran rendah pasang surut tidal lowlands dan rawa lebak non-tidal swamps.

Begitu juga jika akan dibangun wilayah konservasi, maka pembangunannya harus dipisahkan dari wilayah pertanian, mengingat karakteristik dari lanskap tersebut. Hanya saja prosesnya terjadi musiman bukan harian maupun bulanan, namun dapat menjadi sangat ekstrim. Karena adanya pergerak ke samping dari alur dan proses hidrologi ketika terjadi pasang naik atau banjir maka unit ini perlu dikelola dengan cara yang serupa dengan tidal lowlands.

KLHS Raperdasi RTRW Provinsi Papua Sebuah unit pengelolaan yang berkelanjutan perlu memperhatikan luas area minimum yang dibutuhkan untuk sebuah populasi yang terancam punah atau spesies yang beragam. Unit pengelolaan yang kurang lebih kecil dari ukuran minimum luasnya tidak dapat bertahan dalam jangka panjang.

Stay away from textbook answers, for they often sound canned and will make the interviewer question your grasp of the concept. Like with brainteasers and case questions, CHAPTER 2 these folks need to know that you understand the process; the quantitative data of the valuation matter less. Interviewers invariably ask candidates to explain key drivers behind the deal, the structure, the fees, and the rationale behind the choice of financing.

What would you change? Do all this with as deft a combination of serious purposefulness and good humor as you can muster. Also be sure to link any related previous job experience to your choice. If you know something about commercial credit because you once worked in a bank, use it in your pitch for an equity job.

Or go for the historical rationale. I learned a lot of this at my job at [fill in the blank], but I also just seem to have a knack for it. I can almost always tell when someone is bluffing. When I had [job X], I learned to use this in ways that helped me a lot in selling. Doing the best job for a customer matters a lot more to me.

If this excites you, say so. If it makes you even a little nervous, be aware that this is a reality you need to address. Play to your audience. Give me an example. Hint: Tie it in The hiring processes for both are competitive and to the strengths they seem to look for at this firm.

The accounts for about 50 percent of the ultimate decision. What kind of manager are you? Your showing here will account for perhaps 75 percent of the decision. There is almost no such thing as If you could have any job besides banking, an unimportant or meaningless question in an invest- what would it be?

Remember not to come across as too Bad answer: Accountant self-absorbed. How is this affecting your business here and overseas, and also your plans for the future in Y and Z? Recruiter: Better-than-average question. What do you like about the culture? Should I mention how isolated I feel at times? Probably not. Recruiter: Too general. Recruiter: Legitimate question. On the day of the interviews, the Reader candidates were asked about their geographical preferences.

A no-brainer, right? Meet management and real estate. Clearly, they finance. An Merrill Lynch in the private client services division. He immediate ding. You will no doubt face the First and full spectrum—be prepared for them all. You might have the standard minute interviews. The good news about mistakes is that you question-and-answer interview.

Or you might have an learn more from them than from your successes. About 80 percent of my interviews were a out what works without having to run your own standard mix of behavioral and technical questions. Here are some of my personal experiences remaining ones, however, were unique. For example: At one bulge-bracket firm, the second-round interviewer focused solely on my life.

You know I hate about investment banking. At another firm, this already, right? In the current economy, Interviewing Is Often Subjective getting into an investment bank is a serious challenge. What happened? I landed my second thinking. Of course, there are certain situations whose internship with an energy company; none of the banks outcome may seem unfair to you. The interview candidate right before a recurring thought, but I refused to give in to it.

If me was also from San Antonio. But many about his interview. All they talked about was San rewards lie ahead. Antonio, the high schools they attended, and so on. Nothing about the qualifications required for the job. An undeniable connection had been made, and The Recruiting Shuffle I—the Houston native—was left out. Now that you know what to expect, how do you In another set of interviews with a bulge-bracket go about getting an interview?

The best way is to firm, I interviewed on campus and had friends who submit your resume through your university. Many were also part of the interview round. Though many banks recruit on campus and have resume submission of us felt we had done well, none of us qualified for the through various schools.

So who did? I Firms often recruit at universities that are located was furious. The assumption is that because boutique banks. Even after several second-round Texas; hence, firms recruit for positions within the state. However, occasionally firms recruit for other offices as Suddenly, one phone call changed everything. A guy well. San Francisco office was looking for a summer intern. Intense networking is another effective method for After two phone interviews, the firm flew me to San landing an interview.

This means making connections Francisco. After six interviews, I received an internship through a number of routes, both formal and informal. This experience convinced me of the impact of— in this case, informal—networking. With effective networking, you already know. Make a list of anyone in the industry create ready sources of information and job openings. Your aim and you are responsible for making hiring decisions.

You receive a stack of plus friend works in banking. Call her and express your resumes and have to select a handful. As you look over interest in gaining insight into the industry. Ask questions about what she high school gives you a call. Find out everything banking and has kept in close contact with you for the possible about her firm. Learn as much as you can. You know what she wants to do, and that Gradually expand your network. So an alumni database at your university.

Call friends who do you hire? Contact The qualified friend, of course. Put simply, most ness card, keeping in mind that she worked in the San hiring managers give preference to friends or previous Francisco office. The following year, when I worked at contacts.

This is why you need to network. I thought I was well learning more about Goldman Sachs. We spoke over the phone, and summer. Whom else are you interviewing with? But you have to be prepared for any potential angle an interviewer may present to you. Be prepared to explain why you prefer investment baking to consulting, for example. Research markets, equities, current industry events, and more. Make sure you understand it fully. Have done so.

There are several pitfalls to avoid. First, know the your friends help you with mock interviews. Start position and location you are applying for. Look over the list below to with. In one interview, I was discussing trends in chaPter 6 get a feel for the most common types of questions you investment banking.

At that time, many commercial can expect. Make sure you have a solid and thorough and investment banks were merging. During one answer for each. I frequently on alert. I knew I had to tread carefully. Your chaPter 2 the company. Some are universal: enthusiasm and a willingness to work hard. Think about what you would look for if you were hiring someone, or better yet, the kind of person you would want to work with. That would probably be someone who has focus, takes initiative, works well with teams, and has an agreeable personality.

Remember, you are about to make a decision Initially, most interviewers will introduce that could affect the course of your life. You want to themselves and then ask you to tell them about enjoy your experience as much as possible and ensure yourself. If you are trying to make a friend who can push you Let them go. I dreaded have in common with that person.

Your mission is to shaking hands since my palms would always get form a bond so that he or she remembers you. Eventually, I started keeping a napkin in interviewers asked me about myself, I would walk chaPter 6 my pocket; I would stick my hand in there and wipe them through my educational and work experiences. I also went an understanding of what a particular firm is all about to Wimbledon and met Angelina Jolie at a movie can only increase your chances of making it to the next premiere.

Not only had I managed gives its new hires substantial responsibility. Add all of this to the fact that you and personality and adjust your style accordingly. At the end of the relevant to banking. For example: In an interview about the firm that keeps you there?

He then close attention to Bob when he introduced himself. I first asked You have also demonstrated to Bob that you really do a couple of questions to make sure I understood the care about the firm you will go to work for. In addition, situation correctly and then responded. Demonstrating attention to detail and the next round.

It interview strategy at your disposal. Ideally, we want several questions to gather more information. If rarely works out so neatly. A firm may need to hire one more involved questions. They hurt equally. But be cordial and professional. I know approach so that you land the investment banking job how it feels to be in this post-interview limbo. I also of your dreams. Of course, some will expect you to accept immediately.

While exploring their next career moves, they needed products like the WetFeet Insider Guides to guide them through their research and interviews. In WetFeet became part of Universum Communications, the global leader in employer branding. Thanks to the integration of WetFeet into the Universum group, WetFeet products are now used by job seekers all over the world. And, quite honestly, even if you love the. But, if you like fast-paced, deal-oriented work, are at ease with numbers and analysis, have a tolerance for risk, and don't mind putting your personal life on hold for the sake of your job, then investment banking may be a great career choice.

But if this doesn't sound like you, a job in investment banking could turn out to be a bad dream come true. Back to top. First, if you're an undergraduate, you'll want to try to get an internship—it's the best way to secure an eventual offer. If you're an undergraduate from an Ivy League school with a great GPA, bidding recruiting points is still a favorable option—however, college recruiters are usually sent from the prestigious bulge-bracket firms, and not the smaller, specialized niche firms, or boutiques.

It's important to discern the type of bank for which you are best suited, so conduct your own independent research. Big firms tend to have more turnover than smaller niche firms, which may better nurture their investment in training you. If you're not an Ivy League graduate, and recruiters haven't been breaking down your door, networking is your best bet. Use your school's alumni and your neighbors and acquaintances to get in touch with someone at the I-bank of your choice.

If you're a good student who is truly interested, you've got a shot. If you have an MBA or other advanced business certification, you'll be paid more for a position than someone with a fresh BA. But those with prior experience always get first shot, so be sure to get an internship. Industry expertise and prior corporate finance work can also be a way in, but you'll have to be patient.

If your degree isn't in business, take heart in the knowledge that banks are increasingly encouraging applications from candidates with specialized resumes in order to better appeal to a growing client base. Undergrads and MBAs from top schools are recruited for a number of openings that is small even in the best of times. Networking is key; make use of your alumni network. Undergrads vie for two-year positions as analysts. If you do well, depending on the firm, you may get to stay for a third year, perhaps even abroad.

MBAs compete for fast-track associate slots, and international assignments may be available for those who want them. Midcareer people are recruited by headhunters or hired on an ad hoc basis for positions at various levels. Though relatively few people come into the industry from other fields, it can be done, especially by those who have a technical background in a specific industry and an aptitude for and interest in finance.

Otherwise, expect to start at the bottom. While the various groups within an investment bank support each other, the work and responsibilities in each group vary. Corporate Finance Investment bankers are like financial consultants for corporations—which is precisely where the Corporate Finance Group comes into play. As a member of Banking or CorpFin, you serve the sellers of securities—Fortune companies in need of cash to fund growth, and private companies that are looking to complete an IPO—by buying all the shares or all the bonds a company has for sale, which are then resold by your firm's sales force to investors on the market.

Many investment banks divide their corporate finance departments into industry subgroups, such as technology, financial institutions, health care, communications, entertainment, utilities, and insurance, or into product groups such as high-yield, private equity, and investment-grade debt.

As an investment banker in corporate finance, you will underwrite equity and debt bond offerings, help firms devise and implement financial strategies, analyze their financial needs such as how to structure balance sheets and when and how to proceed with funding initiatives , and work with the sales and trading departments to determine valuations for new offerings.

At the same time, the work leading up to the headline-grabbing multibillion-dollar acquisition can involve a herculean effort to crunch all the numbers, perform the necessary due diligence, and work out the complicated structure of the deal.

As one insider puts it, "You have to really like spending time in front of your computer with Excel. In many cases, all this may happen on a very tight timeline and under extreme secrecy. Public Finance Public finance is similar to corporate finance except that instead of dealing with corporations, it works with public entities such as city and state governments and agencies, bridge and airport authorities, housing authorities, hospitals, and the like.

Although the basic services financial advisory and underwriting and the financial tools bonds and swaps, but no equity are similar to those used for private sector clients, numerous political and regulatory considerations must be assessed in the structuring of each deal.

A particular key issue involves how to get and maintain tax-exempt status for the financial instruments the client will use. Research Research departments are generally divided into two main groups: fixed-income research and equity research. Both types of research can incorporate several different efforts, including quantitative research corporate financing strategies, specific product development, and pricing models , economic research economic analysis and forecasts.

As a researcher, you'll meet with company management and analyze a company's financial statements and operations, provide written and oral updates on market trends and company performance, attend or organize industry conferences, speak with the sales force, traders, and investment bankers about company or industry trends, develop proprietary pricing models for financial products, make presentations to clients on relevant market trends and economic data, offer forecasts and recommendations, and watch emerging companies.

