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Bernard W. Dempsey, S. In a centralized economy, currency is issued by a central bank at a rate that is supposed to match the growth of the amount of goods that are exchanged so that these goods can be traded with stable prices. The monetary base is controlled by a central bank.

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Imhoff succeeded in reestablishing the peace and began several reforms. He founded a Latin school, the first post offices in the Dutch East Indies, a hospital and a newspaper. He also founded the city of Buitenzorg and suppressed the opium trade. A ship, the Hofwegen, was struck by lightning and exploded in the port of Batavia along with six tons of silver , totalling around , Dutch florins.

Put in an untenable position by his enemies, Imhoff wanted to resign from his post, but the VOC would not allow it. Imhoff was forced to remain in office until his death in , having come to believe that most of his work had been done in vain.

During his stay in Batavia, Imhoff stayed in a high-class residence today known as Toko Merah. And the honourable Mr. Pakubuwana II mengumumkan sayembara berhadiah tanah seluas 3. Mangkubumi dengan berhasil mengusir Mas Said pada tahun , namun ia dihalang-halangi Patih Pringgalaya yang menghasut raja supaya membatalkan perjanjian sayembara.

Hal ini ditentang Mangkubumi. Akibatnya, terjadilah pertengkaran di mana Baron van Imhoff menghina Mangkubumi di depan umum. Mangkubumi yang sakit hati meninggalkan Surakarta pada bulan Mei dan menggabungkan diri dengan Mas Said sebagai pemberontak. Pada tahun diperkirakan kekuatan Mangkubumi mencapai Pertempuran demi pertempuran dimenangkan oleh Mangkubumi, misalnya pertempuran di Demak dan Grobogan. Pada akhir tahun , Pakubuwana II sakit parah dan merasa kematiannya sudah dekat. Ia pun menyerahkan kedaulatan negara secara penuh kepada VOC sebagai pelindung Surakarta tanggal 11 Desember.

Dengan demikian terdapat dua orang Pakubuwana III. Yang satu disebut Susuhunan Surakarta, sedangkan Mangkubumi disebut Susuhunan Kebanaran, karena bermarkas di desa Kebanaran di daerah Mataram. Borneo, ca Brunei, meanwhile, was also in decline before the rising sultanate of Sulu, based in the archipelago between Borneo and Mindanao. In return for backing the successful claimant in a succession dispute in Brunei, Sulu received suzerainty over much of Borneo north of Brunei itself.

The principal state of the east coast was Kutai, a Malay kingdom in the Mahakam river basin which converted to Islam in the 16th century. From the late 17th century, however, many Buginese settled on the east coast, founding the state of Pasir and for a time dominating the Tidung, Bulungan and Berau regions, though these northern areas were to come under the Sulu sultanate. Perang kembali berlanjut. Orang Jawa menyebutnya Kapten Klerek.

Pada tahun Mangkubumi dengan Raden Mas Said terjadi perselisihan. Perselisihan ini berfokus pada keunggulan supremasi Tunggal atas Mataram yang tidak terbagi. Dalam jajak pendapat dan pemungutan suara dukungan kepada Raden Mas Said oleh kalangan elite Jawa dan tokoh tokoh Mataram mencapai suara yang bulat mengalahkan dukungan dan pilihan kepada Mangkubumi.

Dalam dukungan elite Jawa menemui fakta kalah dengan Raden Mas Said maka Mangkubumi menggunakan kekuatan bersenjata untuk mengalahkan Raden Mas Said tetapi Mangkubumi menemui kegagalan. Raden Mas Said kuat dalam dukungan-pilihan oleh elite Jawa dan juga kuat dalam kekuatan bersenjata.

Mangkubumi bahkan menerima kekalahan yang sangat telak dari menantunya yaitu Raden Mas Said. Ia adalah anak Pangeran Natapraja yang menguasai wilayah terpencil dari kerajaan Mataram tepatnya di Serang yang sekarang wilayah perbatasan Grobogan-Sragen. Ia dimakamkan di Kalibawang, Kulon Progo.

Ia pahlawan nasional yang hampir terlupakan,mungkin karena namanya tak sepopuler R. Kartini atau Cut Nyak Dhien tapi beliau sangat berjasa bagi negeri ini. Warga Kulon Progo mengabadikan monumen beliau di tengah kota Wates berupa patung beliau sedang menaiki kuda dengan gagah berani membawa tombak. Perudingan-perundingan dengan Mangkubumi mencapai kesepakatan, Mangkubumi bertemu Hartingh secara langsung pada bulan September Leave a comment.

Posted in Uncategorized. Pada masanya Kerajaan ini sebenarnya bernama Kadipaten Sumenep atau sering dikenal sebagai Kadipaten Madura , adalah sebuah monarki yang pernah menguasai seluruh Pulau Madura dan sebagian daerah tapal kuda. Pusat pemerintahannya berada di Kota Sumenep sekarang.

Pada tahun , dimasa pemerintahan Arya Wiraraja wilayah ini berada dibawah pengawasan langsung Kerajaan Singhasari dan Kerajaan Majapahit. Pada tahun , dimasa pemerintahan Kanjeng Tumenggung Ario Kanduruwan, wilayah yang terletak di Madura Timur ini berada pada kekuasaan penuh Kesultanan Demak dan baru pada pemerintahan Pangeran Lor II yang berkuasa pada tahun , wilayah Kadipaten Sumenep berada dibawah pengawasan langsung Kasultanan Mataram.

Selama Sumenep jatuh kedalam wilayah pemerintahan Hindia-Belanda, wilayah ini tidak pernah diperintah secara langsung, para penguasa Sumenep diberi kebebasan dalam memerintah wilayahnya namun tetap dalam ikatan-ikatan kontrak yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kolonial Kala itu. Selanjutnya pada tahun , Pemerintah Hindia Belanda mulai menghapus sistem sebelumnya keswaprajaan , Kerajaan-kerajaan di Madura termasuk di Sumenep dikelola langsung oleh Nederland Indische Regening dengan diangkatnya seorang Bupati.

