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To analyze the causes of severe dislocated and subluxated intraocular lenses IOL in capsular bag and the relevancy with abnormal capsular constitution. The abnormality of capsular and the position of IOL were retrospectively analyzed by slit lamp and microscope in dilated pupil. Surgeries were performed in all of 31 cases in order to exchange or reposit the dislocated or subluxated lOL. Among 31 cases, there were 20 cases with the dislocated or subluxated IOL in the earlier postoperative period and 11 cases in the later postoperative period.

The subluxated IOL in 5 cases A upward subluxated IOL developed in one case 3. The subluxatd IOL in the anterior chamber in two cases 6. The size of the IOLs in 2 cases were not matched to the diameter of the capsule bag. The dislocated IOL into the vitreous in 2 cases was caused by the rupture of the superior capsular.

The subluxated IOL in 2 cases 6. The severe disfiguration of the IOL haptic was found in one case. The dislocated IOL in 6 cases A subluxated IOL in one case was resulted from the zonular defects with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

The postoperative corrected visual acuity was 0. There are several causes for the dislocated or subluxated IOL. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii. Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance due to its propensity for intractable multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals. All clinical isolates examined contain a conserved gene cluster, the K locus, which determines the production of complex polysaccharides, including an exopolysaccharide capsule known to protect against killing by host serum and to increase virulence in animal models of infection.

Whether the polysaccharides determined by the K locus contribute to intrinsic defenses against antibiotics is unknown. We demonstrate here that mutants deficient in the exopolysaccharide capsule have lowered intrinsic resistance to peptide antibiotics, while a mutation affecting sugar precursors involved in both capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis sensitizes the bacterium to multiple antibiotic classes.

We observed that, when grown in the presence of certain antibiotics below their MIC, including the translation inhibitors chloramphenicol and erythromycin, A. Hyperproduction of capsular exopolysaccharide is reversible and non-mutational, and occurs concomitantly with increased resistance to the inducing antibiotic that is independent of the presence of the K locus. Strikingly, antibiotic-enhanced capsular exopolysaccharide production confers increased resistance to killing by host complement and increases virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection.

Finally, we show that augmented capsule production upon antibiotic exposure is facilitated by transcriptional increases in K locus gene expression that are dependent on a two-component regulatory system, bfmRS.

These studies reveal that the synthesis of capsule, a major pathogenicity determinant, is regulated in response to antibiotic stress. Our data are consistent with a model in which gene expression changes triggered by ineffectual antibiotic treatment cause A. Anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses following vitreous loss in endocapsular surgery. Full Text Available We used anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses PC IOLs in fourteen eyes with large posterior capsular ruptures.

An endocapsular technique preserved the anterior capsule and facilitated implantation. With a median follow up of 8. One lens was lost in the vitreous and one patient had a clinically significant cystoid macular edema. In the event of a posterior capsular rupture we suggest this technique as an alternative to anterior chamber or scleral-fixated lenses. A case report of intraocular lens luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy. We experienced a case of intraocular lens IOL luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy.

The case was a year-old female in whom an IOL was implanted one year after surgery for giant tear retinal detachment using silicone oil. Four years after the implantation surgery, the patient suffered subluxation of the IOL with the capsular bag. Examinations of the luxated IOL with the capsular bag using a stereoscopic microscope confirmed the presence of silicone oil droplets between the capsule and the IOL.

Adhesion of vitreous body residues was observed in the capsule. Luxation of the IOL was thought to be connected with chronic inflammation resulting from the use of silicone oil and repeated vitrectomy. In addition to examining pathological findings of luxated IOL, it would also be important in the future to identify the pathology of the capsular bag. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report.

Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

Posterior chamber intraocular lens PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL- capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery.

In recent years, late in-t Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract.

We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

Our case is unique, being the youngest amblyogenic age to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. Keywords: posterior capsule rupture, forehead trauma, traumatic cataract, pediatric cataract. Clinically symptomatic renal capsular leiomyomas are rare. Previous research has shown that these tumors are usually well-defined cystic lesions, solid lesions, or a mixture of the two. We report an unusual case of renal capsular leiomyoma which was well defined by ultrasonography, but lacked a well-defined edge in CT.

The reason for the absence of a well-defined tumor edge is probably due to degeneration in certain parts of the tumor resulting in a different degree of enhancement. Thus, the possibility of renal capsular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis whenever a renal mass is found, especially when either CT or ultrasonography shows that the tumor has a smooth, well-defined contour.

Mak, C. The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I eyes A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6.

Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants. Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. Anatomic location has been suggested as a possible risk factor, but rates of CC development vary between studies, often with conflicting results.

This study examines the risk develo Magnetic resonance evaluation of the labral capsular ligamentous complex: a pictorial review. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder is a common imaging test, and in the course of routine evaluation it can provide accurate information regarding the labral capsular ligamentous complex LCLC.

Common patterns of labral injury include fraying, flap tears and labral distraction, which can be readily identified on both coronal and axial planes by paying attention to signal and morphological characteristics. Capsular and ligamentous pathology may be subtle, but is recognizable using a high-resolution technique that has differential contrast between native intra-articular fluid and the adjacent labrum and capsular restraints.