All right, like any good banker, you want the bottom line. Exactly how much are these guys going to pay you to sign your life away? Salaries at investment banks, even for. Bonuses are determined at the end of each year and are based on the performance of Wall Street, as well as the performances of your firm and department and your contribution. If your firm has a year like Goldman Sachs did in , those bonuses can.

While the real money in investment banking comes from bonuses, your take-home pay from year to year can go through swings of more than percent, especially when you move up in seniority. Another useful point: Firms often have different methods of calculating employee bonuses. Some allocate a portion of profits to a particular department while others divvy up the proceeds among the departments according to performance.

Others use a commission structure based on revenue instead of profit. Some firms are more generous than others, and policy can change, too. A final note: Investment banking opportunities, of course, exist outside the bulge bracket. Become a Partner. About Us. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.

Read free for days Sign In. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. WetFeet I-Banking overview. Uploaded by Naman Agarwal. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Mar 08, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate?

Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Http Www. It Ivy Leaguers and top-tier MBA graduates who get also helps if they have previously worked with someone scooped up on the recruiting tour. But there is no in the firm who can serve as a reference. At the same need to give up just because the scoop never came time, several recruiters for sales and trading for you.

There is a way in, albeit a more difficult one. Preparation, strategy, and or MBA programs. The The first step is networking. Do not waste your best reason, as you might guess, is that you received time blindly sending your resume to every firm. Focus a full scholarship. Not only do you need to know the positions, Other Sources That May Also Be Helpful you also need to know the players and their distin- Company websites guishing characteristics.

And although Business publications including The Wall Street Journal, the jobs within each area tend to be numbingly similar Institutional Investor, and others at all firms, each institution has its own culture and expects applicants to be aware of this. These topics can be sensitive. Unfortunately, the reality at many firms is list of firms likely to send you abroad is quite short.

For annual report. In banking selves. And never complaining. Or bragging. The best way to do this? In other words, imagine that you get on an elevator with the president of the company. You have his undivided attention for about the next Rehearse 15 seconds, before he steps off the elevator. You may think this is the easy part.

Who are you, what have you done, and why does that make you the best person for the job? Not ask you what you think made the Tokugawa regime only will this help you perform better, it will also help so successful. At the same time, you might not want show your sensitivity to the realities of the profession. Come prepared.

What does that mean? You should review basic concepts understanding fundamentals is more important from CorpFin and Accounting They will the bottom of the resume. Remember, though: If you also have covered valuation in classes. However, you should consolidation, or experiencing heated competition. The flows. Because an investor is buying the rights to these market.

An easy you join. If the cash flows some number such as the average earnings growth rate are different, then each cash flow must be discounted for the last five years. This gives projected net income individually and then summed to find the present value for next year. Usually, earnings are projected for the of the cash flow bundle. The terminal value is equal to an annuity Market Multiples beginning in a future year, discounted back to the While DCF is arguably the most theoretically accurate present.

Since accounting income is often a poor proxy means of valuing a company, in practice bankers rely for cash flow, analysts will carefully calculate free cash much more heavily on the market multiples method flow by starting with EBIT earnings before interest to appraise firm value.

Often DCF is used as a and taxes , taking out taxes on those earnings, and reality check on the accuracy of a multiples analysis. Thus, there Typically, more-senior bankers will direct the analysts are essentially two steps to valuing a company using the and associates working with them on where to look multiples method: for patterns. If you analyzed the pharmaceutical 1.

Identify a set of comparable firms. Determine the appropriate multiples to be used. Multiples analysis is an iterative process—once But this assessment determines the comparison set of you complete step two, you must step back, analyze, companies, which in turn will determine the valuation. This entails setting out the toward the end of June was about 6. Perhaps its size justified a higher multiple.

Or generally accepted accounting principles. The suggests an average value of 2. It is mastering the art of multiples analysis case of the Cash Ratio—a very high Cash Ratio may that sets experienced bankers apart from their less suggest poor cash management See next page for the experienced junior colleagues.

Understanding at least formulas for theses ratios. Leverage ratios provide a the fundamental concept of multiples analysis at the measure of how much debt a firm uses. However, many companies prefer to study of a firm. There are many categories of ratios, maintain higher leverage ratios because of the positive each serving a distinct purpose.

It is unlikely that a impact on asset utilization and profitability ratios. Generally, ratios pay wages, short-term creditors, taxes, and are evaluated for a firm over time, or are compared interest on bonds without delay. Most research analysts do both. Furthermore, productivity of firm assets. Bernstein and John J. While explanatory notes for tables Note: Automated per nasdaq. Per-share values are provided in The Wall Street Journal online, it is come from financial statement values, which are divided by the number of common shares outstanding.

Liabilities include current obligations such as accounts payable and General Accounting Information long-term debt. In elect a month period corresponding to their natural addition, because assets are recorded at their historical production cycles.

There are four primary financial values their market values at the time they were first statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow acquired , when the market value of assets declines, statement, and statement of retained earnings. The asset superior firms are often market leaders in large part column typically includes current or short-term assets because of their talented employees and managers.

And if you the price per share of the stock. Not bad. PE multiples vary over time and business cycles. It shows how end-of-year retained money the firm made or lost in a given period. Although earnings are computed. To calculate, start with this is the basic statement used to determine whether a beginning-of-year retained earnings, add net income, THE INTERVIEW company is profitable or not, bankers will take a careful and subtract dividends paid.

To the extent that financial accounting standards Footnotes to the statements are found in the back of allow firm managers to record income statement items the annual report and must be used to understand how using one of several different alternatives, the quality of financial information should best be interpreted. Moreover, interviewers will income. In uses a very long depreciation period, recorded expenses such cases, the interviewer is looking more to establish will underestimate depreciation costs.

Reported income your enthusiasm for financial markets than to debate will therefore be overstated accordingly. After all, even though a company why it interests you. You should then follow with a may be profitable, it needs cash to pay its bills and fund brief discussion of the current stock price, how it has its ongoing operations. Companies have to balance changed over time, what seems to be driving the price their outflows paying bills, employees, and so on with up or down, and the relevant industry information.

Operating cash flows are those funds volume with the objective of discerning patterns in consumed and generated by the operation of the supply and demand over a specified period of time. Financing cash flows describe When a pro does it, fundamental analysis begins events such as the payment of dividends, the issuance of with the underlying factors that drive a particular stock or bonds, stock repurchases, and the repayment industry.

Investing cash flows detail how money was forma or forecasted information. For example, if you were a research valuation model. However, further inspecting the numbers reveals two significant facts. Get pushing its net profit margin downward. First, it is meaningless to analyze competitors and therefore win the deal.

Most bankers either analyze a firm efforts to land a position in investment banking as your over time or against an industry benchmark or both. The issuer of a bond promises privately held. Also known as bonds. Initial public offering: Selling shares of a privately In many industries, cash flow differs from reported held company to the public for the first time.

Bonds backed by issuers with shaky financial prospects.

FAKENHAM RACES BETTINGADVICE

Sehingga, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Pancasila lebih dari sekadar bangunan ideologi negara-bangsa, tetapi juga merepresentasikan suatu konstruk teologis-filosofis yang memuat prinsip-prinsip keislaman. Bahkan apa yang diusung oleh Pancasila secara keseluruhan termasuk visi Islam, yang memberikan pemahaman bahwa perumusan ide Pancasila sejatinya diilhami oleh konsep dan nilai-nilai keislaman.

Hanya saja keduanya secara eksistensial memiliki hak otonomi tersendiri. Artinya bahwa Islam adalah agama dan Pancasila adalah ideologi. Pancasila tidak akan menjadi agama dan agama tidak akan menjadi ideologi. Peta obletnica prve slovenske revije za izobrazevanje odraslih. Lustlik ja arendav karaoke.

Tallinna Linnahallis. Tartus A. Le Coqi spordimajas vt. Eestikeelsete lauludega lastekaraoke plaatidest vt. The primary objective of this research is to review the value of business events in the performance of an organisation. Business events are categorised as part of the business tourism sector of the tourism industry.

The sector, sometimes also known as the M. E industry or meetings industry, focuses on creating business events to fit the knowledge needs of organisations across a wide range of industr Development of a high performance eigensolver on the peta -scale next generation supercomputer system. For the present supercomputer systems, a multicore and multisocket processors are necessary to build a system, and choice of interconnection is essential. In addition, for effective development of a new code, high performance, scalable, and reliable numerical software is one of the key items.

It is needless to say that highly tuned software towards new architecture like many-core processors must be chosen for real computation. In this study, we present a high-performance and high-scalable eigenvalue solver towards the next-generation supercomputer system, so called 'K-computer' system.

We have developed two versions, the standard version eigen s and enhanced performance version eigen sx , which are developed on the T2K cluster system housed at University of Tokyo. Eigen s employs the conventional algorithms; Householder tridiagonalization, divide and conquer DC algorithm, and Householder back-transformation. They are carefully implemented with blocking technique and flexible two-dimensional data-distribution to reduce the overhead of memory traffic and data transfer, respectively.

Eigen s performs excellently on the T2K system with cores theoretical peak is The enhanced version, eigen sx, uses more advanced algorithms; the narrow-band reduction algorithm, DC for band matrices, and the block Householder back-transformation with WY-representation. Even though this version is still on a test stage, it shows 4.

Full Text Available Research is done by someone if there is any problem, a situation which reflects contradiction between the ideal fact and the real one. The elements which create the problem could be found by doing research. They are: The rational-consistence-interpretative and the empirical-objective constructive. Legal research is based on rational-consistence-interpretative and socio-legal research is based on empirical-objective-constructive.

These models are based on different concepts. The elements of socio-legal research are empiricism, historical jurisprudence, correspondence theory, a posteriori, objectivity, constructive, synthesis, induction, field research, primary data and quantitative. Keywords: conceptual map, legal research, socio legal research. There are two kinds of research conceptual map in law. The elements of legal research are: rationalism, legal positivism, coherence theory, a priori, analysis, deduction, consistency, interpretative, library research, secondary data and qualitative.

The goal of the project and the products is to have innovative point of view that could be given out into products design, the aim is also to provide fields of jobs, and educative points of view that could give knowledge and introduction about uniqueness of Nusantara. The project is done with 4 methods, which are promotion and publication, marketing, producti Peta Scale calculations of the electronic structures of nanostructures with hundreds of thousands of processors.

Density functional theory DFT is the most widely used ab initio method in material simulations. The DFT can be used to calculate the electronic structure, the charge density, the total energy and the atomic forces of a material system. With the advance of the HPC power and new algorithms, DFT can now be used to study thousand atom systems in some limited ways e.

But there are many problems which either requires much larger systems e. Examples include: grain boundary, dislocation energies and atomic structures, impurity transport and clustering in semiconductors, nanostructure growth, electronic structures of nanostructures and their internal electric fields.

Due to the O N 3 scaling of the conventional DFT algorithms as implemented in codes like Qbox, Paratec, Petots , these problems are beyond the reach even for petascale computers. As the proposed petascale computers might have millions of processors, new computational paradigms and algorithms are needed to solve the above large scale problems.

In particular, O N scaling algorithms with parallelization capability up to millions of processors are needed. For a large material science problem, a natural approach to achieve this goal is by divide-and-conquer method: to spatially divide the system into many small pieces, and solve each piece by a small local group of processors. This solves the O N scaling and the parallelization problem at the same time. However, the challenge of this approach is for how to divide the system into small pieces and how to patch them up without the trace of the spatial division.

Here, we present a linear scaling 3 dimensional fragment LS3DF method which uses a novel division-patching scheme that cancels out the artificial boundary effects of the spatial division. As a result, the LS3DF results are essential the same as the original full system DFT results with the difference smaller than chemical accuracy and smaller than other numerical uncertainties, e.

The LS3DF method is applicable to insulator and semiconductor systems, it covers a current gap in DOE's material science code portfolio for ab initio ultrascale simulation. We will use it here to solve the internal electric field problems for composite nanostructures. The domain decomposition is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm, with Robin boundary conditions to exchange information.