Semenjak itulah, sistem pemerintahan Ke-adipatian di Sumenep berakhir. Keraton Sumenep. Kerajaan Sumenep sendiri bisa dibilang sifatnya sebagai kerajaan kecil setingkat Kadipaten kala itu, sebab sebelum wilayah Sumenep dikusai VOC wilayah Sumenep sendiri masih harus membayar upeti kepada kerajaan-kerajaan besar Singhasari , Majapahit , dan Kasultanan Mataram. Istilah penyebutan Karaton apabila dikaitkan dengan sistem pemerintahan di Jawa saat itu, merasa kurang tepat karena karaton Sumenep memeliki strata tingkatan yang lebih kecil dari bangunan keraton yang ada di Jogjakarta dan Surakarta.

Karaton Sumenep sebenarnya adalah bangunan kediaman keadipatian yang pola penataan bangunannya lebih sederhana dari pada keraton-keraton besar seperti Jogjakarta dan Surakarta. Namun perlu dimaklumi bahwa penggunaan penyebutan istilah karaton sudah berlangsung sejak dulu kala oleh masyarakat Madura, karena kondisi geografis Sumenep yang berada di daerah mancanegara wilayah pesisir wetan yang jauh dari Kerajaan Mataram.

Karaton Panembahan Somala dibangun di sebelah timur karaton milik Gusti R. Bangunan Kompleks Karaton sendiri terdiri dari banyak massa, tidak dibangun secara bersamaan namun di bangun dan diperluas secara bertahap oleh para keturunannya.

Ayu Rasmana Tirtanegara. Di depan keraton, ke arah selatan berdiri Pendapa Agung dan di depannya berdiri Gedong Negeri sekarang Kantor Disbudparpora yang didirikan oleh Pemerintahan Belanda. Konon, Pembangunan Gedong Negeri sendiri dimaksudkan untuk menyaingi kewibawaan keraton Sumenep dan juga untuk mengawasi segala gerak-gerik pemerintahan yang dijalankan oleh keluarga Keraton.

Selain itu Gedong Negeri ini juga difungsikan sebagai kantor bendahara dan pembekalan Karaton yang dikelola oleh Patih yang dibantu oleh Wedana Keraton. Pintu gerbang ini sangat monumental, pada bangian atasnya terdapat sebuah loteng, digunakan untuk memantau segala aktifitas yang berlangsung dalam lingkungan keraton. Konon jalan masuk ke kompleks keraton ini ada lima pintu yang dulunya disebut ponconiti. Saat ini tinggal dua buah yang masih ada, kesemuanya berada pada bagian depan tapak menghadap ke selatan.

Pintu yang sebelah barat merupakan jalan masuk yang amat sederhana. Di bagian pojok disebelah timur bagian selatan Labhang Mesem berdiri Taman Sare tempat pemandian putera-puteri Adipati dimana sekelilingnya dikelilingi tembok tembok yang cukup tinggi dan tertutup. Sedangkan di halaman belakang keraton sebelah timur berdiri dapur, sebelah barat berdiri sisir tempat tidur para pembantu keraton, emban, dayang-dayang Puteri Adipati , di sebelah barat terdapat sumur.

Di depan sumur agak ke arah barat berdiri Keraton Ratu R. Ayu Rasmana Tirtanegara, dan di depannya berdiri pendapa. Namun pada jaman pemerintahan Sultan Abdurahman Pakunataningrat pendapa tersebut dipindahkan ke Asta Tenggi dan disana didirikan Kantor Koneng. Pada Masa Pemerintahan Sultan Abdurrahman, kantor Koneng difungsikan sebagai tempat rapat-rapat rahasia para pejabat-pejabat tinggi Karaton.

Di sebelah selatan Kantor Koneng, di pojok sebelah barat pintu masuk berdiri pendapa paseban. Pada mulanya antara keraton dengan pendopo letaknya terpisah. Namun, pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat, kedua bangunan tersebut dijadikan satu deret. Dahulu, Paseban pendopo ageng difungsikan sebagai tempat sidang yang dipimpin langsung oleh sang Adipati dan dihadiri oleh seluruh pejabat tinggi karaton yang waktunya dilaksanakan pada hari-hari tertentu.

Paseban sendiri diurus oleh mantri besar dan dibantu oleh kebayan. Di sebelah selatan Taman Sare berdiri Pendapa atau Paseban dan sekarang dijadikan toko souvenir. Di sebelah selatan keraton terbentang jalan menuju Masjid Jamik Sumenep ke arah barat , sedangkan ke arah timur menuju jalan Kalianget. Di sebelah timur keraton adalah perkampungan,dan di arah timur jalan adalah Kampong Patemon.

Dari jalan Dr. Sutomo ke arah timur terdapat jalan menurun, sebelum tikungan jalan berdiri pintu gerbang keluar atau Labang Galidigan. Di sebelah barat pintu keluar terdapat jalan menurun, bekas undakan tujuh. Di sebelah selatan jalan undakan terdapat Sagaran atau laut kecil merupakan tempat bertamasya putera-puteri Adipati.

Sekarang Sagaran tersebut ditempati perumahan rakyat dan lapangan tennis. Di sebelah barat lapangan tennis, berdiri kamarrata merupakan tempat kereta kencana, dan dibelakangnya berdiri kandang kuda lengkap dengan dua taman. Komplek keraton Sumenep justru tidak menghadap ke barat tetapi ke selatan. Dari legenda tersebut menimbulkan dogma turun temurun bahwa rumah tinggal yang baik harus menghadap ke selatan. Hal ini merupakan usaha perencanaannya untuk memberikan kesan agung dan berwibawa dari kompleks ini.