Common patterns of capsular injury include a thickened, hyperintense capsule, sometimes with disruption and retraction. The inferior glenohumeral ligament is the primary stabilizer of the shoulder joint, and although failure of this structure is uncommon, the injury is easily identified. Shoulder instability is a common presentation, the diagnosis of which is dependent upon recognising various injury patterns including Bankart lesions, reverse Bankart lesions, anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion ALPSA and failure of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.

Copyright Blackwell Science Pty Ltd. CT features of malignant hepatic tumors : the significance of capsular retraction. To evaluate the prevalence of capsular retraction in malignant hepatic tumors and the factors involved.

Between January and December , we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of patients with pathologically-proven, peripherally-located, malignant hepatic tumors. We evaluated size, site, portal and hepatic venous obstruction, bile duct dilatation, and liver atrophy in 18 cases involving capsular retraction. Capsular contracture and possible implant rupture: is magnetic resonance imaging useful?

Currently, magnetic resonance imaging is considered the accepted standard to evaluate breast implant integrity. To evaluate its utility in diagnosing ruptured silicone implants in the setting of capsular contracture and to correlate the preoperative assessment of implant integrity with or without magnetic resonance imaging with operative findings, capsulectomies patients with capsular contractures were retrospectively reviewed. In the setting of capsular contracture, physical examination with or without mammogram is as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in determining implant integrity.

Although magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive diagnostic tool, in symptomatic patients with capsular contracture, it cannot be viewed as infallible. To investigate the feasibility of constructing a capsular poly L-lactic acid PLLA ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells using tissue engineering methods.

The capsular ureteral stent was constructed by subcutaneously embedding PLLA ureteral stent in the back of beagles for 3 weeks to induce the formation of connective tissue on the surfaces. After decellularization of the stent, the expanded autologous urothelial cells were seeded on the stent.

The surface structure and cell adhesion of the stent were observed using HE staining, scanning electron microscope SEM and immunocytochemical staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate urothelial cell proliferation on the capsular PLLA ureteral stent and on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft.

HE staining and VIII factor immunohistochemistry revealed numerous capillaries in the connective tissue encapsulating the stent without obvious local inflammatory response. The results of SEM and immunocytochemical staining showed that the capsule contained rich collagenic fibers forming three-dimensional structures, and the seeded autologous urothelial cells could adhere and well aligned on the surface.

MTT assay showed normal growth of the cells on the stent as compared with the cells grown on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. The capsular PLLA ureteral stent allows adhesion and proliferation of autologous urothelial cells and shows a potential in applications of constructing tissue-engineered ureter. Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification.

In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction.

Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants. Preliminary observation about anterior capsular changes in different patients after cataract phacoemulsification. Full Text Available AIM: To compare changes of anterior capsular opening size between complicated and simple cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and foldable IOL implantation. All patients accepted phacoemulsification by the doctor with operation experience of more than 5 cases, and the same 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL was implanted without any complicated happened.

The measured value about anterior capsular area by Image-pro plus 6. Every patient was checked regularly through dilated pupil, take photos by slit-lamp camera and area was measured after operation 1 week, 1 month, 3 and 6 months, then to record the biological changes about anterior capsular in 4 groups.

For high-risk groups, we should prolong the follow-up time, enrich the observation data, and provide the clinical basis for reasonable and preventive intervention. In vivo capsular switch in Streptococcus pneumoniae--analysis by whole genome sequencing. Full Text Available Two multidrug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae - SVT23 capsular type 23F and SVT3 capsular type 3 were recovered from the nasopharynx of two adult patients during an outbreak of pneumococcal disease in a New York hospital in Whole genome sequencing WGS of the two isolates was performed i to test if these two isolates belonging to the same clonal type and recovered from an identical epidemiological scenario only differed in their capsular genes?

WGS demonstrated extensive differences between the two isolates including over single nucleotide polymorphisms in core genes and also differences in 36 genetic determinants: 25 of which were unique to SVT23 and 11 unique to strain SVT3.

Nineteen of these differences were capsular genes and 9 bacteriocin genes. The nature of this determinants remains to be identified. Predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing. Conclusion: Patient age, ASA grade, preoperative haemoglobin and length of nail are reliable predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in extra capsular hip fractures in elderly patients treated with cephalo-medullary nailing and reinforce a selective transfusion policy.

Evaluation of Artisan aphakic intraocular lens in cases of pediatric aphakia with insufficient capsular support. To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after Artisan iris-claw lens implantation in aphakic children with insufficient capsular support.

Patients with anterior chamber depth IOL were included, 18 eyes with subluxated lens and 7 following trauma. The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for traumatic aphakic patients was 0. Values improved at 1 year to 0. Clinical observation of capsular tension ring implantation in congenital lens subluxation treating by phacoemulsification. Visual acuity before and after surgery were examined.

The complications were also recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Two eyes received CTR scleral fixation 3mo after surgery because the IOL decentration aggravated during the follow-up period. The implantation of CTR increase the stability of the capsular bag, improve the safety of surgery, and maintain the right position of IOL.

CTR scleral fixation is a effective supplement for progressive cases. Population-based study of capsular warning syndrome and prognosis after early recurrent TIA. However, it is unclear whether all patients with multiple TIAs are at high early risk of stroke and whether treatable underlying pathologies are more prevalent in this group. Multiple TIAs were not associated with carotid stenosis or atrial fibrillation, and much of the Of the 9 patients with stroke after a capsular warning syndrome, all had the recurrent TIA within 24 hours after the first TIA, and the subsequent stroke occurred within 72 hours of the second TIA in 8.