The Robin parameters influence the convergence and we detail how we optimized the choice of these parameters. Fine grain parallelization is also available for each angular direction using shared memory multithreaded acceleration. Many performance results are presented on massively parallel architectures using more than cores and on hybrid architectures using some tens of GPUs. Ultra-short time sciences. From the atto-second to the peta -watts. This book presents the recent advances in the scientific and technical domains linked with ultra-short time physics.

It deals first with the conceptual and technological aspects of ultra-intense and ultra-brief lasers. Then, it describes the different domains of research atoms, molecules and aggregates; gaseous phase dynamics using the pump-probe technique; femto-chemistry in dense phase; condensed matter; plasma physics; consistent control; aerosols; functional femto-biology and the different domains of application medical diagnosis; ophthalmology; telecommunications; technological and industrial developments.

A last part is devoted to the teaching of ultra-short time sciences. Full Text Available The increasing of global rubber consumption is an opportunity as well as a challenge for Indonesian rubber produsers to increase the quantity and the quality of production. Faced the competition between countries, the quality of rubber products should be enhanced adapted to consumer demand.

This study uses time series data, in the form of rubber production data during March - February , that were analyzed descriptively using Control p Chart Analysis. The Control p Chart proves that there are still many points that are outside the production control line. The production domination of the third RSS type RSS 3 cause this problem, so that the profit and the efficiency of the company can be increased if the RSS 3 product can be controlled and be changed with the production of RSS 1.

Full Text Available The study is aimed to know the development mapping in using open-access institutional repositories. It has been researched in August by using scopus databases with keywords: open access and institutional repository. The results findings are descriptively analysed according to publication years, institution and country names, journal names, document types, and research topics. The study found that the research development mapping have been occurred since From , the mapping have been significantly increased.

Meanwhile, the most type of documents were articels, conference paper, review, and book chapters. For the topic of research, it is found that open access, institutional repositories, societies and institutions, information services, digital libraries, metadata, and electronic publishing were dominant.

The visual network has shown that the relationship among topics can be seen from descriptor lines in each field. The more relation descriptor lines the closest realtionship among documents. All collected data were converted to mass point coordinats. The result shows that produced DEM are more accurate to represent the detailed topography of the study areas. Despite a steep increase in available compute power, in-silico experimentation with highly detailed models of the heart remains to be challenging due to the high computational cost involved.

It is hoped that next generation high performance computing HPC resources lead to significant reductions in execution times to leverage a new class of in-silico applications. However, performance gains with these new platforms can only be achieved by engaging a much larger number of compute cores, necessitating strongly scalable numerical techniques. So far strong scalability has been demonstrated only for a moderate number of cores, orders of magnitude below the range required to achieve the desired performance boost.

In this study, strong scalability of currently used techniques to solve the bidomain equations is investigated. Benchmark results suggest that scalability is limited to cores within the range of relevant problem sizes even when systems are carefully load-balanced and advanced IO strategies are employed.

This reseach aims at implementing mind mapping technique in writing an essay. Mind mapping is a technique of teaching writing to help students map their idea in writing an essay. This research used quantitative research. Kata Kunci: penerapan, teknik mind mapping, keterampilan menulis esai. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut maka penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik siswa yang pembelajarannya menggunakan metode mind mapping lebih baik daripada siswa yang pembelajarannya biasa.

Penelitian ini merupakan kuasi eksperimen berbentuk kelompok kontrol pretes-postes, dengan perlakuan metode pembelajaran mind mapping dan pembelajaran biasa konvensional. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini berupa tes uraian sebanyak 4 soal, kemudian data skor kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik siswa tersebut dianalisis dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial dengan menggunakan uji perbedaan dua rata-rata.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis data diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik siswa SMP yang pembelajarannya menggunakan metode mind mapping lebih baik daripada cara biasa. The method applied is Mind Mapping method, because the mind mapping method of learning mathematics students' creative thinking ability is better when compared to the learning method biasa.

Berdasarkan this background, this study aims to determine whether the ability of creative thinking of students learning mathematics using mind mapping better than the usual student learning. This research is a form of quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group, the treatment methods of teaching and learning mind mapping regular conventional.

Collecting data in this study is a description of the test as much as 4 questions, then the data is the ability to think creatively math scores of students were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using two different test average. Based on the results of the data analysis we concluded that the increase in the ability to think creatively mathematical junior high school students are learning to use mind mapping method is better than the usual way.

Map of the earthquake in is planned to revise map of earthquake before, in some places have different values design response spectra. Obviously for the building has been completed to designed and has not been implemented in the field to do the analysis of behaviors the building due to earthquake load changes. This analysis aims to know how big the difference in behavior due to continuous span bridge earthquake load plan according to SNI with the earthquake load plan according e Lisa: Kas teate.

High performance computing of density matrix renormalization group method for 2-dimensional model. Parallelization strategy toward peta computing. We parallelize the density matrix renormalization group DMRG method, which is a ground-state solver for one-dimensional quantum lattice systems.

The parallelization allows us to extend the applicable range of the DMRG to n-leg ladders i. Such an extension is regarded to bring about several breakthroughs in e. However, the straightforward parallelization requires all-to-all communications between all processes which are unsuitable for multi-core systems, which is a mainstream of current parallel computers.

Therefore, we optimize the all-to-all communications by the following two steps. The first one is the elimination of the communications between all processes by only rearranging data distribution with the communication data amount kept. The second one is the avoidance of the communication conflict by rescheduling the calculation and the communication. We evaluate the performance of the DMRG method on multi-core supercomputers and confirm that our two-steps tuning is quite effective.

Beragam persoalan seperti informasi hoaks, pelanggaran privacy, cyberbullying, konten kekerasan dan pornografi, dan adiksi media digital dianggap sebagai persoalan masyarakat digital terkini. Pertanyaannya, apakah problem tersebut muncul karena rendahnya literasi digital di Indonesia? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, Jaringan Pegiat Literasi Digital Japelidi melakukan pemetaan gerakan literasi digital di Indonesia.

Dengan metode desk study dan case study, penelitian melibatkan 56 peneliti dari 28 prodi yang berasal dari 26 universitas. Kajian mencakup kegiatan literasi digital di 9 kota di Indonesia memetakan setidaknya kegiatan. Temuan utama penelitian ini antara lain: perguruan tinggi adalah pelaku utama atau motor dalam gerakan literasi digital, sosialisasi adalah kegiatan yang paling sering dilakukan, kaum muda merupakan kelompok sasaran yang paling dominan, dan mitra yang paling adalah sekolah.

Selain itu, peneliti merekomendasikan bahwa literasi digital harus diberikan dalam level keluarga, sekolah, dan negara. Full Text Available Teaching media has been applied and studied since long ago, but the significance of interactive map media in teaching social science at elementary school has not yet developed.

The research is conducted under two-cycle class action research on 30 students of four grade, SD Jetis, Bantul, Jogjakarta, at social science subject. The results suggest that interactive map is effective in teaching social science for the students of four grade. Keywords : teaching social science, interactive map media. To enhance the metacognitive skill, it can be done through reciprocal teaching model.

This study used semi-experimental design using non-randomized control group pretest-posttest. This study was conducted within Senior High School whose students possess a low level of metacog Moreover, the course material is primarily Basic Chemistry subjects that are less desirable and considered difficult by students because it is abstract, so it needs to be assisted visualization.

It is therefore interesting to study as well as creativity and innovation fostering student learning and not so monotonous. The purpose of this study to determine the increase in the chemical and life skill learning of students with learning models CEP.

This research is a class action that was implemented in three cycles. Each cycle consists of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The focus is investigated in this study is the result of learning and life skill development of students. The data obtained and analyzed using descriptive methods to determine the increase in the learning and life skill development of students. Based on these results we can conclude that the results of student learning and life skill can be improved through the implementation of CEP learning model.

This research aims to provide a solution to the problems faced by climbers, by developing an information retrieval system for mountain climbing path using semantic technology ontology based approach. The system is developed by using two knowledge base ontology, ontology Bahasa represents linguistic knowledge and ontology Mountaineering represents mountaineering knowledge. The system is designed to process and understand natural language input form.

The process of understanding the natural language based on syntactic and semantic analysis using the rules of Indonesian grammar. The results of the research that has been conducted shows that the system is able to understand natural language input and is capable of detecting input that is not in accordance with the rules of Indonesian grammar both syntactically and semantically. The system is also able to use a thesaurus of words in the search process. Full Text Available Corporate sustainability report has become a new paradigm in the evolution of corporate reporting.

This study aims to create a map of information materiality contained in the sustainability report of the banking industry in Indonesia. The method used is analyze content of sustainability reports of the banking industry in Indonesia. Data collection is done by looking for secondary data through page of Indonesia Stock Exchange or company official website. Data analysis was done descriptively by analyzing the contents of sustainability report.

The results of this study produce maps containing material information in the sustainability report of the banking industry. The results of this study may contribute to the management of the company to identify the material information that can be submitted to the company's stakeholders. The results obtained from this project will fundamentally change the way we look at computer performance analysis. These results are made possible by the precise definition of a consistent system of measurement with a set of primary units designed specifically for computer performance analysis.

This system of units, along with their associated dimensions, allows us to apply the methods of dimensional analysis, based on the Pi Theorem, to define scaling and self-similarity relationships. These relationships reveal new insights into experimental results that otherwise seems only vaguely correlated. Applying the method to cache-miss data revealed scaling relationships that were not seen by those who originally collected the data.

Applying dimensional analysis to the performance of parallel numerical algorithms revealed that computational force is a unifying concept for understanding the interaction between hardware and software. The efficiency of these algorithms depends, in a very intimate way, on the balance between hardware forces and software forces. Analysis of five different algorithms showed that performance analysis can be reduced to a study of the differential geometry of the efficiency surface.

Each algorithm defines a set of curvilinear coordinates, specific to that algorithm, and different machines follow different paths along the surface depending on the difference in balance between hardware forces and software forces. Two machines with the same balance in forces follow the same path and are self-similar. The most important result from the project is the statement of the Principle of Computational Least Action.

This principle follows from the identification of a dynamical system underlying computer performance analysis. Instructions in a computer are modeled as a classical system under the influence of computational forces. Each instruction generates kinetic energy during execution, and the sum of the kinetic energy for all instructions produces a kinetic energy spectrum as a function of time.

These spectra look very much like the spectra used by chemists to analyze properties of molecules. Large spikes in the spectra reveal events during execution, like cache misses, that limit performance. The area under the kinetic energy spectrum is the computational action generated by the program.

This computational action defines a normed metric space that measures the size of a program in terms of its action norm and the distance between programs in terms of the norm of the difference of their action. This same idea can be applied to a set of programmers writing code and leads to a computational action metric that measures programmer productivity. In both cases, experimental evidence suggests that highly efficient programs and highly productive programmers generate the least computational action.

Corporate sustainability report has become a new paradigm in the evolution of corporate reporting. Data analysis was done descriptively by Full Text Available This research aims to find out laptop brand selection perceptual map of among Telkom University students.

The attributes of the study are design instrument, operation system, variation, feature set, specification, processor, battery resistance, product price, price resale, warranty, LCD display, storage capacity, product quality, sustainability to defect, and keyboard quality. This research used quantitative method. Research instrument used was a questionnaire, which distributed to respondent sample area of the object of research. In taking a sample of this study, the researcher used Non-Probability technique by using purposive sampling method.

The data analysis that used is multidimensional scalling analysis, this analysis gives perception map picture, appeared the position of each laptop brand that is close together or far apart. Laptop brand that showed in a perceptual map will display rank of the best position than another laptop brand. As perception, Apple occupies the first best position among another best laptop brands. That is proved by the rank position from respondents preference based on overall attributes which is more excellent in design, operation system, variation, feature set, specification, processor, battery resistance, product quality, and keyboard quality.

For price product attribute is occupied by Lenovo as the cheapest rather than another laptop brands. Meanwhile, for the LCD display attribute, price resale, and storage capacity are occupied by Asus which get the second best rank based overall attribute. Fast ignition realization experiment with high-contrast kilo-joule peta -watt LFEX laser and strong external magnetic field.