Maksudnya alun-alun sebagai pusatnya. Bila menghadap lurus ke barat dimaksudkan kita berhubungan dengan Tuhan kiblat di Masjidil haram dan kita temukan Masjid jamik. Sebaliknya bila kita menghadap ke timur dimaksudkan berhubungan dengan manusia dan kita dapatkan keraton Sumenep. Hal ini juga dapat dikaitkan dengan ajaran agama Hindu yang mengatakan bahwa timur, arah tempat matahari terbit adalah lambang kehidupan, jadi tempat manusia di alam dunia.

Sebaliknya barat tempat matahari terbenam adalah lambang kematian, lambang akherat, dan lambang ketuhanan. Prasasti keraton Sumenep berisi wasiat Panembahan Somala tentang kompleks bangunan Karaton dan sekitarnya. Semoga Allah SWT memberi ampun baginya dan kedua orang tuanya.

Inilah bangunan serta tanah yang tidak dapat dirusak dan tidak dapat diwaris sebabb bangunan termasuk tanah tersebut adalah wakaf yang diperuntukkan untuk kebutuhan orang fair dan orang miskin. Saya memberi perintah kepada sekalian keturunan, atau kalau tidak ada sanggup, kepada lainnya guna memperbaiki mengawasi dan memlihara bangunan-bangunan dan tanah tersebut, bagi keturunan lainnya yang telah memlihara dan mengawasi wakaf itu semoga Allah SWT, mengaruniai keselamatan dunia maupun akherat.

Selain memiliki kemegahan bangunan, Karaton Sumenep juga memiliki suatu warisan budaya yang tak ternilai. Pada awalnya tari Gambu lebih dikenal dengan Tari keris, dalam catatan Serat Pararaton tari Gambu disebut dengan Tari Silat Sudukan Dhuwung, yang diciptakan oleh Arya Wiraraja dan diajarkan pada para pengikut Raden Wijaya kala mengungsi di keraton Sumenep.

Tarian tersebut pernah ditampilkan di keraton Daha oleh para pengikut Raden Wijaya pada perayaan Wuku Galungan yang dilaksanakan oleh Raja Jayakatong dalam suatu acara pasasraman di Manguntur Keraton Daha yang selalu dilaksanakan setiap akhir tahun pada Wuku Galungan. Tari Keris ciptaan Arya Wiraraja ini lama sekali tidak diatraksikan. Mowang berarti membuang, Sangkal berarti sukerta, dan sukerta artinya gelap sesuatu yg menjadi santapan sebangsa setan, dedemit, jin rayangan, iblis, menurut ajaran Hindu.

Sedangkan sangkal adalah mengadopsi dari bahasa Jawi Kuno yang maksudnya Sengkala sengkolo. Dan kemudian gerakannya tambah halus, gerakan yg lebih halus inilah mengisyaratkan para putri sedang berjalan di Mandiyoso korridor keraton keraton menuju Pendopo Agung Keraton. Zulkarnaen, Iskandar. Sejarah Sumenep. Sumenep: Dinas Pariwisata dan kebudayaan kabupaten Sumenep. The original palace was built in as a country retreat for the Dutch Governors. This building was substantially damaged by an earthquake in , triggered by the volcanic eruption of Mount Salak.

The palace was rebuilt into its present form in — this time with only one story instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes. After the Indonesian independence, the palace was used by President Sukarno, but then largely neglected by Suharto when he came to office.

The grounds of the estate contain several buildings — the largest of which is the main palace and its two wings. The Palace is surrounded by the largest and most famous botanical gardens of South-East Asia. An area of , square metres The extensive grounds of the presidential palace were later converted into a botanical garden by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt.

Today the garden contains more than 15, species of trees and plants located among streams and lotus ponds. There are types of exceptional palms to be found along the extensive lawns and avenues, helping the gardens create a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees. Om er voor te zorgen dat Weltevreden een aantrekkelijk gebied zou worden voor de nog in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen, liet Daendels de later beroemde Societeit De Harmonie bouwen, nummer 29 op onze kaart.

Inderdaad wat moeilijk te vinden :. In het noorden van de kaart, bij de Kleine Boom, loopt de rivier de Tjiliwoeng. Daar waar de Tjiliwoeng naar het Oosten afbuigt, begint een kanaal met Tramway ernaast, het kanaal werd Molenvliet genoemd. Trambaan en Molenvliet buigen op een gegeven moment naar het Oosten en daar op die hoek lag Societeit De Harmonie. Een klein stukje naar het Noorden aan de Westkant van Molenvliet, links van het woord wijk Noordwijk ligt ons nummer 10, Hotel Des Indes.

Ten Zuiden van Noordwijk, aan de andere kant van het Molenvliet, lag de wijk Rijswijk met het beroemde Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein, over deze twee pleinen en Societeit De Harmonie zal Aad het ooit ook nog eens gaan hebben…. We ontvingen, samengevat, deze vragen, allemaal verband houdend met de naam Rijswijk, een chique wijk in Batavia, vooral in de 19e eeuw:.

We kunnen hierover het volgende vertellen, het is inderdaad een beetje ingewikkeld en soms heel verwarrend……:. Ten zuiden van Batavia, een maand na de bouw van het Fort Jacatra, werd in augustus het vierhoekige redoute. Fort Rijswijk werd aan de oostzijde van de rivier de Krokot gebouwd te midden van de.

De eerste die dit deed, was Gouverneur-Generaal Jacob Mossel. Ook zijn opvolgers trokken zich geregeld terug in dit fraaie buitenverblijf. Siege of Semarang is unsuccessful. Valckenier is himself eventually arrested and jailed. Cakraningrat IV retakes Kartasura from the rebels. VOC troops defeat the last of the Chinese forces; a general amnesty is declared. VOC receives a say in court appointments.

VOC takes Bawean island. Malaria epidemic in Batavia. The VOC did not take up this option but instead in pressed the king to lease to the VOC the entire north coastal region. Despite opposition from within the court, the king acquiesced, prompting a further rebellion, led by the capable Pangeran Mangkubumi.