Capsular warning syndrome is rare 1. A structural investigation of the capsular antigens of some Klebsiella and E. The work described in this thesis forms part of a program concerned with the study of exocellular capsular polysaccharides of some Enterobacteriaceae. Klebsiella and Escherichia coli are of interest because they are often pathogenic to man; E.

The bacterial capsule is the first line of defence of the bacterial cell against attack by the host's immunological defences and administered antibiotics, and thus knowledge of its composition and characteristics is of importance in devising ways of combating infection by these organisms. The structure of the capsular polysaccharide has been investigated employing a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Several oligo-saccharides were isolated and characterized by high resolution 1 H-n.

The E. The emphasis of this research group is centered on the elucidation of the structures of E. The acidic capsular polysaccharide isolated from E. This thesis however represents a transition period in the study of Enterobacteriaceae capsular polysaccharides and so includes the structure elucidation of two Klebsiella polysaccharides, that of the K14 and K68 serotypes, and one E.

Bacteriophage-borne enzyme degradations of Klebsiella K14 and E. The thesis also includes a comparative study of the 0-specific side-chains of the lipo-polysaccharides of E. AIM: To evaluate the clinical results of capsular tension ring CTR implantation in phacoemulsification for eyes with congenital lens subluxation. The complications were also recorded preoperati To evaluate clinical efficiency and safety of the iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring MCTR for the treatment of subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome.

This study comprised 5 patients 7 eyes with Marfan's syndrome and subluxation lens. After 3. After tightening and tying the suture of MCTR, the capsular bag was centered and fixed. The scheimpflug images obtained from the Pentacam demonstrated that the IOL were well centered. The retroillumination photograph indicated that only one eye had obvious posterior capsular opacification. No intraoperative and postoperative complications such as prolapse of vitreous and retina detachment was occurred.

The iris hooks can provide excellent intraoperative capsule-lens stability and facilitate the manipulation during operation. MCTR allows additional suture fixation to the eye wall without damaging the capsular bag and maintains the long-term stability of the intraocular lens. Furthermore, MCTR is helpful for avoiding dislocation of the IOL due to progressive weakening of the zonular fibers in some patients and provides long-term safety. A structural study of the capsular antigens of Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K This thesis discusses the structural study of the capsular antigens of the bacteria, Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K In the elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides chemically based analytical procedures and instrumental analytical techniques were used.

Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for obtaining structural information on poly-, oligo- and di-saccharides and a detailed discussion of this technique, and the results obtained in this study, is given. Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in cases of inadequate capsular support.

To assess the outcomes and analyze complication rates following primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. This is a retrospective interventional case series. Patients with poor capsular support-diagnosed preoperatively or owing to intraoperative complications-were treated with iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. The data were retrospectively analyzed. Iris claw IOL was implanted in-traumatic subluxated cataracts cases The final mean best-corrected logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.

Complications included pupil ovalization in 11 cases Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation provided excellent alternative in patients with inadequate capsular support. The visual outcomes were good along with favorable rates of complications.

The addition of triamcinolone acetonide helps in reducing the chances of cystoid macular edema. Limited capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia for the treatment of frozen shoulder. In light of recent interest in the cost-effectiveness of the treatment options available for frozen shoulder, we aimed to determine the results of limited anterior capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia MUA in the treatment of primary frozen shoulder in terms of patient-related outcomes measure, range of motion and re-intervention rates.

This single-surgeon series included prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing capsular release with MUA from March until June , with a minimum follow-up of 6 months from the index procedure. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score OSS , range of motion and need for re-intervention.

Fifty-four procedures were performed in 52 patients. There was no significant difference in pre-operative and postoperative OSS or range of motion between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic groups. No patients required surgical re-intervention. A combination of limited capsular release and MUA for the treatment of primary frozen shoulder is a safe and effective procedure resulting in marked improvement in pain, function and range of motion. Investigation of vesicle- capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering.

Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases. The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations.

In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations. This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen.

The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage. Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange.

These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes. Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated.

Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines. Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes.

We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system.

Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1. Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction. Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture.

After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis TMG flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold.

Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours.

One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.

The use of breast implants for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has become one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Several breast implants models exist. They differ in their size, filling, shape and characteristic of the shell, which can be smooth or textured.

Capsular contracture is one of the main complications of breast implants. It has been suggested that the use of textured implants could reduce the incidence of capsular contracture. We identified 15 studies overall, of which 13 were randomized trials relevant for the question of interest.

We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of textured breast implants probably decreases the risk of capsular contracture, however, they might be associated to an increased risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Compared with other biomaterials, hydrophilic acrylate provides better uveal biocompatibility, lower adhesion rates of bacteria and silicone oil, and less glare.

Because of reduced capsular biocompatibility, increased fibrosis may initiate dislocation of the intraocular lens IOL. In six eyes of four patients, enhanced fibroses led to IOL dislocation, leading to an IOL exchange an average of 40 weeks after implantation of the same hydrophilic acrylate lens type. The lens type that was implanted was unable to adapt to the massive fibrosis induced by its hydrophilic biomaterial.