Miyanaga et al. IV France , 81 ], which is currently capable of delivering 2 kJ in a 1. Azechi et al. Fusion 49, ]. In the FIREX experiment, a cone is attached to a spherical target containing a fuel to prevent a corona plasma from entering the path of the intense heating LFEX laser beams.

Recent studies indicate that the current heating efficiency is only 0. Laser-plasma interactions in a long-scale plasma generate electrons that are too energetic to efficiently heat the fuel core. Three actions were taken to meet the first requirement. Second, a 5. Converging shock compression is more hydrodynamically stable compared to shell implosion, while a hot spot cannot be generated with a solid ball target.

Solid ball compression is preferable also for compressing an external magnetic field to collimate the REB to the fuel core, due to the relatively small magnetic Reynolds number of the shock compressed region. To meet the third requirement, we have generated a strong kilo-tesla magnetic field using a laser-driven capacitor-coil target.

The strength and time history of the magnetic field were characterized with proton deflectometry and a B-dot probe. Guidance of the REB using a 0. In a realistic FI scenario, a magnetic mirror is formed between the REB generation point and the fuel core. The effects of the strong magnetic field on not only REB transport but also plasma compression were studied using numerical simulations. According to the transport calculations, the heating efficiency can be improved from 0.

Student activity in learning is also very low, with only 12 students indicated that attention well, 4 active child asks, while the other passive. Seeing this fact then do the research and show improved results in reading maps world blind. Evidenced by tests in cycle 1, indicating as many as 22 students Increased student activity shown by 31 With the results of tests on the first cycle has been no increase in yield, but not maximized. Thus declared a class action meets the criteria expected in the second cycle.

Suggested for educators in teaching and learning aids or media is very important, to planting concept on students. Media Puzzle is ideal to use in maps. More than million animals every year suffer and die by fierce chemical test, medical, food, and cosmetic by giving poisonous, blinding and killing million animals every year for irresponsible companies.

In medical world, all procedures that are done against the animals called animal testing. Animal testing happens in Indonesia against civet cat animal. The animal eats coffee fruit and digests it to be coffee fruit seed that is put out with its feces. This seed that has unique taste and hig First, an understanding of the description text is required so that students do not consider that the same description text with the text of the report on the observation.

Second, learning compose the text of fiction in the novel, the structure of the text descriptions into one filler. In addition to learning the primacy of the text, there is a map technique causes life with photo media should be applied in the preparation of instructional text description.

First, psychologically, individuals experiencing different events that can be captured through photos. These events may be applied to various text, one text description. Second, map the life of the photo media is one way to visualize events that never happened clearly in your mind quickly. This research uses experimental research design with quantitative descriptive method. Therefore, the data presentation in the form of pemerian or breakdown with numbers as supporting data.

In addition, the data in this study were collected by the teacher activity assessment sheets, assessment sheets student activities, and student learning test result sheet. The results of this study as follows. Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: sfujioka ile. Laser—plasma interactions in a long-scale plasma generate electrons that are too energetic to efficiently heat the fuel core. Vene noortele luuakse veebileht www. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves andis Tiptiptap tegevjuhiga.

Teaching tolerance through English? A perfect match! Ilja Gromov. Berliini Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance, Inc. Alliance, Inc. The petition requested that the Livny, Miron [Univ. Information Sciences Inst. Renaissance Computing Inst. We proposed to achieve this through the work of the Open Science Grid Consortium: a unique hands-on multi-disciplinary collaboration of scientists, software developers and providers of computing resources.

Together the stakeholders in this consortium sustain and use a shared distributed computing environment that transforms simulation and experimental science in the US. The OSG consortium is an open collaboration that actively engages new research communities. We leverage middleware provided by computer science groups, facility IT support organizations, and computing programs of application communities for the benefit of consortium members and the US national CI. The research was conducted based on action research or action research, which consisted of two cycles, where the description on each cycle include: planning action, impl Batang district has many natural tourism areas that are mostly visited by domestic or foreign tourists.

One of these areas is Agrotourism Pagilaran Area. Generally this tourism area gives fresh atmosphere, the wide of tea plantation and some recreation places that make us enjoying the nature. This condition makes the tourists to come to Agrotourism Pagilaran Area. Hopefully Agrotourism Pagilaran Area will be the best tourism area in the future especially for the regional of Pekalongan with it Organisatsiooni auliikmeteks on ka Carl Bildt ja Mart Laar.

Liberalismi Akadeemia juht ja Tallinna reforminoorte esimees Allan Allmere keskendub Aga palun! Sihtasutus Archimedes andis Noorte meeste tervis - kelle mure see on? Lisa: Meestearstid. Projektikonkursist "Huvihariduse arendamine muusika ja kunsti vallas". Kuidas edasi? The experimental results showed that PETA could considerably enhance the fire retardant performance as proved by evidence of the increase of limiting oxygen index LOI values, the results of UL tests, and cone calorimeter tests CCT.

However, the superfluous amount of PETA would play the negative role. The sensitizing capacity of multifunctional acrylates in the guinea pig. The multifunctional acrylates used in ultraviolet UV curable resins act as cross-linkers and "diluents". They are usually based on di meth acrylate esters of dialcohols or tri- and tetra-acrylate esters of polyalcohols. In other uses, such as dental composite resin materials, the dimethacrylic monomers based on n-ethylene glycol are the most useful.

The sensitizing capacity of various multifunctional acrylates and their cross-reactivity pattern have been investigated with the guinea pig maximization test. The n-ethylene glycol diacrylates and methacrylates tested are weak or non-sensitizers.

Of the multifunctional acrylates tested, the di- and triacrylic compounds should be regarded as potent sensitizers. The methacrylated multifunctional acrylic compounds are weak or non-sensitizers. We also study the salary changes required in order to motivate work in the area, using commutation as proxy of the labour market. This research provides answers to the following questions: Is the contribution of tourism relevant to these villages?

Is there some correlation between an allometric effect and the required salaries? And do higher GDP per capita regions attract more commuters, in net numbers? Heliloomingu konkursist noortele tshellistidele. Tallinna praeguse sadamaala ja kiire arengu probleemidest. Autorid: Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi. Ehitaja: KMG Ehitus. Projekt ja ehitus: Aasta tegu. Maailma loodusfoto Kumus. Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon.

Study of the transverse lasing in big size crystals of Ti:Sa. Application to the design of the peta -watt high-energy amplifier of the pilot laser of the LASERIX facility; Etude de l'amplification parasite transverse de la fluorescence dans les cristaux de Ti:Sa de grandes dimensions. The main goal of this thesis work was to design a high energy and high repetition rate titanium doped sapphire amplifier Ti:Sa allowing to reach an energy of 40 J at a repetition rate of 0.

After a general description of amplification in chirped pulse amplification Ti:Sa laser systems Chapter 1 , I present the two particular developments we made during this work for high energy amplification Chapter 2. First, the spatial shaping and the homogenization based on micro-lens array MLA systems of the eight Nd-Glass pump lasers dedicated to the pumping of the last booster amplifier.

Secondly, the suppression of parasitic effects due to transverse amplification of the fluorescence in the last booster amplifier Ti:Sa crystal. The developments performed as part of this thesis allowed us to amplify an impulsion of 2 J of energy up to 39 J in a crystal of 10 cm diameter. I also present the simulation program I developed Chapter 3 in order to simulate the three dimensional parasitic lasing effect and fluorescence transverse amplification phenomena in large Ti:Sa crystals.

A parametric study of these parasitic effects is also presented. Design, analysis and testing of a new piezoelectric tool actuator for elliptical vibration turning. A new piezoelectric tool actuator PETA for elliptical vibration turning has been developed based on a hybrid flexure hinge connection.

Two double parallel four-bar linkage mechanisms and two right circular flexure hinges were chosen to guide the motion. The two input displacement directional stiffness were modeled according to the principle of virtual work modeling method and the kinematic analysis was conducted theoretically. Finite element analysis was used to carry out static and dynamic analyses.

To evaluate the performance of the developed PETA , off-line experimental tests were carried out to investigate the step responses, motion strokes, resolutions, parasitic motions, and natural frequencies of the PETA along the two input directions. By using the developed PETA mechanism, micro-dimple patterns were generated as the preliminary application to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of PETA for elliptical vibration turning. Thiol-acrylate nanocomposite foams for critical size bone defect repair: A novel biomaterial.

A novel class of in situ polymerizing thiol-acrylate based copolymers synthesized via an amine-catalyzed Michael addition was studied for its potential to be used in bone defect repair. These materials were characterized chemically and mechanically followed by an in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility and chemical stability in conjunction with human adipose-derived mesenchymal pluripotent stem cells hASC.

Scanning electron microscope imaging of hASC show expected spindle shaped morphology when adhered to copolymer. Micro-CT analysis indicates open cell interconnected pores. Preparation of a poly 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-co-propargyl methacrylate-co-pentaerythritol triacrylate monolithic column by in situ polymerization and a click reaction for capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules and proteins.

Different ratios of monomers and porogens were used for optimizing the properties of a monolithic column. Column efficiencies for toluene, DMF, and formamide with 35,, theoretical plates per m could be obtained at a linear velocity of 0. The run-to-run, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch repeatabilities of the retention factors were less than 4. In addition, the proposed monolith was also applied to efficient separation of sulfonamides, nucleobases and nucleosides, anesthetics and proteins for demonstrating its potential.

In addition, she uses her knowledge of well-being and the biopsychosocial model when creating her wearable medical devices. Peta currently uses technology, such as 3D printing, as one method to fabricate her collection. Her aspirations are for this concept of wearable medical devices to become mainstream, similar to glasses, and to remove the stigma associated with wearable medical devices. ATLAAS: an automatic decision tree-based learning algorithm for advanced image segmentation in positron emission tomography.

Accurate and reliable tumour delineation on positron emission tomography PET is crucial for radiotherapy treatment planning. PET automatic segmentation PET-AS eliminates intra- and interobserver variability, but there is currently no consensus on the optimal method to use, as different algorithms appear to perform better for different types of tumours.

This work aimed to develop a predictive segmentation model, trained to automatically select and apply the best PET-AS method, according to the tumour characteristics. ATLAAS, the automatic decision tree-based learning algorithm for advanced segmentation is based on supervised machine learning using decision trees.

A decision tree was built for each PET-AS algorithm to predict its accuracy, quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient DSC , according to the tumour volume, tumour peak to background SUV ratio and a regional texture metric. DSCs higher than 0. ATLAAS is an advanced automatic image segmentation algorithm based on decision tree predictive modelling, which can be trained on images with known true contour, to predict the best PET-AS method when the true contour is unknown.

ATLAAS provides robust and accurate image segmentation with potential applications to radiation oncology. Full Text Available Salah satu manfaat dari Sistem Informasi Geografis adalah untuk memperkenalkan daerah yang berada di permukaan bumi dalam bentuk peta digital.

Sistem ini bertujuan untuk mengubah peta tradisional ke dalam bentuk sistem bersama dengan informasi yang dibutuhkan oleh pemakainya. Mengacu pada kegunaan Sistem Informasi Geografis ini, penelitian bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi geografis untuk pariwisata di Kabupaten Semarang untuk lebih memperkenalkan objek wisata di daerah ini. Dengan dukungan teknologi, internet, dan aplikasi lainnya, diharapkan aplikasi ini dapat bekerja dengan baik sesuai dengan kegunaannya untuk memperkenalkan semua obyek wisata di Kabupaten Semarang.

The aim of this paper is to define the requirements and describe the design and implementation of a standard benchmark tool for evaluation and validation of PET-auto-segmentation PET-AS algorithms. The recommendations published in the AAPM TG report were used to derive a set of required features and to guide the design and structure of a benchmarking software tool.

These items included the selection of appropriate representative data and reference contours obtained from established approaches and the description of available metrics. The benchmark was designed in a way that it could be extendable by inclusion of bespoke segmentation methods, while maintaining its main purpose of being a standard testing platform for newly developed PET-AS methods.