There was almost constant conflict over land between the three authorities until a more detailed settlement was reached in Hussin Kamaluddin became Sultan of Brunei until the year for the second time. Ship Dragon and pepper in Banjarmasin Onflow load. VOC establishes a presence at Banjarmasin. The treaty is widely ignored. Mangkubumi claims the title for himself, and rules from Yogya.

Aan het eind van de 18e eeuw was het buitenverblijf van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Weltevreden weer verouderd. Gouverneur-Generaal Van Imhoff was de eerste die al mocht gaan bouwen in een gebied wat Van Imhoff noemde. Dalam tahun tersebut ibukota Kabupaten Bogor masih berkedudukan di Tanah Baru. Pada tahun tersebut, di Kota Bogor belum ada orang asing, kecuali Belanda. Letak Kampung Bogor yang awal itu di dalam Kebun Raya ada pada lokasi tanaman kaktus.

GG Van Imhoff was de man betrokken bij de beruchte moord op de Chinese bevolking in en rondom Batavia in Sumatra, second half of 18th century. The sultan fled to Trengganu, which enjoyed a brief heyday as the centre of Malay power on the peninsula, though its power never extended beyond the east coast.

Johor, meanwhile, came under the control of Bugis adventurers from Sulawesi, who also established the new state of Selangor between Melaka and Perak. The first domino that would eventually precipitate the sheering off of half the kingdom, however, fell in Batavia in , when the inhabitants went on the rampage and slaughtered the entire Chinese population of the VOC capital.

The rebel Chinese band whose arrival had prompted the slaughter, bolstered by the handful of angry survivors, rattled off along the Pasisir, their black pigtails swinging, their sharp knives flashing in the scorching sunlight. For much of the coming year it looked as though they would overwhelm the Dutch in the VOC outposts all along the coast. New rebellions blossomed spontaneously in their wake, and they began to bear down on the Mataram capital, drawing in local malcontents along the way.

He was one of the more useless scions of the Mataram dynasty, and the Queen of the Southern Ocean was evidently not advising him well, for he now decided to throw his lot in with the rebels. There had been slowly simmering hostility to the Dutch for decades in Mataram despite the fact that the foreigners had become a near-essential part of the scene. By the s the VOC was bankrupt and its armies were exhausted from an endless round of mercenary work in Central Java, and for a while it really did look as though the Chinese-led rebellion might be the end of their adventure.

Pakubuwono II enthusiastically ordered the annihilation of the little Dutch garrison in the Mataram capital. When its occupants were captured they were offered the unenviable choice of either conversion to Islam by immediate circumcision, or death by beheading. Most went for the lesser chop. Pakubuwono now realised that he had made a horrible mistake: he begged forgiveness of the Dutch.

The Europeans were still not in a position to turn down such an opportunity; they accepted the apology, and as a consequence the rebellion — which by now was more Javanese than Chinese — turned abruptly against the king. He ended up a wretched vagabond, and his vacant court was sacked twice in five months — first by the rebels, and then by the Madurese warlord.

But, it seems, the very idea of Mataram had been mortally wounded by the whole sorry business. The Queen of the Southern Ocean had had enough. The bruised, battered and reconstituted court over which Pakubuwono II ruled in the wake of the Chinese rebellion had lost much of its authority.

A Javanese king would never have real legitimacy — and never achieve real success — without the advice and approval of his courtiers. In fact, it was often said that the most perfect Javanese king was one who acted as nothing more than a passive receptacle for the sacred energy of the realm, a figurehead who handed the practical matters to his patih — his prime minister — and his circle of advisors. It was hardly democracy, but it did rely on a kind of assent.

And in the s Pakubuwono II had clearly lost it. Siak meanwhile extended its power northward along the Sumatra coast as far as Tamiang. Although Siak was still nominally a vassal of Johor until , when the sultan ceded it to the VOC, in practice it was independent of all outside powers.

The greatest power on the island, however, was Palembang, which grew wealthy from the tin mines on the island of Bangka. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin r. Because Bangka and Belitung had been seriously depopulated by the slave-raiding of the previous century, however, the sultan encouraged Chinese miners to settle and work the deposits.

By the middle of the century they dominated production. And once again, through a complex chain of events, it was the Dutch themselves who inadvertently precipitated the conflict. The details of the struggles are too convoluted to follow here, but it began in with the massacre of the Chinese residents of Batavia, and ended 15 years later, only after many bloody battles broken alliances and kaleidoscopic shifts of fortune had exhausted or killed almost everyone on the island.

Indeed Java was never the same again, for by the Treaty of Giyanty, Mataram had been cleft in two, with rival rulers occupying neighboring capitals in Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Nor did the VOC ever recover from this drain on its resources, even though it emerged at this time as the pre-eminent power on Java.

In the rainy February of , trying to start afresh, he had abandoned the old, oft-sacked capital at Kartasura and had the whole court shunted seven miles east to the village of Solo where a grand kraton with a reversed name was built. The sacred banyan trees that pinned the Alun-Alun, the Royal Square, were uprooted and transplanted to this new town of Surakarta.

The move apparently was an auspicious one, for this new kraton city would survive into the modern era, but it did little for the fortunes of the man who had organised it. There were still rebel princes rattling around the borderlands, the most notable of whom was a nephew of the king called Mas Said.

He was, it was said, a very small man, but like Colonel Rollo Gillespie he more than made up for it. He hated the Dutch, despised the decayed corruption of the court, and clothed himself in all the righteousness he could find in both Islamic and Javanese lore. The hapless Pakubuwono II made an offer to the men of his court: if any man could drive the little rebel out of his stronghold on the northern fringes of Mataram, then he would grant him a little kingdom within the kingdom: the direct rule — and the direct income — of households.

His name was Mangkubumi, and he was destined for great things. Mangkubumi was indeed able to drive Mas Said from his stronghold; Pakubuwono II, however, was not able to keep his promise. He deferred; he bided his time — but not for much longer. He was there to hammer out more beneficial terms for the lease of the Pasisir, and he did not follow courtly etiquette. He was abrupt in his manner. He demanded that the Javanese cede these coastal territories entirely in return for the fairly paltry sum of 20, Spanish dollars a year.