The pattern of lens opacification should receive attention when one is choosing an IOL type. Eyes showing pseudoexfoliation syndrome as well as post-uveitis eyes might require a hydrophilic IOL for less cellular reaction, whereas a posterior subcapsular cataract might need a hydrophobic IOL to prevent a massive capsular fibrosis.

In the case of increased capsular contraction, unreflected YAG laser capsulotomy may result in IOL subluxation when the lens design cannot handle capsule shrinkage, as demonstrated here. To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring MCTR in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications.

The preoperative examination included best correct visual acuity BCVA and the presence or absence of phacodonesis, lens decentration and vitreous prolapse. Preoperatively, symptomatic decentration was presented by 10 eyes The preoperative examination revealed vitreous prolapse in the anterior chamber in 9 eyes The influence of injection volume and capsular bag contraction on the refractive power of polymer refilled lenses - a finite element modelling simulation study.

Polymer injection into the capsular bag after phakoemulsification is an interesting and promising approach to lens surgery. Safe clinical application of this technique will require an appropriate estimate of the effect of implantation variables on the lens power. This article details the results of finite element investigations into the effects of the injected polymer volume and capsular bag contraction on the resultant lens power and accommodation amplitude.

An axisymmetric finite element model was created from literature sources. Polymer injection and the capsular contraction were simulated, and their effect on the lens power was calculated. The simulations show that overfilling during polymer injection leads to a refractive power increase of the lens. Capsular bag contraction also results in a power increase.

The calculated accommodative amplitude of the lens is minimally affected by capsular bag contraction but decreases significantly with increased capsular bag stiffness as a result of fibrosis. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability. The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success.

We conducted a review of the literature published up to December on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures.

The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain.

The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae.

In the upper cervical spine C0-C2 , this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In either case, the presence of. Delayed splenic rupture: dating the sub- capsular hemorrhage as a useful task to evaluate causal relationships with trauma. The aim of the paper was to perform a chronological assessment of the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the spleen, to assess the phenomenological order about the sub- capsular hematoma transformation to determine the causal relationship with trauma as hypothetical cause of death.

Time between the traumatic event and delayed rupture of the spleen is within a range of time from one day to more than one month. Data recorded included age, sex, type of trauma, injury severity score, grade of splenic injury, associated intra-abdominal injuries, pathologic specimen evaluation.

Immunohistochemical investigation of perisplenic hematoma or laceration was performed utilizing polyclonal antibodies anti-fibrinogen, CD61 and CD68, and showed structural chronological differences of sub- capsular hematoma. Expression of modification and organization of erythrocytes, fibrinogen, platelets and macrophages provides an informative picture of the progression of reparative phenomena associated with sub- capsular hematoma and subsequent delayed splenic rupture.

Sub- capsular splenic hematoma dating, which we divided into 4 phases, is representing a task in both clinical practice and forensic pathology. Rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL implantation with and without capsular tension ring: refractive and visual outcomes and intraocular optical performance.

To ascertain whether the refractive, visual, and intraocular optical quality outcomes of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens IOL are enhanced by the use of a capsular tension ring. Ninety consecutive eyes from 53 patients age range: 36 to 82 years were divided into two groups: the no ring group comprised 43 eyes implanted with the multifocal rotationally asymmetric Lentis Mplus LS Oculentis GmbH without a capsular tension ring; and the ring group comprised 47 eyes with the same IOL with a capsular tension ring.

Distance and near visual acuity and refractive outcomes were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity, intraocular aberrations, and defocus curve were evaluated postoperatively. Significant postoperative differences between groups were found in sphere, spherical equivalent refraction, and near addition P capsular tension ring for intermediate vision conditions P capsular tension ring. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children.

To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens IOL implantation using capsular tension ring CTR in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Tertiary care setting. We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90 degrees up to degrees after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation.

Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag.

Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate PMMA in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses.

Results : Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Conclusions : Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra- capsular proximal femoral fractures? Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra- capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required.

Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra- capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers. Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan.

Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture. Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra- capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph.

Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made. Vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal capsular group B disease: What have we recently learned? Meningococcal disease remains a feared and devastating cause of sepsis and meningitis.

Disease incidence is highest among infants and children although a significant burden of disease is experienced by adolescents, young adults and those with specific risk-factors. Prevention of disease against capsular groups A, C, W and Y; 4 of the 5 most pathogenic groups is achievable using capsular polysaccharide vaccines. It has only recently been possible to provide protection against capsular group B MenB strains following the licensure of a 4 component group B vaccine 4CMenB in Europe in Following licensure, 4CMenB has been used in specific at-risk groups and in response to outbreaks of MenB disease.

The vaccine was recommended in February for implementation into the UK infant schedule at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, although it has taken over 12 months to resolve procurement discussions to enable implementation. The UK recommendation incorporates prophylactic paracetamol with infant doses when 4CMenB is administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. This is based on recent data demonstrating the ability of paracetamol to reduce fever rates to background levels without impacting immunogenicity.

Post-implementation surveillance will be important to provide vaccine efficacy data as this was not possible to determine in pre-licensure studies due to the relative infrequency of MenB cases. The risk of capsular breakage from phacoemulsification needle contact with the lens capsule: a laboratory study.