A selection of clinical, physical, and simulated phantom data, including "best estimates" reference contours from macroscopic specimens, simulation template, and CT scans was built into the PETASset application database.

In addition, a tool to generate structured reports on the evaluation of the performance of PET-AS algorithms against the reference contours was built. The variation of the metric agreement values with the reference contours across the PET-AS methods evaluated for demonstration were between 0.

Meskipun demikian dari hasil penelitian ini dapat dipakai suatu pijakan atau awal pengembangan survei pemetaan suatu daerah dan bahan pemikiran bahwa pelaksanaan survei pemetaan suatu daerah pada masa-masa mendatang akan dapat dilakukan secara lebih efisien, efektif, dan fleksibel dengan hasil yang cukup teliti dengan memanfaatkan perkembangan teknologi yang ada. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah peta kontur 2D dan peta relief rupabumi 3D dengan berbagai variasi pemodelannya.

The purpose of this educational report is to provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art PET auto-segmentation PET-AS algorithms and their respective validation, with an emphasis on providing the user with help in understanding the challenges and pitfalls associated with selecting and implementing a PET-AS algorithm for a particular application. A brief description of the different types of PET-AS algorithms is provided using a classification based on method complexity and type.

The advantages and the limitations of the current PET-AS algorithms are highlighted based on current publications and existing comparison studies. A review of the available image datasets and contour evaluation metrics in terms of their applicability for establishing a standardized evaluation of PET-AS algorithms is provided. The performance requirements for the algorithms and their dependence on the application, the radiotracer used and the evaluation criteria are described and discussed.

Finally, a procedure for algorithm acceptance and implementation, as well as the complementary role of manual and auto-segmentation are addressed. Many of the proposed algorithms are based on either fixed or adaptively selected thresholds. More recently, numerous papers have proposed the use of more advanced image analysis paradigms to perform semi-automated delineation of the PET images.

However, the level of algorithm validation is variable and for most published algorithms is either insufficient or inconsistent which prevents recommending a single algorithm. This is compounded by the fact that realistic image configurations with low signal-to-noise ratios SNR and heterogeneous tracer distributions have rarely been used. Large variations in the evaluation methods used in the literature point to the need for a standardized evaluation protocol.

Hatt, Mathieu; Lee, John A. Purpose The purpose of this educational report is to provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art PET auto-segmentation PET-AS algorithms and their respective validation, with an emphasis on providing the user with help in understanding the challenges and pitfalls associated with selecting and implementing a PET-AS algorithm for a particular application.

Approach A brief description of the different types of PET-AS algorithms is provided using a classification based on method complexity and type. Conclusions Available comparison studies. Prantsuse moemaja Chloe peadisainer Stella McCartney aitas loomakaitseorganisatsioonil PETA teha dokumentaalfilmi, milles paljastatakse karusloomafarmide telgitaguseid. Yves Saint Laurenti moemaja korraldab gigantse moeshow jalgpallistaadionil, kus algab jalgpalli MM. Penelitian geofisika dengan menggunakan metode audio magnetotelurik dan magnetotelurik telah dilaksanakan di lapangan panasbumi X.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi struktur bawah permukaan dan menentukan sistem panasbumi di daerah penelitian. Daerah penelitian terdiri dari 3 lintasan dengan jumlah titik pengukuran sebanyak 24 titik. Pengolahan data dilakukan hingga didapatkan peta kontur resistivitas. Hasil pengolahan data 2D menunjukkan bahwa nilai resistivitas lapisan bawah p Production and decay rates of the iota meson. We conclude that the iota meson has to be interpreted as having a strong gluonium component.

Lessons learned from the K computer project—from the K computer to Exascale. The history of the supercomputers in Japan and the U. The development of the K Computer project in Japan is described as compared to other Peta Flops projects. The difficulties to be solved in the Exascale computer project now being developed are discussed. This article considers the extent to which medieval "mappaemundi" are an important precedent for literary cartographies in fiction for children.

It connects the notion of embeddedness to Peta Mitchell's suggestion that "mappaemundi" refused to entertain the later, post-Enlightenment cartographic distinction between…. Scalable optical packet switch architecture for low latency and high load computer communication networks.

Switch matrices that operate transparently in the optical domain are a potential way to efficiently. Study of Fermilab data for the reaction. Fermilab data for the angular distribution measurements of the reaction.. This study was a quasi-experimental study, with a 2 x 3 factorial design study subject consisted of two classes of class VII G as experimental class and class VII F as a control class.

Variables consisted of: 1 the dependent variable is the student learning outcomes; 2 the independent variable is the use of mind maps; and 3 is the moderator variable learning styles. Geography learning outcomes were measured using an objective test, whereas learning styles with questionnaires. Results of data analysis using ANOVA two path showed that: 1 the use of mind maps significantly effect on learning outcomes geography; 2 learning style does not significantly affect the results of learning geography; and 3 there is no interaction between the use of mind maps and learning style on learning outcomes.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu, dengan desain faktorial 2 x 3. Variabel penelitian terdiri dari: 1 variabel terikat adalah hasil belajar siswa; 2 variabel bebas adalah pengguna-an peta pikiran; dan 3 variabel moderator adalah gaya belajar.

Hasil belajar geografi diukur menggunakan tes objektif, sedangkan gaya belajar dengan angket. Data hasil pengukuran dianalisis menggunakan anova dua jalur dengan bantuan SPSS v. Hasil analisis data. Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi saat ini semakin pesat, salah satu yang perkembangannya cukup pesat saat ini adalah sistem operasi Android.

Aplikasi Semarang Tour adalah aplikasi mobile informasi pariwisata kota Semarang yang berbasiskan Android. Aplikasi ini menampilkan informasi objek wisata, wisata kuliner, hotel, pusat belanja, info taxi, info CCTV lalu lintas, dan peta lokasi sekitar. Metodelogi penelitian yang digunakan adalah model pengembangan sistem waterfall.

Objek wisata dan objek pendukung pariwisata yang ada di aplikasi ini merupakan objek-objek yang direkomendasikan oleh Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata kota Semarang. While exploring their next career moves, they needed products like the WetFeet Insider Guides to guide them through their research and interviews.

In WetFeet became part of Universum Communications, the global leader in employer branding. Thanks to the integration of WetFeet into the Universum group, WetFeet products are now used by job seekers all over the world. And, quite honestly, even if you love the. But, if you like fast-paced, deal-oriented work, are at ease with numbers and analysis, have a tolerance for risk, and don't mind putting your personal life on hold for the sake of your job, then investment banking may be a great career choice.

But if this doesn't sound like you, a job in investment banking could turn out to be a bad dream come true. Back to top. First, if you're an undergraduate, you'll want to try to get an internship—it's the best way to secure an eventual offer. If you're an undergraduate from an Ivy League school with a great GPA, bidding recruiting points is still a favorable option—however, college recruiters are usually sent from the prestigious bulge-bracket firms, and not the smaller, specialized niche firms, or boutiques.

It's important to discern the type of bank for which you are best suited, so conduct your own independent research. Big firms tend to have more turnover than smaller niche firms, which may better nurture their investment in training you.

If you're not an Ivy League graduate, and recruiters haven't been breaking down your door, networking is your best bet. Use your school's alumni and your neighbors and acquaintances to get in touch with someone at the I-bank of your choice. If you're a good student who is truly interested, you've got a shot. If you have an MBA or other advanced business certification, you'll be paid more for a position than someone with a fresh BA. But those with prior experience always get first shot, so be sure to get an internship.

Industry expertise and prior corporate finance work can also be a way in, but you'll have to be patient. If your degree isn't in business, take heart in the knowledge that banks are increasingly encouraging applications from candidates with specialized resumes in order to better appeal to a growing client base.

Undergrads and MBAs from top schools are recruited for a number of openings that is small even in the best of times. Networking is key; make use of your alumni network. Undergrads vie for two-year positions as analysts. If you do well, depending on the firm, you may get to stay for a third year, perhaps even abroad. MBAs compete for fast-track associate slots, and international assignments may be available for those who want them. Midcareer people are recruited by headhunters or hired on an ad hoc basis for positions at various levels.

Though relatively few people come into the industry from other fields, it can be done, especially by those who have a technical background in a specific industry and an aptitude for and interest in finance. Otherwise, expect to start at the bottom. While the various groups within an investment bank support each other, the work and responsibilities in each group vary.

Corporate Finance Investment bankers are like financial consultants for corporations—which is precisely where the Corporate Finance Group comes into play. As a member of Banking or CorpFin, you serve the sellers of securities—Fortune companies in need of cash to fund growth, and private companies that are looking to complete an IPO—by buying all the shares or all the bonds a company has for sale, which are then resold by your firm's sales force to investors on the market.

Many investment banks divide their corporate finance departments into industry subgroups, such as technology, financial institutions, health care, communications, entertainment, utilities, and insurance, or into product groups such as high-yield, private equity, and investment-grade debt. As an investment banker in corporate finance, you will underwrite equity and debt bond offerings, help firms devise and implement financial strategies, analyze their financial needs such as how to structure balance sheets and when and how to proceed with funding initiatives , and work with the sales and trading departments to determine valuations for new offerings.

At the same time, the work leading up to the headline-grabbing multibillion-dollar acquisition can involve a herculean effort to crunch all the numbers, perform the necessary due diligence, and work out the complicated structure of the deal.

As one insider puts it, "You have to really like spending time in front of your computer with Excel. In many cases, all this may happen on a very tight timeline and under extreme secrecy. Public Finance Public finance is similar to corporate finance except that instead of dealing with corporations, it works with public entities such as city and state governments and agencies, bridge and airport authorities, housing authorities, hospitals, and the like.

Although the basic services financial advisory and underwriting and the financial tools bonds and swaps, but no equity are similar to those used for private sector clients, numerous political and regulatory considerations must be assessed in the structuring of each deal. A particular key issue involves how to get and maintain tax-exempt status for the financial instruments the client will use. Research Research departments are generally divided into two main groups: fixed-income research and equity research.

Both types of research can incorporate several different efforts, including quantitative research corporate financing strategies, specific product development, and pricing models , economic research economic analysis and forecasts.

As a researcher, you'll meet with company management and analyze a company's financial statements and operations, provide written and oral updates on market trends and company performance, attend or organize industry conferences, speak with the sales force, traders, and investment bankers about company or industry trends, develop proprietary pricing models for financial products, make presentations to clients on relevant market trends and economic data, offer forecasts and recommendations, and watch emerging companies.

All right, like any good banker, you want the bottom line. Exactly how much are these guys going to pay you to sign your life away? Salaries at investment banks, even for. Bonuses are determined at the end of each year and are based on the performance of Wall Street, as well as the performances of your firm and department and your contribution.

If your firm has a year like Goldman Sachs did in , those bonuses can. While the real money in investment banking comes from bonuses, your take-home pay from year to year can go through swings of more than percent, especially when you move up in seniority. Another useful point: Firms often have different methods of calculating employee bonuses.

Some allocate a portion of profits to a particular department while others divvy up the proceeds among the departments according to performance. Others use a commission structure based on revenue instead of profit. Some firms are more generous than others, and policy can change, too. A final note: Investment banking opportunities, of course, exist outside the bulge bracket. Become a Partner. About Us. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.

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Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Mar 08, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Http Www. It Ivy Leaguers and top-tier MBA graduates who get also helps if they have previously worked with someone scooped up on the recruiting tour. But there is no in the firm who can serve as a reference.

At the same need to give up just because the scoop never came time, several recruiters for sales and trading for you. There is a way in, albeit a more difficult one. Preparation, strategy, and or MBA programs. The The first step is networking. Do not waste your best reason, as you might guess, is that you received time blindly sending your resume to every firm.

Focus a full scholarship. Not only do you need to know the positions, Other Sources That May Also Be Helpful you also need to know the players and their distin- Company websites guishing characteristics. And although Business publications including The Wall Street Journal, the jobs within each area tend to be numbingly similar Institutional Investor, and others at all firms, each institution has its own culture and expects applicants to be aware of this.