A stronger king would have said no, but Pakubuwono II was no strongman; he said yes. Mangkubumi, still smarting from the broken promise, was furious. For one thing, he felt, the Dutch had set the rent far too low. But more importantly, the king had violated that Javanese ideal of courtly assent: he had made a unilateral decision. In the account of the final break between the half-brothers recorded in the courtly chronicles, the exchange is full of soft, restrained, refined rage.

With those devastatingly understated words Mangkubumi launched a civil war that would last for a decade, and that would not end until Mataram was split down the middle. They thundered through the green heartlands of Java, and within a year had gathered a righteous army of 13, men. All the rebels, all the malcontents and rabble-rousers who had been spawned by the generations of unrest now had a man they could flock to with conviction.

Back in Surakarta, meanwhile, the hapless Pakubuwono II was almost certainly clinically depressed. Though he had somehow held on to his throne and founded a fine new capital, his entire reign could only really be judged a disaster. It is unsurprising therefore that he seems to have decided that it was time to die. He no longer cared about the kingdom, and when the Dutch Governor of the Pasisir arrived to visit him on his deathbed he made him an offer that his half-brother would most certainly have considered unfitting, that left even the Dutch taken aback: he offered to hand over Mataram to the Governor.

The VOC could have his kingdom if only it would earn him a final moment of peace. The flabbergasted colonial officials hurriedly battered out a treaty to that effect — though they realised that with 13, men and a pair of rebel princes just 40 miles down the road it was hardly worth the fine parchment on which it was so lavishly inscribed. They also realised that with his mind now at ease the old king might relax a little and take his time over dying. There was no sense in waiting; they needed to get the pliant Crown Prince onto the throne as quickly as possible while the treaty still held.

There was a little initial difficulty over this, for it transpired that the old man had recently attempted to stab his heir with a kris and had banned him from the inner sanctum of the Surakarta Kraton. It was perhaps forgivable: between interminable rebellion and impending death, he had been under a lot of stress.

The issue was eventually resolved, and on 15 December Susuhunan Pakubuwono III, the last king of united Mataram, was placed on the Surakarta throne with Dutch patrons in attendance. The old king died peacefully five days later.

The civil war was going to get much worse before it ever got better. As a new decade rumbled on, so did the fighting. For the best part of a century the Dutch VOC had been entangled in the affairs of Mataram, and though they had always looked to earn cash or the territory for their involvement, their fundamental goal had remained the same — to stabilise the kingdom, to steady the throne when it tottered, and to make sure that the man upon it was someone they could work with.

But by the s they were exhausted — financially, physically, and imaginatively. This rebellion was worse than any of the others, worse even than the Chinese upheavals of the previous decade. They could keep Pakubuwono III who seemed to be every bit as lonely and miserable as his deceased father safe in his Surakarta Kraton, but even the thought of taking on the ascendant rebels was beyond their capabilities.

After another six years of war, the VOC and Mangkubumi finally reached an agreement,. The low country of Central Java, cradle of the Mataram realm, and of the great temple-building Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms before it, opened under a fine, bluish haze to the west. Here and there trails of wood-smoke rose into the still, damp air, and away to the south, beyond a few low ridges, the land faded towards the angry Southern Ocean.

In the distance to the west Gunung Merapi loomed, dark and unassailable against a pearly sky. The two Javanese royals, sitting a few feet apart at a heavyset table carried into place for the meeting, could hardly look at each other. They could hardly speak. A temporary pavilion had been built here at the little village of Jatisari, on the outer ramparts of Mount Lawu, above the court city of Surakarta.

At a respectful distance grooms were minding fine Bima horses with richly inlaid bridles. Courtiers in full regalia were watching from the side-lines, and a gamelan orchestra was in full flow beneath an awning. Every effort had been made to make the setting softly suitable, to make the meeting as easy as possible.

But the royals — uncle and nephew, with the older man in the role of young pretender — were overcome with emotion. This was not the conclusion either had wanted; in fact no one at Jatisari on 15 February really imagined that it was a conclusion, at least not one that would still be holding good centuries later. It was left to the host, a Dutchman, to ease things along. This, he declared, was a special moment; after decades of turmoil there was finally peace in Java. When he had finished he took the hands of the two men — Susuhunan Pakubuwono III, and his uncle, officially recognised just a few days earlier at a spot higher up the mountain as the first sultan of what was to become Yogyakarta.

Hartingh raised the pair of limp, clammy palms above the table, and called for three glasses of beer. Finally, falteringly, the Susuhunan and the new Sultan regained their words, and nudged gently onwards by the Dutchman they swore to fight each other no more, and to join forces against a certain rebel prince, somewhere at large in the swathe of green territory below them.

All three men raised their glasses and drank. As a token of friendship the Susuhunan offered his uncle a sacred kris, an heirloom dagger loaded with energy and power — the very kind of relic that the Sultan of a new court needed. The kris had a black handle and a slender blade marked with strange whorls. It had belonged, it was said, to one of the nine semi-mythical holy men who had brought Islam to Java several centuries earlier. And with that the meeting was over.

There was a moment of embarrassed confusion — such an encounter had never before taken place; there was no protocol over who should leave first. The Susuhunan rode away towards Surakarta with Hartingh by his side. The new Sultan rode back up the slopes to his temporary camp. After almost turbulent years the mighty realm of Mataram had been cleaved in two. By the time the Hartingh presided over the signing of the Treaty of Giyanti, the mighty kingdom of Mataram had fallen far from glory.

He spoke Javanese; he was well-versed in the lore, the law and the lie of the land, and he opened a creeping correspondence with the rebel king. Mangkubumi himself was looking for a way out. Over the hot months of he and Hartingh — their messages borne by a mysterious Turk who had materialised in Central Java — edged towards a possible solution: they would split the kingdom.