To determine capsular breakage risk from contact by phacoemulsification needles by machine and tip type. Experimental laboratory investigation. Infiniti Alcon, Inc. Breakage from brief tip contact with a capsular surrogate and human cadaveric lenses was calculated.

Nineteen-gauge tips had more flow and less unoccluded flow vacuum than gauge tips for both machines, with highest unoccluded flow vacuum in the Infiniti. The gauge sharp tip was more likely than the gauge sharp tip to cause surrogate breakage for Signature with micropulse and Ellips Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.

Breakage rates for sharp gauge Ellips tips were higher than for rounded tips. Factors influencing capsular breakage may include active vacuum at the tip, flow rate, needle gauge, and sharpness. Nineteen-gauge sharp tips were more likely than gauge tips to cause breakage in lower vacuum methods. For higher-vacuum methods, breakage is more likely with gauge than with gauge tips. Rounded-edge tips are less likely than sharp-edged tips to cause breakage.

Copyright Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available The capsular polysaccharide CPS represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens.

Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria.

The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of capsular tissue around failed Ahmed glaucoma valves. Dysregulation of extracellular matrix ECM molecules and cellular factors might contribute to increased hydraulic resistance to aqueous drainage.

Therefore, we examined these molecules in failed AGV capsular tissue. Cellular factors were assessed based on positive cell counts. Histopathologically two distinct layers were visible in capsules. Outer layer labelling however was similar to control tenon's for most ECM molecules. Together these events lead to tissue dysfunction potentially resulting in hydraulic resistance that may affect aqueous flow through the capsular wall. Capsular and thalamic infarction caused by tentorial herniation subsequent to head trauma.

Five patients 4 male and 1 female were observed to have capsular and thalamic infarction ascribed to descending transtentorial herniation DTH caused by head injury. A lucid interval immediately after the trauma and the presence of an epidural hematoma EDH characterized all five case.

The low attenuation implicated the perforating arteries, that is the anterior thalamoperforating and anterior choroidal arteries, suggesting infarcted regions caused by occlusion of these arteries. Findings in the present study suggest that arterial occlusion in closed head injury may result from DTH.

Moreover, infarction may be attributed to the delayed effects of injury. Analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus of Porphyromonas gingivalis and development of a K1-specific polymerase chain reaction-based serotyping assay. Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative obligate anaerobe that is strongly associated with severe periodontitis.

Previous reports showed an association of P. The K1 capsular polysaccharide was found to be more. Se observaron diferencias entre los tratamientos en ML para la capacidad de fagocitosis, el tipo compacto CC fue Isolation of a bacteriophage specific for a new capsular type of Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterization of its polysaccharide depolymerase.

The capsular polysaccharide CPS is an important virulence factor of K. With 78 capsular types discovered thus far, an association between capsular type and the pathogenicity of K. Analysis of a KN2 CPS - mutant confirmed the role of capsule as the target recognized by the antiserum and the phage. A newly described lytic phage specific for KN2 K. Based on its morphological and genomic characteristics, KN was classified as a member of the Myoviridae phage family.

Further analysis of this phage revealed a bp gene encoding a putative polysaccharide depolymerase. A recombinant form of this protein was produced and assayed to confirm its enzymatic activity and specificity to KN2 capsular polysaccharides. KN2 K. We identified a KN2-specific phage and its polysaccharide depolymerase, which could be used for efficient capsular typing. The lytic phage and depolymerase also have potential as.

A medically relevant capsular polysaccharide in Acinetobacter baumannii is a potential vaccine candidate. Concerns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection have increased due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance. In the present study, we determined the capsular polysaccharide CPS structure of A. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of positive strains showed the antibody covered different clonalites of A. These results might lead to the use of the capsular polysaccharide as a vaccine to prevent A.

Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Smooth-surfaced, gel-filled prostheses were implanted in 36 rats. At the end of the 14 weeks, the implants with the surrounding capsules were extracted. Blind macroscopic inspectional evaluation of the capsules was performed, and microscopic capsular thickness measurements were made.

Results: The mean capsular thickness was 0. Conclusion: Daily prophylactic oral administration of Zafirlukast immediately after implantation significantly diminishes the development of fibrotic capsules around the silicone prostheses. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections. Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections.

A total of S. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct. The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions.

To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group SOG showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum.

In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging.

Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. Net technique for intraocular lens support in aphakia without capsular support. This paper describes a modified surgical technique for intraocular lens implantation in aphakic eyes with no capsular support.

Retrospective case series. Seventeen eyes of 17 aphakic patients with no capsule support underwent intraocular lens IOL implantation using a standardized technique in which a net was created at the ciliary sulcus plane with two threads forming a net pattern. The net was used as support for the IOL. In all cases, the IOL was safely implanted and remained stable during the follow-up. In 16 eyes, the IOL remained well centered; in one eye, slight decentration was observed.

Distance-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 4 lines, from 1. This technique might be especially useful in cases of insufficient capsular support associated with tissue loss or iris atrophy. In these cases, iris fixation is not feasible; thus, the only surgical alternative is IOL scleral fixation. Capsular glucan and intracellular glycogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biosynthesis and impact on the persistence in mice. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer.

To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence of these bact To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence Biochemical analyses of the mutants and complemented strains indicated that the synthesis of glucan and glycogen involves Disruption of glgC reduced by half the glucan and glycogen contents of M. Structural studies on some capsular antigens from Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella.