These topics can be sensitive. Unfortunately, the reality at many firms is list of firms likely to send you abroad is quite short. For annual report. In banking selves. And never complaining. Or bragging. The best way to do this? In other words, imagine that you get on an elevator with the president of the company. You have his undivided attention for about the next Rehearse 15 seconds, before he steps off the elevator.

You may think this is the easy part. Who are you, what have you done, and why does that make you the best person for the job? Not ask you what you think made the Tokugawa regime only will this help you perform better, it will also help so successful. At the same time, you might not want show your sensitivity to the realities of the profession.

Come prepared. What does that mean? You should review basic concepts understanding fundamentals is more important from CorpFin and Accounting They will the bottom of the resume. Remember, though: If you also have covered valuation in classes. However, you should consolidation, or experiencing heated competition. The flows. Because an investor is buying the rights to these market. An easy you join. If the cash flows some number such as the average earnings growth rate are different, then each cash flow must be discounted for the last five years.

This gives projected net income individually and then summed to find the present value for next year. Usually, earnings are projected for the of the cash flow bundle. The terminal value is equal to an annuity Market Multiples beginning in a future year, discounted back to the While DCF is arguably the most theoretically accurate present. Since accounting income is often a poor proxy means of valuing a company, in practice bankers rely for cash flow, analysts will carefully calculate free cash much more heavily on the market multiples method flow by starting with EBIT earnings before interest to appraise firm value.

Often DCF is used as a and taxes , taking out taxes on those earnings, and reality check on the accuracy of a multiples analysis. Thus, there Typically, more-senior bankers will direct the analysts are essentially two steps to valuing a company using the and associates working with them on where to look multiples method: for patterns.

If you analyzed the pharmaceutical 1. Identify a set of comparable firms. Determine the appropriate multiples to be used. Multiples analysis is an iterative process—once But this assessment determines the comparison set of you complete step two, you must step back, analyze, companies, which in turn will determine the valuation. This entails setting out the toward the end of June was about 6. Perhaps its size justified a higher multiple. Or generally accepted accounting principles. The suggests an average value of 2.

It is mastering the art of multiples analysis case of the Cash Ratio—a very high Cash Ratio may that sets experienced bankers apart from their less suggest poor cash management See next page for the experienced junior colleagues. Understanding at least formulas for theses ratios. Leverage ratios provide a the fundamental concept of multiples analysis at the measure of how much debt a firm uses.

However, many companies prefer to study of a firm. There are many categories of ratios, maintain higher leverage ratios because of the positive each serving a distinct purpose. It is unlikely that a impact on asset utilization and profitability ratios. Generally, ratios pay wages, short-term creditors, taxes, and are evaluated for a firm over time, or are compared interest on bonds without delay. Most research analysts do both. Furthermore, productivity of firm assets.

Bernstein and John J. While explanatory notes for tables Note: Automated per nasdaq. Per-share values are provided in The Wall Street Journal online, it is come from financial statement values, which are divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Liabilities include current obligations such as accounts payable and General Accounting Information long-term debt.

In elect a month period corresponding to their natural addition, because assets are recorded at their historical production cycles. There are four primary financial values their market values at the time they were first statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow acquired , when the market value of assets declines, statement, and statement of retained earnings.

The asset superior firms are often market leaders in large part column typically includes current or short-term assets because of their talented employees and managers. And if you the price per share of the stock. Not bad. PE multiples vary over time and business cycles. It shows how end-of-year retained money the firm made or lost in a given period. Although earnings are computed. To calculate, start with this is the basic statement used to determine whether a beginning-of-year retained earnings, add net income, THE INTERVIEW company is profitable or not, bankers will take a careful and subtract dividends paid.

To the extent that financial accounting standards Footnotes to the statements are found in the back of allow firm managers to record income statement items the annual report and must be used to understand how using one of several different alternatives, the quality of financial information should best be interpreted. Moreover, interviewers will income. In uses a very long depreciation period, recorded expenses such cases, the interviewer is looking more to establish will underestimate depreciation costs.

Reported income your enthusiasm for financial markets than to debate will therefore be overstated accordingly. After all, even though a company why it interests you. You should then follow with a may be profitable, it needs cash to pay its bills and fund brief discussion of the current stock price, how it has its ongoing operations. Companies have to balance changed over time, what seems to be driving the price their outflows paying bills, employees, and so on with up or down, and the relevant industry information.

Operating cash flows are those funds volume with the objective of discerning patterns in consumed and generated by the operation of the supply and demand over a specified period of time. Financing cash flows describe When a pro does it, fundamental analysis begins events such as the payment of dividends, the issuance of with the underlying factors that drive a particular stock or bonds, stock repurchases, and the repayment industry. Investing cash flows detail how money was forma or forecasted information.

For example, if you were a research valuation model. However, further inspecting the numbers reveals two significant facts. Get pushing its net profit margin downward. First, it is meaningless to analyze competitors and therefore win the deal.

Most bankers either analyze a firm efforts to land a position in investment banking as your over time or against an industry benchmark or both. The issuer of a bond promises privately held. Also known as bonds. Initial public offering: Selling shares of a privately In many industries, cash flow differs from reported held company to the public for the first time.

Bonds backed by issuers with shaky financial prospects. Copy, collate, spiral binding, double-sided… Enough said. LBO Leveraged buyout. For of different deals, client competitors, or even the a number of reasons, including bad press in the investment banking capabilities of competing firms.

You will spend a great deal of your The group within an investment bank that provides time building, updating, and explaining these. This is what company issue securities to the public. There are 1 especially regarding even the most a few constants. Candidates should have strong quan- obvious pregnancy. A recruiter will want candidates your own background? PROCESS who seem particularly eager to start their investment Follow-up calls to confirm that the firm banking career with his or her particular firm—if you 3 received your resume.

Recruiters have doubts, it will show in the interview. Recruiters sometimes get 8, resumes a season. Finally, Questions that have already been 6 banks want candidates whose personality seems a good covered in the interview. In addition, different areas of an 8 Long-winded answers. We remind you to think deeply about which part Arrogance. Fluency in a second language, especially Spanish, multiple complex assignments simultaneously can Japanese, or Mandarin, is an added plus.

And a liberal arts major is no cause for not bankers, they are slaves to the bankers. The criteria for grades, their SAT scores, their rating on the big, super an associate include all the expectations investment interview day, and other quantifiable items. They found banks have for undergraduates and summer associates, none.

Use this to your advantage. People who can plus a total grasp of the business and the job. So make your background left out. If you certain thing. We pay special attention if worry about gaps in your background. Undergraduate majors are not as who possessed the perfect combination of modesty important at this stage. Of course, my ideal candidate and understatement.

His intelligence, ambition, investment banking class were former analysts. If you come across analyst at Goldman or Morgan Stanley. He or she as a confident but not cocky , thick-skinned, good- would have language skills, which are now more natured person who learns quickly and can work on important than ever.

Sales and trading interviews are more heavily in CorpFin. If you like the hubbub and experience on the Street. Previous Wall Street experience of course is Intelligence is measured by your understanding ideal; however, consulting experience is also great. Where you went to school is the time. From the get-go, you must rev yourself into generally much less important than a profound, if not overdrive and start talking, moving, listening, and intuitive, understanding of the business.

The bottom networking faster than you ever thought imaginable. Over in investment-banking land, of Students with high GPAs who have majored in course, such a response would sabotage your chances. Cocky arrogance is not nontraditional choices. Since most college graduates appreciated. Insiders confess they hate when the new know very little about the markets at the outset, your MBAs start interviewing on the floor.

At the same time, having a summer analyst to do there. If you want to work with derivatives, have a program under your belt enhances your marketability. Traders and salespeople revel in targeting minority students.

They were designed to help foolish displays of ignorance. It used to be easy and acceptable for MBA students Summer Internships to explore one career option in the summer after Banks require the same levels of commitment and their first year, then upon graduation, take a job in a enthusiasm from their summer hires as from their different field. Even though recruiters say that they banking. They see internships interns say you should have some idea what you want as a way to judge if someone is a good fit.

But MBA recruiters are suited to the job. Psychological studies have explored in some numbers the companies your firm is underwriting. Your own energy can often be the most important aspect of the meeting. We are looking for ways to cut people. Leave the suspenders at home. Hemlines should Acing the be no higher than the width of a dollar bill above your knees.

Sound unbearably conservative? Some recruiters actually revel in the idea that invest- departments in the bank and on what the recruiters ment banking is one of the last bastions of conformity. As one interviewer interview process. Leave the extravagant jewelry at the firm and see what people there are wearing. Also, you home. Well-made, expensive watches are a pen slot and pen , a short writing sample, and of course quiet power symbol. DO Greet with a smile and firm handshake.

DO Sit down only after your interviewer does. It may be inter- DO Smile every so often. Not too much and never preted as nerousness or worse yet, emptiness. One genuine smile is always worth waiting for. DO Exude calm. Keep your voice low and hands in your lap. You can even point to several help your cause. They show thoughtfulness, good seemingly irrelevant items on your resume which, with a manners, and attentiveness to small details. We can easily train them.

They prefer to think of these as your precious time. No need to raise your anxiety level a conversation, so you should, too. Monosyllabic any higher than it is already: Your time will come. The answers, however polite, will only sound curt and interviewer, who may be a human resources profes- stiff. Instead, listen quick notes, and then invites you in. Questions are usually Investment banking recruiters tend to advocate straightforward, veering into the technical if you behavioral interviewing, the idea being that the best appear to know something about the job already.

Recruiters are looking for well be asked to explain these. Presumably you how to work hard and have demonstrated this with paid careful attention to what they said they care about a full-throttle schedule of activities.

At the same most in an initial campus information session. For example, as an associate, you will is an ability to analyze yourself and the decisions you likely be responsible for managing a team of analysts as have made. Short- everything you have ever lent a hand to, give it up now. Regardless of how much time highlight it.

Equally important, of time. The school newspaper, chorus, and debating restraining your humility does not mean denying your society are all just as valid team credits as a lacrosse fallibility. You have to use them to illustrate two traits investment banks seek in new recruits. If as qualitatively aware especially if you never wrote a you can convince your interviewers that all you want seriously analytical paper in your four years in college. India Inc. Jump to Page.

Search inside document. John Mathias. Rhb Invest. David Richards1. Shagun Madan. Angel Broking. Jean Paul Ramirez. Youssef Recho. Saravanan Sugumar. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you. This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy.

By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Forgot Password? Analyst Associate Vice President Managing Director Overview of Investment Banking Career Investment Banking is a financial services company that engages in financial advisory and capital raising services to individuals, corporate, and government institutions to meet their financial needs. Who is an Analyst? Who is the Associate? Who is Vice President?

Who is the Managing Director? Email ID. Contact No. Please select the batch. Responsible for updating the deal books on a periodic basis and perform industry analysis as well to complement the decision-making process.

Is to work on large databases and presentations, prepare IM, due diligence report, etc. This is a very broad number and can vary from bank to bank. Highly demanded profile since it requires extensive presentation skills to prepare different types of pitches to the clients with limited data available.

Be a part of the entire deal cycle and chances to earn huge bonuses at the end of the year. Responsible for checking the work done by the analyst and mentoring him with the required knowledge and expertise required for the job. Support the vice president in the entire deal cycle and play an important role in the execution as well as he is supposed to handle a team of analyst under him.

This is a vast number and can vary from bank to bank. Highly knowledgeable and skilled role since it requires practical experience to execute a transaction in the firm effectively. Long working hours and is responsible for all the work done by the junior analyst.

To build relationships with corporates and ensure that the company gets good business from them regularly. Written in accessible, easy-to-understand language, Investment Banking Explained provides everything you need to identify structures, strategies, and operational aspects of investment banking, and it offers thorough examinations of the operations of the world's most successful firms.

With every chapter updated and revised, this peerless work also includes need-to-know information on all-new topics, including developing strategic relationships with large corporate clients, understanding the role of technology, finding the keys for a successful IPO, how to successfully advise a client in mergers and acquisitions, the strategies for value creation in asset management, and startup financing.