On 13 February at Giyanti, a misty, murky spot perched high on the slopes of Mount Lawu, Mangkubumi met with Hartingh to sign a contract. It gave the rebel half the Mataram realm, and half of the 20, dollar rent for the Pasisir too.

But still, they had a certain grandeur, an aura, a charisma. With the contract signed Hartingh led Mangkubumi to a makeshift throne, and as he climbed up onto it he became the officially recognised Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. Those amongst the watching Javanese who were well steeped in the ancient texts and the rhythms of the wayang kulit noticed something at once: sitting there on the slopes of Mount Lawu with all Java beneath him,.

Mangkubumi, a Muslim prince who had just taken the Islamic title of Sultan, looked for all the world like the Wishnu, the Hindu god who, in the Javanese telling of the tale, is the saviour of mankind in troubled times. Two day later the whole party rode down the lower slopes to that spot at Jatisari where a gamelan was playing and Pakubuwono III was waiting with tears in his eyes.

From now on what had once been Mataram would have both a Susuhunan and a Sultan. Ask any modern Indonesian high school student who has managed to stay awake during history class about the Treaty of Giyanti, and they will tell you without blinking that it was a classic case of imperialist divide and rule, the horrible Hollanders at their very worst. The idea of splitting the kingdom was as much Javanese as Dutch, and not without precedent. Other rumpled realms had been divided between warring sons the mighty11 th century ruler Airlangga actually pre-emptively split his realm between his children, for example.

It was always a last resort, but it was never meant to be final. It would allow breathing space, perhaps for a generation or more, but eventually some all-conquering king would reassert himself. That was how it had always been, and there is nothing to suggest that, as they rode away from Jatisari in the cool mists of February , either the Javanese kings or the accompanying Dutchman ever supposed that this time things would prove different. And in any case, even if Nicolaas Hartingh had been planning to create a permanently hobbled native realm in , even if he had been planning to replace one all-powerful state with two petty principalities, the policy would have been a notable failure.

For decades, for whole generations, Mataram had been hopelessly unstable; by the end it had become a joke. But the partition had an unexpected consequence: after flickering, fading, guttering and all but vanishing, the light, the lustre, the sacred sparkle, was back on in Central Java, and the great courtly realm of Yogyakarta had come into being…. Mangkubumi took the title of Sultan and the regnal name Hamengkubuwana, and established his capital in the town of Yogyakarta, while Pakubuwana III remained as Susuhunan in the older city of Surakarta.

Akhirnya pada tanggal 13 Februari dilakukan penandatanganan naskah Perjanjian Giyanti yang mengakui Mangkubumi sebagai Sultan Hamengkubuwana I. Wilayah kerajaan yang dipimpin Pakubuwana III dibelah menjadi dua. Hamengkubuwana I mendapat setengah bagian. Perjanjian Giyanti ini juga merupakan perjanjian persekutuan baru antara pemberontak kelompok Mangkubumi bergabung dengan Pakubuwono III dan VOC menjadi persekutuan untuk melenyapkan pemberontak kelompok Raden Mas Said.

Dari persekutuan ini dapat dipertanyakan; Mengapa Mangkubumi bersedia membagi Kerajaan Mataram sedangkan persellisihan dengan menantunya Raden Mas Said berpangkal pada supremasi kedaulatan Mataram yang tunggal dan tidak terbagi? VOC mendapat keuntungan dengan pembagian Mataram. Sejak Perjanjian Giyanti wilayah kerajaan Mataram dibagi menjadi dua. Mangkubumi sekarang sudah memiliki kekuasaan dan menjadi Raja maka tinggal kerajaan tempat untuk memerintah belum dimilikinya.

Hamengkubuwana I memutuskan untuk membuka Hutan Pabringan sebagai ibu kota Kerajaan yang menjadi bagian kekuasaannya. Sebelumnya, di hutan tersebut pernah terdapat pesanggrahan bernama Ngayogya sebagai tempat peristirahatan saat mengantar jenazah dari Surakarta menuju Imogiri. Oleh karena itu, ibu kota baru dari Kerajaan yang menjadi bagiannya tersebut pun diberi nama Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, atau disingkat Yogyakarta. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not says this writer, who here concludes his abstract with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.

Seiring berjalannya waktu nama Yogyakarta sebagai ibu kota kerajaannya menjadi lebih populer. Kerajaan yang dipimpin oleh Hamengkubuwana I kemudian lebih terkenal dengan nama Kesultanan Yogyakarta. Pontianak Sultanate supported establishment of the VOC in the estuary of the river Hedgehogs Hedgehogs originally protested because it is a territory but eventually loosens the pressure of the VOC.

On August 13,. Tatas fort was built on the island of Tatas, New York. Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi. Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi A montage of extremely rare E. Helena is made from black and white illustrations. The London E. The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August , and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year.

Other authorities place these events in In the final years of the century, the rulers of Pontianak claimed Sanggau, Landak, Matan and Tayan as vassals, but they never ruled those areas directly. North of Pontianak, the states of Sambas and Mempawah were transformed from about by the arrival of Chinese miners to work the gold fields of the region.

The miners came at first at the invitation of the local rulers, but their commercial organizations, or kongsi , soon developed into small republics virtually independent of the rulers. States of a different kind also emerged in this era in the interior of western Kalimantan, along the Kapuas River and its tributaries.

For the most part, the elites of these states were Malays, often with trading interests, who established varying degrees of hegemony over the indigenous Dayaks. The largest of these states, Sintang, was moderately significant, but the states further upstream were small, sometimes claiming only a few hundred subjects. Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in or The throne was seized by the maharaja first officer of state named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.

Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer in the year , at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age. It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.

He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea.

The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.

Establishment of a new kingdom at the mouth of the river was originally protested by Hedgehogs Hedgehog Kingdom. This is the territory that originally belonged to the VOC. Most of Borneo submitted become property of the company VOCs. Lan Fong partnership then also sent troops to help force the Sultan of Pontianak. Panembahan Mempawah Panembahan Mempawah defeated then King resigned himself to the Authorship and later settled there.