A review of the structural studies of bacterial capsular polysaccharides K-antigens from Escherichia coli E. There is a general trend in the structural elucidation of polysaccharides towards the analysis of higher oligosaccharides. Project title: Installation of water, shower and health workers in I center it of formation for weary women, children and girls of Boassa. Project summary: The entity that wants to develop this project, acquired a terrain and a center of formation is being constructed for the women, children and girls of the neighborhood of Sandongo.

The current project contemplates the realization of the installation of showers, health workers for the reorganization, risk and like this to provide a worthy space and a formation, in good conditions to the beneficiaries. Casa de Nicaragua de Barcelona. Moreover this project is set in the strategies of literacy.

Project title: Strengthening of the capacities of the local authorities and the organizations of neighborhood for the improvement of the living conditions in the District of Ka- Maxakeni. D'aqeusta way intends the population to be the protagonist in the promotion of the Rights, citizenship, culture, health and education.

Project title: Work integration of the youngsters of Xauen into the sector of rural tourism. Project summary: This project will carry out a theoretical complete formation and practical activities with the goal of to know the legal aspects Moroccans of the work of guide of mountain, the formation on the subject of climatology and ecosystem, certainty, activities and basic techniques, first help, logistics I process them they will be carried out with formation recommended by the Town Council of Xauen and the Ministry of Tourism and will be finished with an evidence and appraisals to qualify the level of participants.

Project title: The Multicultural Florida. Project summary: The project that they show has for main goal to contribute to the development of an intercultural consciousness that goes to the understanding of the habits, to culture, to language and to values of the diversity of the users.

From this knowledge and mutual respect, they want to promote the cooperation of the children and youngsters in the area of the interculturalitat, making that this spreads to its families and to the community in general.

Project title: Support to the liability of the right to a life free of violence for the victim women of Colombia. Project summary: The project searches to strengthen the capacities of the victim women of violence and of the made conflict requiring it, to enjoy the right plenum to the truth, the justice and the repair.

Specifically they will reinforce the organizational processes of the women and its capacity of articulation with the social movement of women to fall upon the protection and restitution of its rights. Project title: Holidays in peace for children. Summer Project title: Improving household sewerage system Jorge neighborhood Cassaly. Project summary: The project consists to promoting and improving the health in the centers of special education of the camps of refugees of Tindouf, the activities that they propose to achieve the general goal shown in the project are the purchase and distribution of foods in all centers and the broadcast of this project among the families of the pupils of the centers because of that.

Project summary: The foundation of weary CEB's of Masaya has worked to back up the poorest persons of the city and to give support to its projects. This year they will prioritize the adequacy of the new premises for the disabled ones and disabled without leaving the most urgent things for being able to continue with the child canteen.

Project summary: This project intends to supply the dispensary of medicines with Diffa in order to help the children and girls affected by the noma and other illnesses and lacks. Project title: Creation and training of the net of social lideresas for the decent work in the Salvador.

Project summary: The project consists to sensitizing and forming leader women of communal, social associations and of the informal sector. With this formation, is intended on a part, that the participants are capable of promoting and that to explain in its own environment what the decent work consists of, and for one another, to bring the plans ahead for its effective implantation through the creation of a net of social leader women.

Project title: To consolidate the work of literacy and fix the roof is falling the work of literacy and fixing the ceiling that isfalling down. Project summary: The goal main of the project this year it is to fix the ceiling of the premises where the literacy of the women of the "home of the woman Sonia Bello" is carried out.

Project summary: This project searches to guarantee a better certainty for the pedestrians, for the persons who go about the 5 avenue Sud and the street Texincal, like this how to promote and to organize the activity of 30 small traders of the zone since activities programmed to stimulate the commercial activity as well as the family communal life and the certainty of the pedestrians, in the retrieved public space and orderly will be carried out.

Project title: Reconstruction classrooms for the educational member promotion of the Nursery of Cabrousse. Project summary: It is proposed making the rehabilitation of the covers of the starting recreational centers by those that are in worse conditions of salubrity, using materials and sustainable techniques of construction. Because of the current state of the constructions to rehabilitate, the projected covers have an independent structure of the existing construction.

L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project summary: This entity proposes an audiovisual project focused to foster the solidary activities, the international cooperation and the DD. It has as a goal to introduce the solidary activities that are made in the city of L'Hospitalet from the area of the civil company as well as from the public administrations and to participate in the debate about the best tools and ideas to construct a global world more exactly.

Project title: Realization of two courses about international cooperation, resolution of conflicts and human rights Julios de la Universidad of Barcelona. Project summary: It is about two courses of a week of duration of the University of Barcelona. Every course it consists of 30 hours; it is one: Construction of the peace, human rights and international cooperation and the other one: Current conflicts and international cooperation.

The methodology consists that the registered pupils attend and participate, in theoretical level as well as in pilot, in classes of two hours of duration. In the end a round table will be made with agents importing answer to the initial subject of the course from the world of the cooperation to face.

Project summary: The performance has the goal to strengthen the technical office of urban planning and to endow it with tools to be able to manage growth of the commune and computer equipment to the continuum. The moved volunteers will work policemen and local authorities in technical equipment in order to make aware of the importance to anticipate the growth of the commune and to manage it correctly in the municipal equipment of Oussoye.