The only book of its kind written by a seasoned investment banking practitioner, Investment Banking Explained delivers a complete overview of investment banking in its modern form. Author : John Wise Publisher: Lulu. Investment banking is the typical training ground of the elite. While many want to enter, few are given the opportunity.

This book serves as a pragmatic guide with tips on what to do as you try to break through what may seem to be an impenetrable door. Written by an ex-investment banker with real Wall Street experience at bulge bracket investment banking firms, it can help clarify the path that is often clouded or kept secret by those who would rather limit your access.

If you are seriously considering investment banking on Wall Street as a career option, but do not have the connections that most seem to have, this guide will be one of the best investments you've made into your career. The author is someone that grew up on welfare with no special connections, and yet successfully found a way to break in; the book serves as a compilation of the insights gained from his experience. Author : Publisher: Wetfeet. The resume submission deadline is only days away.

You know that hundreds of I-banking hopefuls are vying for a spot on the same crowded interview schedules. How will your resume stand out among the crowd? Wetfeet careers in investment banking pdf viewer In other words: Maintain eye contact.

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Di dalamnya para pengunjung akan diajak melihat lebih dekat kehidupan satwa liar. Selain itu, habitat burung di sekitar konservasi hutan bakau yang termasuk ke dalam kawasan dilindungi ini juga menjadi salah satu pesona dari Pantai Muara Beting. Burung-burung cantik ini bisa ditemukan dengan mudah terutama pada bulan September hingga Februari.

Namun jangan coba-coba mengganggu habitat serta ekosistem mereka ya, karena beberapa satwa liar dan langka tersebut termasuk ke dalam hewan yang dilindungi. Para turis tidak boleh melakukan aktivitas berbahaya seperti berburu binatang yang ada di sini.

Pasalnya semua satwa ini masuk ke dalam perlindungan pemerintah setempat. Pengunjung hanya diperbolehkan mengunjungi hutan bakau menggunakan perahu sembari menyusuri area sungai di sepanjang hutan tersebut. Selama menyusuri hutan bakau ini, pengunjung bisa melihat pemandangan pepohonan rimbun di sepanjang perjalanan. Burung yang ada di sekitar pantai ini sebagian besar bermigrasi dari area Laut Cina Selatan dan Samudera Pasifik.

Menariknya lagi adalah ombak di Muara Beting ini sangat ramah, tidak terlalu besar dan sedang saja. Sehingga tidak membahayakan para pengunjung. Namun sayangnya, tidak ada hamparan pasir putih yang bisa dinikmati oleh para wisatawan. Pasalnya spot yang terletak di sekitar Muara Gembong ini hanya menyajikan hamparan pasir berwarna coklat kehitaman, mirip dengan pantai Parangtritis di Jogja.

Namun begitu, di sini terdapat kerang putih yang memenuhi area pesisir pantai. Dan air di pantai tersebut bisa dibilang tidak jernih dan biru melainkan berwarna kecoklatan. Jika ingin melihat airnya yang berwarna biru eksotis, pengunjung bisa ke bagian tengah laut dengan menggunakan perahu.

Suasana pantai ini tidak terlalu ramai. Hanya akan penuh kala memasuki weekend atau hari libur saja. Sehingga para pengunjung bisa bersantai tanpa adanya gangguan. Salah satu kegiatan menarik di Pantai Muara Beting yang wajib masuk dalam agenda adalah berburu foto dengan berlatarkan pemandangan alam yang eksotis. Salah satu spot terbaik untuk mengabadikan keindahan dari kawasan wisata ini adalah kawasan hutan bakau.

Bagi yang gemar berselfie, pasir berwarna coklat dan air laut, tentu bisa memberikan tampilan lebih menarik untuk dijadikan background foto. Bila ingin mengunjungi Muara Beting, pengunjung harus membayar biaya tiket masuk dengan harga sebesar 20 ribu per orang. Sementara jika ingin menuju ke hutan bakau, para pengunjung harus menyewa perahu dengan tarif sewa sebesar 20 ribu.

Untuk akses atau rute menuju ke Muara Beting sangat mudah. Jaraknya dari pusat kota Bekasi hanya sekitar 48 kilometer dan bisa ditempuh sekitar 2 jam perjalanan, baik menggunakan kendaraan pribadi atau angkutan umum. Agar tidak tersesat, pengunjung bisa menggunakan bantuan aplikasi Google Maps untuk mendapatkan peta, denah atau map ke Muara Beting. Ada beberapa tips yang harus diperhatik sebelum berlibur ke spot ini. Pertama, disarankan untuk memakai kendaraan pribadi. Pasalnya jarang ada transportasi umum menuju lokasi objek wisata tersebut.

Kedua, jangan lupa untuk membawa makanan dan minuman. Pasalnya memasuki daerah Babelan, jarang ditemukan tempat makan. Ketiga, disarankan datang di saat musim kemarau saja. Menurut Kepmen Kelautan dan Perikanan No.

Daerah sempadan pantai hanya diperbolehkan untuk tanaman yang berfungsi sebagai pelindung dan pengaman pantai, penggunaan fasilitas umum yang tidak merubah fungsi lahan sebagai pengaman dan pelestarian pantai. Berdasarkan Kepres No. Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Bekasi. Perda No. You are commenting using your WordPress.

You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Beri tahu saya komentar baru melalui email. Beritahu saya pos-pos baru lewat surat elektronik. Kelebihan Pantai Muara Beting Pemandangan yang indah Udara yang nyaman Cocok untuk wisata keluarga Tidak terlalu ramai Sangat cocok untuk spot fotografi Banyak hewan langka Kekurangan Pantai Muara Beting Fasilitas yang minim dikarenakan kurangnya kerjasama antara pemerintah dengan warga setempat Tidak adanya angkutan umum yang dapat masuk ke lokasi.

Kriteria sempadan pantai adalah daratan sepanjang tepian yang lebarnya proporsional dengan bentuk dan kondisi fisik pantai minimal meter dari titik pasang tertinggi kearah darat pasal Bagikan ini: Twitter Facebook. Menyukai ini: Suka Memuat Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan Ketikkan komentar di sini Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:. Email wajib Alamat takkan pernah dipublikasikan. Nama wajib.

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What do you like about the culture? Should I mention how isolated I feel at times? Probably not. Recruiter: Too general. Recruiter: Legitimate question. On the day of the interviews, the Reader candidates were asked about their geographical preferences. A no-brainer, right? Meet management and real estate. Clearly, they finance. An Merrill Lynch in the private client services division.

He immediate ding. You will no doubt face the First and full spectrum—be prepared for them all. You might have the standard minute interviews. The good news about mistakes is that you question-and-answer interview. Or you might have an learn more from them than from your successes. About 80 percent of my interviews were a out what works without having to run your own standard mix of behavioral and technical questions.

Here are some of my personal experiences remaining ones, however, were unique. For example: At one bulge-bracket firm, the second-round interviewer focused solely on my life. You know I hate about investment banking. At another firm, this already, right? In the current economy, Interviewing Is Often Subjective getting into an investment bank is a serious challenge.

What happened? I landed my second thinking. Of course, there are certain situations whose internship with an energy company; none of the banks outcome may seem unfair to you. The interview candidate right before a recurring thought, but I refused to give in to it. If me was also from San Antonio. But many about his interview. All they talked about was San rewards lie ahead. Antonio, the high schools they attended, and so on.

Nothing about the qualifications required for the job. An undeniable connection had been made, and The Recruiting Shuffle I—the Houston native—was left out. Now that you know what to expect, how do you In another set of interviews with a bulge-bracket go about getting an interview? The best way is to firm, I interviewed on campus and had friends who submit your resume through your university. Many were also part of the interview round.

Though many banks recruit on campus and have resume submission of us felt we had done well, none of us qualified for the through various schools. So who did? I Firms often recruit at universities that are located was furious. The assumption is that because boutique banks. Even after several second-round Texas; hence, firms recruit for positions within the state. However, occasionally firms recruit for other offices as Suddenly, one phone call changed everything. A guy well. San Francisco office was looking for a summer intern.

Intense networking is another effective method for After two phone interviews, the firm flew me to San landing an interview. This means making connections Francisco. After six interviews, I received an internship through a number of routes, both formal and informal. This experience convinced me of the impact of— in this case, informal—networking. With effective networking, you already know.

Make a list of anyone in the industry create ready sources of information and job openings. Your aim and you are responsible for making hiring decisions. You receive a stack of plus friend works in banking. Call her and express your resumes and have to select a handful.

As you look over interest in gaining insight into the industry. Ask questions about what she high school gives you a call. Find out everything banking and has kept in close contact with you for the possible about her firm. Learn as much as you can. You know what she wants to do, and that Gradually expand your network. So an alumni database at your university.

Call friends who do you hire? Contact The qualified friend, of course. Put simply, most ness card, keeping in mind that she worked in the San hiring managers give preference to friends or previous Francisco office. The following year, when I worked at contacts. This is why you need to network. I thought I was well learning more about Goldman Sachs. We spoke over the phone, and summer. Whom else are you interviewing with? But you have to be prepared for any potential angle an interviewer may present to you.

Be prepared to explain why you prefer investment baking to consulting, for example. Research markets, equities, current industry events, and more. Make sure you understand it fully. Have done so. There are several pitfalls to avoid. First, know the your friends help you with mock interviews. Start position and location you are applying for.

Look over the list below to with. In one interview, I was discussing trends in chaPter 6 get a feel for the most common types of questions you investment banking. At that time, many commercial can expect.

Make sure you have a solid and thorough and investment banks were merging. During one answer for each. I frequently on alert. I knew I had to tread carefully. Your chaPter 2 the company. Some are universal: enthusiasm and a willingness to work hard.

Think about what you would look for if you were hiring someone, or better yet, the kind of person you would want to work with. That would probably be someone who has focus, takes initiative, works well with teams, and has an agreeable personality.

Remember, you are about to make a decision Initially, most interviewers will introduce that could affect the course of your life. You want to themselves and then ask you to tell them about enjoy your experience as much as possible and ensure yourself. If you are trying to make a friend who can push you Let them go. I dreaded have in common with that person. Your mission is to shaking hands since my palms would always get form a bond so that he or she remembers you.

Eventually, I started keeping a napkin in interviewers asked me about myself, I would walk chaPter 6 my pocket; I would stick my hand in there and wipe them through my educational and work experiences. I also went an understanding of what a particular firm is all about to Wimbledon and met Angelina Jolie at a movie can only increase your chances of making it to the next premiere.

Not only had I managed gives its new hires substantial responsibility. Add all of this to the fact that you and personality and adjust your style accordingly. At the end of the relevant to banking. For example: In an interview about the firm that keeps you there? He then close attention to Bob when he introduced himself. I first asked You have also demonstrated to Bob that you really do a couple of questions to make sure I understood the care about the firm you will go to work for.

In addition, situation correctly and then responded. Demonstrating attention to detail and the next round. It interview strategy at your disposal. Ideally, we want several questions to gather more information. If rarely works out so neatly. A firm may need to hire one more involved questions. They hurt equally. But be cordial and professional. I know approach so that you land the investment banking job how it feels to be in this post-interview limbo.

I also of your dreams. Of course, some will expect you to accept immediately. While exploring their next career moves, they needed products like the WetFeet Insider Guides to guide them through their research and interviews.

In WetFeet became part of Universum Communications, the global leader in employer branding. Thanks to the integration of WetFeet into the Universum group, WetFeet products are now used by job seekers all over the world. And, quite honestly, even if you love the. But, if you like fast-paced, deal-oriented work, are at ease with numbers and analysis, have a tolerance for risk, and don't mind putting your personal life on hold for the sake of your job, then investment banking may be a great career choice.

But if this doesn't sound like you, a job in investment banking could turn out to be a bad dream come true. Back to top. First, if you're an undergraduate, you'll want to try to get an internship—it's the best way to secure an eventual offer. If you're an undergraduate from an Ivy League school with a great GPA, bidding recruiting points is still a favorable option—however, college recruiters are usually sent from the prestigious bulge-bracket firms, and not the smaller, specialized niche firms, or boutiques.