Age of British Colonialism. He is joined by Pangeran Mas Said. VOC reestablishes presence in Perak. Bank van Leening founded by VOC to support trade. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr.

Holloway a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. The Captain further remarks that when again there in he could not obtain an audience. Banten joined Pontianak in in an attack which utterly destroyed the city. The royal family of Sukadana continued to rule the minor state of Matan Kayung , but Sukadana was abandoned and Pontianak became the main centre of trade on the west coast.

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, first half of 18th century. During the second half of the 18th century, VOC power became increasingly decisive in the international politics of the Melaka Strait region. In , the Company gained sovereignty over Banten, giving it a legal claim to Lampung. It was also engaged in a protracted struggle with the Bugis on the peninsula and in the Riau archipelago during which the Bugis occupied Kedah and the Dutch briefly took Selangor and sacked Bintan yet again.

Johor, which still had little presence in the Malay Peninsula, came under Dutch influence and was under effective Dutch rule until The west coast of Sumatra, meanwhile, became the scene of sporadic competition between the colonial powers. The vague understanding which gave the north to the VOC and the south to the British broke down when the British established forts at Poncang Kecil and Natal on the Tapanuli coast in , though these posts never grew into a significant colonial presence.

In the south, Bencoolen was briefly occupied by French forces in The eaeth from this ditch was placed between the original outer wall of the fort and a new wall which had been contructed thus making the fort virtually impregnable from gun fire. This work gave the fort the resemblance that is seen today, with the enlarged gun platforms and ramparts.

The french used the fort as aprison for the East India company garrison, but affer some decimation of his force by a variety of fevers, the french commander abandoned Bencoolen and handed the town and fort back to the Ease town and fort back to the Ease India company representative althoug they too had been severely reduced in number owing to sickness and fevers.

The second major geo-political zone to develop in western Indonesia was in Java. In the interior of the island, a combination of rich volcanic soil and abundant rain made the Kedu plain the richest agricultural region of maritime Southeast Asia. Somewhat isolated from the north coast by mountains, the region was less vulnerable than most to sea-borne attack, and its rulers were able to keep the merchant world of the trading cities at bay, with the result that royal authority became more deeply established than elsewhere.

The early history of Kedu is as shadowy as that of the rest of the archipelago. The region may at first have been under the domination of Ho-ling, but in about a king called Sanjaya, a follower of the Hindu god Siva, established a kingdom there which we generally call Mataram.

Sanjaya was probably not an absolute ruler in any sense; he is probably best thought of as a local warlord who managed by a combination of careful alliance and calculated warfare with other warlords to establish himself as the most important power-holder in the plain.

Within a few decades, moreover, and for reasons still not at all clear, his lineage was eclipsed by other rulers who were followers of Mahayana Buddhism and who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sailendra dynasty.

The Sailendras apparently sponsored the construction of the Borobudur, a massive Buddhist stupa, on the Kedu plain, as well as a number of other major monuments. This era of temple construction, which is paralleled nowhere else in maritime Southeast Asia, is a powerful measure of the ability of rulers in Central Java to mobilize the labour of their people on a massive scale.

The disappearance of Ho-ling soon after coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by a Hindu descendant of Sanjaya named Pikatan who restored Sivaitic Hinduism as the dominant religion. Pikatan or his successors were responsible for the construction of the Hindu temple complex of Prambanan and the century or so which followed is generally recognized as a time of cultural florescence, in which Java absorbed and re-worked new elements of Indian culture to create a distinctive indigenous variant of Indian civilization.

In the middle of the 10th century, for reasons which are still not clear, the centre of Javanese power moved from the Kedu plain to the valley of the Brantas River in eastern Java. There, with easier access to the sea, Javanese rulers may have become more closely involved in trade. They were also more vulnerable, and in were badly defeated in battle, probably during an attack from Srivijaya.

Java in turmoil, the Trunajaya rebellion. VOC civil administration in Indonesia, VOC civil administration in central and east Java, VOC civil administration in Ambon, Private estates close to Batavia, about The city of Batavia, on the other hand, gradually developed into a significant urban settlement.

Built at first in Dutch style, with tall buildings facing on to a grid of narrow canals, the city soon spread beyond its old walls. In the newer southern suburbs of the city, called Weltevreden, Dutch architecture was modified to take more account of the needs of life in the tropics. As far as possible, the VOC preferred not to take a direct hand in the day-to-day administration of the territories they dominated.

Rather, they sought to work with established indigenous elites, believing that these elites possessed a political legitimacy as rulers which the Dutch would never have and that Dutch domination thus could be maintained without unduly offending indigenous sensibilities. On Java, they turned for the most part to the bupati who had been regional lords under Mataram and whom they referred to as regenten regents.

The Dutch maintained the bupati as symbols of traditional authority and each bupati had responsibility for law and order in his district. In most regions, however, the bupati were also deeply involved in Dutch economic programmes.

The producers were obliged to deliver the remainder of the crop to the Company, which paid them at half the market rate, in exchange for exempting them from land tax and further feudal services to the bupati. In practice, however, the bupati retained wide powers to tax their subjects on top of the official provisions. This lucrative arrangement remained in force from the early 18th century until Because it possessed only a small agricultural hinterland, it was much more vulnerable than Mataram and its military power was decisively broken in Thereafter, although the Dutch repeatedly nibbled at the boundary with Banten in order to increase the territory around Batavia, and although they forced the sultan to recognize their suzerainty in , the sultanate was left intact.

Only in did the Dutch annex the coastal regions, a prelude to the incorporation of the rest of the territory in VOC extends control over Lampung. Mas Said, now without allies, attacks VOC forces. Java after the Treaty of Giyanti, The Javanese territories continued to be divided into mancanegara and negara agung , as in the time of Sultan Agung, but areas such as Banyumas and Pacitan were now included in the negara agung.