Project summary: The project proposes the creation of five community fields of cassava for the five selected cooperatives, it has for goal to promote the paper of the woman in the family economics, to endow the family feeding on the path with independence and with the means to improve of the alimentary sovereignty and to generate economic resources with the sale of products of the earth.

Project summary: This project appears with the severe economic and social crisis that is being lived, they want to put the need to reinforce the nets of solidarity and cooperation of the city in value. Of solidarity with the city and its people and all over. He frequents then, of facing a value in the work of the local associative fabric and like this interacts with the city as a tool of social cohesion especially in this moments so complicated than live the country and also the city.

Project summary: This project is directed towards children and youngsters in school age. Project summary: This entity, it has for main goal to be able to guarantee more that children of The Hospitalet continue having a healthier feeding August of being able to carry out activities that its families can not assume. Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in Hospitalet Nord Project title: Organization of Women and local governments working to improve intervention strategies of violence in 5 districts of El Salvador.

Project summary: The project presented by this entity, wants to contribute to the eradication of violence against women in El Salvador through the implementation of an intervention strategy on violence. This project aims to involve seven women's associations. Project title: Education in time of leisure.

Project summary: This project pursues the goal to create an environment that favors the education, socialization and integration of the children into its community, as continuity and support of the school, offering the community a space of leisure and interaction, making ludic activities as an educational resource, copywriter, socialitzador and integrator and achieving the material resources for the creation of a new space of learning.

Project title: Social and educational project. During the months of stay, the improvement of the health of the children facilitating medical visits and a complete and healthy feeding will be favored. Area of action: L'hospitalet De Llobregat. Project title: Project supply of materials in the hospital Sandiara. Project summary: This project seeks to amend the material damage suffered Sandiara hospital due to heavy rains during Project title: L'H with the Human Rights.

Project summary: This entity together with ASSAT 50, have made a previous job training needs among partners, more to see emerging activities in the town of Hospitalet, which may allow immediate insertion of these people through this training, career guidance prior and follow-up. Project title: Adequacy and construction of the access to the school Balmes- Bata, and development of its sport facilities. Project summary: At present, this entity has the goal to adapt Caves- Bata to the school from the highway until the classrooms, this access has gone from having suffered some works so that the children can go towards the classrooms, to suffer climatic changes of the zone of a constant ruin because of the continua.

Project title: A project socioeducativo with canteen in August for children of the Hospitalet. Project summary: The project consists of the realization of a project socioeducativo with canteen August, it is it proposes a project with the support of the educators of social services and the teachers and educators of the schools, to assure the access of these children with few resources, that but they did not rot to a healthy feeding and at the same time its participation in activities of leisure is the main goal.

Project summary: The Foundation of the CEB's of Masaya has worked Life and Hope to back up the poorest persons of the city and to give support to its projects mainly in the child canteens of the Estate, It is because of that that one of the main goals is the one of guaranteeing the children at least a food on the day.

Project title: XX Party of the Diversity. Project summary: Celebration of the XX Party of the Diversity, this project starts from the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city that intend to sensitize the citizenship in favor of the diversity. The goal of the project the wealth of the cultures and of all the people, through the sensitization in favor of the diversity, communal life of cultures and against the racism and the xenophobia, is motrar.

Area of action: L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in Hospitalet Sud Project title: Human rights and Social Development in Equatorial Guinea: the educational authority without authoritarianism. Project summary: For carrying out this project three lines of performance, thought to fall directly upon the object reality of our worry about the several auditor agents, have been planned: the children, girls and Guinean teenagers.

This set of efforts allows also to face one senior visibility of those of cooperation carried out by this entity. Project title: Itinerant school for the work worthy of the Salvador. The school will perform in the 5 departments of the country where the CTD and the unions adhered to the ETD want to spread its formative programs. Project title: Consolidating the work of literacy and formation of women of the "home of the Woman Sonia Bello" of Rivas.

Project summary: The main goal of the project is the literacy and formation of the women of the "home of the woman Sonia Bello", he intends to overcome the lack of formation and the illiteracy of the women to give possibilities for being able to have a life worthy through the reading and the deed in order to power to broaden its knowledge and to be able to attain works that can be more productive.

Project title: To back up the Salvador in the urbanistic recovery of the historical patrimony of Santa Tecla-. Project title: School of preventive health, incidence and community formality. Project summary: The project East intends to broaden and to update the knowledge and skills towards the preventive health, incidence and community formality of the leaders of three neighborhoods through the implementation of a school of training and community formation, which allows them to offer answers, from the community to the problems of health and the environment.

Project title: Reconstruction of classrooms for the socio-educational promotion of the Nursery of Cabrousse. Project summary: This project proposes making a rehabilitation of the covers of the spaces in worse conditions of salubrity of the nursery, using materials and sustainable techniques of construction.

The general Goal that pursues the project is to increase the human potential in the rural communities of Casamance, Senegal. Project title: Consolidation of the project of Health of the communities that belong to the Parish of S. Project title: Support to education centers in Guinea-Bissau. Project summary: This entity, in order to improve learning and teaching quality has built a library ludo as students from rural areas in their home, no means or conditions to study and to attain all the necessary skills.