It's important to discern the type of bank for which you are best suited, so conduct your own independent research. Big firms tend to have more turnover than smaller niche firms, which may better nurture their investment in training you. If you're not an Ivy League graduate, and recruiters haven't been breaking down your door, networking is your best bet. Use your school's alumni and your neighbors and acquaintances to get in touch with someone at the I-bank of your choice.

If you're a good student who is truly interested, you've got a shot. If you have an MBA or other advanced business certification, you'll be paid more for a position than someone with a fresh BA. But those with prior experience always get first shot, so be sure to get an internship. Industry expertise and prior corporate finance work can also be a way in, but you'll have to be patient. If your degree isn't in business, take heart in the knowledge that banks are increasingly encouraging applications from candidates with specialized resumes in order to better appeal to a growing client base.

Undergrads and MBAs from top schools are recruited for a number of openings that is small even in the best of times. Networking is key; make use of your alumni network. Undergrads vie for two-year positions as analysts. If you do well, depending on the firm, you may get to stay for a third year, perhaps even abroad. MBAs compete for fast-track associate slots, and international assignments may be available for those who want them.

Midcareer people are recruited by headhunters or hired on an ad hoc basis for positions at various levels. Though relatively few people come into the industry from other fields, it can be done, especially by those who have a technical background in a specific industry and an aptitude for and interest in finance. Otherwise, expect to start at the bottom. While the various groups within an investment bank support each other, the work and responsibilities in each group vary.

Corporate Finance Investment bankers are like financial consultants for corporations—which is precisely where the Corporate Finance Group comes into play. As a member of Banking or CorpFin, you serve the sellers of securities—Fortune companies in need of cash to fund growth, and private companies that are looking to complete an IPO—by buying all the shares or all the bonds a company has for sale, which are then resold by your firm's sales force to investors on the market.

Many investment banks divide their corporate finance departments into industry subgroups, such as technology, financial institutions, health care, communications, entertainment, utilities, and insurance, or into product groups such as high-yield, private equity, and investment-grade debt. As an investment banker in corporate finance, you will underwrite equity and debt bond offerings, help firms devise and implement financial strategies, analyze their financial needs such as how to structure balance sheets and when and how to proceed with funding initiatives , and work with the sales and trading departments to determine valuations for new offerings.

At the same time, the work leading up to the headline-grabbing multibillion-dollar acquisition can involve a herculean effort to crunch all the numbers, perform the necessary due diligence, and work out the complicated structure of the deal. As one insider puts it, "You have to really like spending time in front of your computer with Excel.

In many cases, all this may happen on a very tight timeline and under extreme secrecy. Public Finance Public finance is similar to corporate finance except that instead of dealing with corporations, it works with public entities such as city and state governments and agencies, bridge and airport authorities, housing authorities, hospitals, and the like. Although the basic services financial advisory and underwriting and the financial tools bonds and swaps, but no equity are similar to those used for private sector clients, numerous political and regulatory considerations must be assessed in the structuring of each deal.

A particular key issue involves how to get and maintain tax-exempt status for the financial instruments the client will use. Research Research departments are generally divided into two main groups: fixed-income research and equity research. Both types of research can incorporate several different efforts, including quantitative research corporate financing strategies, specific product development, and pricing models , economic research economic analysis and forecasts.

As a researcher, you'll meet with company management and analyze a company's financial statements and operations, provide written and oral updates on market trends and company performance, attend or organize industry conferences, speak with the sales force, traders, and investment bankers about company or industry trends, develop proprietary pricing models for financial products, make presentations to clients on relevant market trends and economic data, offer forecasts and recommendations, and watch emerging companies.

All right, like any good banker, you want the bottom line. Exactly how much are these guys going to pay you to sign your life away? Salaries at investment banks, even for. Bonuses are determined at the end of each year and are based on the performance of Wall Street, as well as the performances of your firm and department and your contribution.

If your firm has a year like Goldman Sachs did in , those bonuses can. While the real money in investment banking comes from bonuses, your take-home pay from year to year can go through swings of more than percent, especially when you move up in seniority. Another useful point: Firms often have different methods of calculating employee bonuses.

Some allocate a portion of profits to a particular department while others divvy up the proceeds among the departments according to performance. Others use a commission structure based on revenue instead of profit. Some firms are more generous than others, and policy can change, too.

A final note: Investment banking opportunities, of course, exist outside the bulge bracket. Become a Partner. About Us. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read free for days Sign In. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime.

WetFeet I-Banking overview. Uploaded by Naman Agarwal. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Mar 08, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Http Www. It Ivy Leaguers and top-tier MBA graduates who get also helps if they have previously worked with someone scooped up on the recruiting tour.

But there is no in the firm who can serve as a reference. At the same need to give up just because the scoop never came time, several recruiters for sales and trading for you. There is a way in, albeit a more difficult one. Preparation, strategy, and or MBA programs. The The first step is networking. Do not waste your best reason, as you might guess, is that you received time blindly sending your resume to every firm.

Focus a full scholarship. Not only do you need to know the positions, Other Sources That May Also Be Helpful you also need to know the players and their distin- Company websites guishing characteristics. And although Business publications including The Wall Street Journal, the jobs within each area tend to be numbingly similar Institutional Investor, and others at all firms, each institution has its own culture and expects applicants to be aware of this.

These topics can be sensitive. Unfortunately, the reality at many firms is list of firms likely to send you abroad is quite short. For annual report. In banking selves. And never complaining. Or bragging. The best way to do this? In other words, imagine that you get on an elevator with the president of the company. You have his undivided attention for about the next Rehearse 15 seconds, before he steps off the elevator. You may think this is the easy part.

Who are you, what have you done, and why does that make you the best person for the job? Not ask you what you think made the Tokugawa regime only will this help you perform better, it will also help so successful. At the same time, you might not want show your sensitivity to the realities of the profession. Come prepared. What does that mean?

You should review basic concepts understanding fundamentals is more important from CorpFin and Accounting They will the bottom of the resume. Remember, though: If you also have covered valuation in classes. However, you should consolidation, or experiencing heated competition. The flows. Because an investor is buying the rights to these market. An easy you join. If the cash flows some number such as the average earnings growth rate are different, then each cash flow must be discounted for the last five years.

This gives projected net income individually and then summed to find the present value for next year. Usually, earnings are projected for the of the cash flow bundle. The terminal value is equal to an annuity Market Multiples beginning in a future year, discounted back to the While DCF is arguably the most theoretically accurate present. Since accounting income is often a poor proxy means of valuing a company, in practice bankers rely for cash flow, analysts will carefully calculate free cash much more heavily on the market multiples method flow by starting with EBIT earnings before interest to appraise firm value.

Often DCF is used as a and taxes , taking out taxes on those earnings, and reality check on the accuracy of a multiples analysis. Thus, there Typically, more-senior bankers will direct the analysts are essentially two steps to valuing a company using the and associates working with them on where to look multiples method: for patterns.

If you analyzed the pharmaceutical 1. Identify a set of comparable firms. Determine the appropriate multiples to be used. Multiples analysis is an iterative process—once But this assessment determines the comparison set of you complete step two, you must step back, analyze, companies, which in turn will determine the valuation.

This entails setting out the toward the end of June was about 6. Perhaps its size justified a higher multiple. Or generally accepted accounting principles. The suggests an average value of 2. It is mastering the art of multiples analysis case of the Cash Ratio—a very high Cash Ratio may that sets experienced bankers apart from their less suggest poor cash management See next page for the experienced junior colleagues.

Understanding at least formulas for theses ratios. Leverage ratios provide a the fundamental concept of multiples analysis at the measure of how much debt a firm uses. However, many companies prefer to study of a firm. There are many categories of ratios, maintain higher leverage ratios because of the positive each serving a distinct purpose.

It is unlikely that a impact on asset utilization and profitability ratios. Generally, ratios pay wages, short-term creditors, taxes, and are evaluated for a firm over time, or are compared interest on bonds without delay. Most research analysts do both.

Furthermore, productivity of firm assets. Bernstein and John J. While explanatory notes for tables Note: Automated per nasdaq. Per-share values are provided in The Wall Street Journal online, it is come from financial statement values, which are divided by the number of common shares outstanding.

Liabilities include current obligations such as accounts payable and General Accounting Information long-term debt. In elect a month period corresponding to their natural addition, because assets are recorded at their historical production cycles. There are four primary financial values their market values at the time they were first statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow acquired , when the market value of assets declines, statement, and statement of retained earnings.

The asset superior firms are often market leaders in large part column typically includes current or short-term assets because of their talented employees and managers. And if you the price per share of the stock. Not bad. PE multiples vary over time and business cycles. It shows how end-of-year retained money the firm made or lost in a given period. Although earnings are computed. To calculate, start with this is the basic statement used to determine whether a beginning-of-year retained earnings, add net income, THE INTERVIEW company is profitable or not, bankers will take a careful and subtract dividends paid.

To the extent that financial accounting standards Footnotes to the statements are found in the back of allow firm managers to record income statement items the annual report and must be used to understand how using one of several different alternatives, the quality of financial information should best be interpreted.

Moreover, interviewers will income. In uses a very long depreciation period, recorded expenses such cases, the interviewer is looking more to establish will underestimate depreciation costs. Reported income your enthusiasm for financial markets than to debate will therefore be overstated accordingly.

After all, even though a company why it interests you. You should then follow with a may be profitable, it needs cash to pay its bills and fund brief discussion of the current stock price, how it has its ongoing operations. Companies have to balance changed over time, what seems to be driving the price their outflows paying bills, employees, and so on with up or down, and the relevant industry information.

Operating cash flows are those funds volume with the objective of discerning patterns in consumed and generated by the operation of the supply and demand over a specified period of time. Financing cash flows describe When a pro does it, fundamental analysis begins events such as the payment of dividends, the issuance of with the underlying factors that drive a particular stock or bonds, stock repurchases, and the repayment industry.

Investing cash flows detail how money was forma or forecasted information. For example, if you were a research valuation model. However, further inspecting the numbers reveals two significant facts. Get pushing its net profit margin downward.

First, it is meaningless to analyze competitors and therefore win the deal. Most bankers either analyze a firm efforts to land a position in investment banking as your over time or against an industry benchmark or both. The issuer of a bond promises privately held. Also known as bonds. Initial public offering: Selling shares of a privately In many industries, cash flow differs from reported held company to the public for the first time. Bonds backed by issuers with shaky financial prospects. Copy, collate, spiral binding, double-sided… Enough said.

LBO Leveraged buyout. For of different deals, client competitors, or even the a number of reasons, including bad press in the investment banking capabilities of competing firms. You will spend a great deal of your The group within an investment bank that provides time building, updating, and explaining these. This is what company issue securities to the public. There are 1 especially regarding even the most a few constants.

Candidates should have strong quan- obvious pregnancy. A recruiter will want candidates your own background? PROCESS who seem particularly eager to start their investment Follow-up calls to confirm that the firm banking career with his or her particular firm—if you 3 received your resume. Recruiters have doubts, it will show in the interview. Recruiters sometimes get 8, resumes a season. Finally, Questions that have already been 6 banks want candidates whose personality seems a good covered in the interview.

In addition, different areas of an 8 Long-winded answers. We remind you to think deeply about which part Arrogance. Fluency in a second language, especially Spanish, multiple complex assignments simultaneously can Japanese, or Mandarin, is an added plus. And a liberal arts major is no cause for not bankers, they are slaves to the bankers. The criteria for grades, their SAT scores, their rating on the big, super an associate include all the expectations investment interview day, and other quantifiable items.

They found banks have for undergraduates and summer associates, none. Use this to your advantage. People who can plus a total grasp of the business and the job. So make your background left out. If you certain thing. We pay special attention if worry about gaps in your background.

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If the system was a perfect money maker, the seller would not want to share it. Discipline is one of the most important characteristics a trader must-have, so you must always remember to stick to your system! The system gives you clear signals which will definitely help you to make best trades. Key Takeaways A forex trading system is a rules-based approach to trading currencies.

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