These boundaries remained intact until the end of the century. By the second half of the 18th century, the VOC controlled more than half of Java. Only Banten and a severely truncated Mataram remained outside their control, and in fact the rulers of both territories had formally acknowledged Dutch suzerainty, Mataram in and Banten in Because Dutch dominion had grown gradually under widely differing political and economic conditions, the character of Dutch rule varied from region to region.

The oldest region of Dutch rule — Batavia and its surrounding territories, known as the Ommelanden — had been purged of its indigenous inhabitants soon after the first Dutch settlement and was inhabited in the 18th century by the descendants of immigrants, some free-born, some slaves, drawn from many parts of the archipelago and beyond. Balinese and Chinese were an especially significant component of the ethnic mix on the outskirts of the city. VOC policy had been to support whichever ruler of Mataram they believed could be bent to their interests.

From , their policy was one of divide and rule. The partition of Mataram was repeated in Surakarta in with the installation of another former rebel as prince Mangkunegara I with a domain which was beneath Surakarta in status but not quite subordinate in practice.

The arrangement was made all the more complex by the fact that Surakarta and Yogyakarta territories were scattered across the whole of the remaining former. VOC sends a special ambassador to Banjarmasin. A trade agreement is reached. VOC makes agreements with local chieftains on Timor.

Mas Said agrees to negotiations with the VOC. VOC has control of all the north coast provinces. July The British expedition under the command of Captain Vincent was conflicted by native authority. They refused the British arrival in Bencoolen. In , under an agreement between William of Orange and the British during the Napoleonic occupation of the Netherlands, British forces occupied Padang again, along with Melaka, to exclude the French.

February The British retake the Fort Marlborough. Portuguese build post at Dili, East Timor. Malang now falls under VOC control. VOC forces work to push Balinese out of Balambangan. Syarif Abdurrahman from Arabia founds Pontianak, becomes its first Sultan. The Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen is founded. Its collections would later form the basis of the National Museum and National Library. Kuta Besak is the center court Palembang Darussalam Sultanate, as traditional power centers that experienced the change from middle age into a new era in the 19th century.

Melayu Language Palembang seems to put more emphasis on the meaning of the castle, fortress, stronghold kuto meaning even more defined in terms of the shape of the high fence wall. While understanding more of the country translated. This castle development process is fully supported by all the people in South Sumatra. They also donated building materials and labor executive. Who was the architect, is not known with certainty. There is the suggestion that the architect was the Europeans.

For monitoring the implementation of the work entrusted to a Chinese, who are experts in their fields. As a material for the adhesive cement brick limestone is used in rural areas Ogan River. Limestone material landfills are located in the back of the Land of the Kingdom which is now called the Kapuran Village, and creeks are used as a means of transport is Kapuran River. VOC builds fort on Bintan. February Presidency of Fort Marlborough was set back to Residency administration, and responsible to Calcutta Presidency in India.

It ruled until the end of the colony in on the subject of Anglo-Dutch Treaty Extra troops are sent to Java. Plague in Batavia. Smallpox epidemic on Sumatra. Islamic reform movement grows in Minangkabau. Sultan of Banjar cedes sovereignty to VOC. Gold rush begins in West Kalimantan.

An extrack from the East India company record showing the military establishment of Fort Marlborough for VOC civil administration in Banda, This administrative burden contributed to growing financial difficulties for the VOC during the 18th century. In response, the Dutch sought to drive down the purchase price of produce by various systems of forced delivery which often caused enormous hardship to their Indonesian subjects.

A further problem was high levels of corruption amongst Company officials, despite draconian penalties for those who were caught. Another blow were French raids on Ambon in — which obtained clove plants and allowed the French to begin cultivation of cloves in Mauritius. The consequence was that the Company began to borrow money to pay its still-impressive dividends to investors, thereby digging itself into deeper financial problems.

Many attempts at reform were begun during the 18th century; some of them tightening systems of control, others proposing some liberalization, but entrenched interests in Batavia were able for the most part to prevent reforms from having long-term effect. By the end of the century, the VOC could no longer pay its way, and on 31 December it was formally wound up, its property, debts and interests in the Indies being taken over by the Dutch state.

At that moment, however, not just the system of Dutch rule in the archipelago was in the balance. Dutch power itself appeared likely to disappear in the Napoleonic world war between England and France. Unlike the VOC, it was reconstituted initially after each voyage and then at intervals of four years, so that it did not immediately develop a lasting bureaucratic stucture like that of the Dutch company.

The two companies almost immediately came into conflict over trade in the archipelago, with Governor-General Coen unilaterally declaring Maluku closed to the English in The conflict came to a head in , in the so-called Amboyna massacre, when ten English company agents on Ambon were tortured and executed on charges of conspiring against the VOC. The English briefly established a headquarters at Legundi off the southern tip of Sumatra, but were forced by disease to move first to Batavia and then to Banten.

Their interest, however, was moving towards India and they did not attempt to maintain more than a scattering of small posts in Indonesia from this time. By the English had lost all their former posts and forts in Indonesia, but in the following year they began to develop interests on the western coast of Sumatra, beginning with Pariaman.

These interests grew into control of the southern part of that coast, with a headquarters at Bengkulu Bencoolen , which became a base, according to Dutch complaints, for private English traders to infringe Dutch monopolies throughout the western archipelago. The Stadhouder of the Netherlands flees to London.

The new Republic finds itself in a state of war with Britain. February 7: The Prince of Orange, stadhouder-in-exile of the Netherlands, issues a letter to all colonial governors telling them to surrender to the British. The VOC in Batavia do not comply. British occupy Padang. British occupy Ambon. Riots break out in Maluku between villages. VOC fortress at Ternate refuses to surrender.

The opium trade was of immense importance. Asia was not very interested in European products, but the VOC stimulated the usage of opium. Opium sap was mainly gathered.

Proses pertumbuhan dan perkembangan suatu budaya dapat digambarkan dengan dua model, yaitu sebagai kurva mendatar yang semakin melengkung di ujungnya, atau sebagai jenjang tangga yang semakin menanjak.

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