Its main objective is to provide these centers the infrastructure to improve the quality of teaching, apranentatge performance and reduce truancy. Project summary: The project that shows this entity, it is audiovisual, that he proposes to foster the solidary activities, the international cooperation and the HR. It has as a goal to introduce the activities that are carried out in The Hospitalet, from the area of the civil company as well as from the public adminstracions, and to participate in the debate about the best iidees tools to construct a global world more exactly and more solidary and balanced socially and economically.

Project title: To conducting two courses on international cooperation, conflict resolution and human rights in Julys of the University of Barcelona. Project summary: This year they look two courses of a week of duration, every course will consist of 30 hours and will be carried out in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, the courses are: Construction of peace, human rights and international cooperation where a reflection on the performances of the international cooperation will be made in the reconstruction of some countries that have suffered a made conflict and the other course; Current conflicts and international cooperation that will be the continuation of the former course where people spoke about contemporary international wars and the treatment of the same ones from the international cooperation.

Project title: Construction of the integral faculty Chiquitana and adequacy ofthe entornourbano. During the execution the third toilet of the faculty will be put in functioning and the outer space with paving of the porches and the habilitation of an outer classroom will be adapted. Project summary: This project, tries to put the work of the local associative fabric in value and like in this interacts with the city as a tool of social cohesion especially in these moments so complicated than vivve the country and also the city.

Project title: Retrieving the human landscape before the conflict strengthening the fabric social-economic through the construction and reconstruction of the houses. Is wanted to create a mixed commission which it is sustained along all the project with the intention of creating the first step of work on the whole and removing a joint work from this encounter for the development of the zone and of the space that the different communities share.

Project title: Commercialization of palm oil for the socioeconomic development of rural zones of Cameroon. Project summary: The objective pursued by this project is to improve the economic and social development of the surrounding villages where installed production unit of palm oil will serve the farmers Nyanon and stocks around. Area of action: Spain, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project summary: The project will improve the management capacity of developing eight local authorities in Mozambique by supporting work in conducting training in institutional management tools in urban or articulating its position as the work network.

Project title: Project of formation of the sanitary community agents of the rural community of Dialakoto. Project title: Construction and starting of an agricultural cooperative in Bonconto,Senegal. Project title: Resetting the medical center in San Francisco Libre.

Project summary: After restoration of infrastructure, you can start treating skin problems, such as psoriasis, exzemes, rheumatic problems, arthritis and others. The treatments will be based thermal water and medicinal mud, combined with massage, using natural treatments for the care of these diseases. Project title: To contribute to the eradication of the discrimination and violence against the women in the Salvador. Project summary: This project intends to contribute to the implementation of the laws to the right to a life free of violence and eradication of the discrimination against the women in the town of San Juan Talpa, of the Department of the Peace, in the Salvador.

Project title: A different world is possible. Project summary: The performance that they show wants to center the policies of Cooperation to the Development and the international solidarity in the organization and development of activities that they sensitize in the population about the importance and the need to sustain. Project summary: The proposed action is intended to provide a comprehensive response to personal vulnerability, social and cultural, to which children are exposed and the neighborhood youth and Collblanc Torrassa.

It aims to provide support to families in order to ensure the children a level of physical and psychological welfare is. Project title: Strengthening and to develop the capacities of settlers, teachers and pupils of community school with emphasis to reduce the bad habits and the good handling of the domiciliary garbage.

Project summary: The project intends to develop a process of education and sensitization in subjects of community health, until coordinated actions with the Center of Health that allows to apply the good habits in the handling of the garbage you would domicile and in coordination with the Units of Environmental Formality of District III, the elimination of the non authorized garbage man. Project summary: The project that shows this entity intends to give continuity to the one that they bring 4 years working with different actors of the education of the children.

Project title: Development of tools for the improvement of the living conditions in the neighborhood of Maxaquenne "to". Project summary: The project has the goal to increase the capacities of the inhabitants of informal fabric neighborhood of Maxaquenne "to" in the defense of its right to the habitat through the empowering of the citizenship in its rights and duties.

Project title: Socio project with canteen in August for children of L' Hospitalet Project summary: The main goal of the project that it shows this entity is to guarantee that 50 children from 3 to 12 years continue having a healthy feeding August to more of being able to carry out activities that its families could not assume. Project title: Support to the economic development of family units, especially with women as a head of family, through the ransom of the ancestral knowledge of the native people Nansa and Misak of the towns of Caldono i Silvia in the department of the Cauca, Colombia, in the use of medicine and aromatic floors for the treatment of diseases and minor illnesses.

Project summary: The project searches to retrieve, to be profitable and to spread the ancestral knowledge with respect to the use of medicine and aromatic floors, of agreement to the uses and habits of the traditional doctors of the native communities of the department of the Cauca, on this occasion, of the native community Misak, in the town of Silvia.

Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in L' Hospitalet Sud. Project summary: The project aims for the execution of a mansion of summer the month of August that one guarantees diet balanced to children of 3 to 12 years of the South zone of L'Hospitalet of families with severe socioeconomic difficulties.

Project title: Construction and starting of a medical dispensary at the school Balmes-Bata. Project summary: The project that shows this entity is member-health worker who gives service to all the members of the educational community to create a small center: pupils, parents, staff and inhabitants of the village of Ntobo, in fulfillment of the development of the goals of the Foundation.

In this way they want to continue carrying out a double function: providing the youngsters and adults of the voltants education and offering a basic health. Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in August for children of L' Hospitalet. Project summary: This entity brings up a project with the support of social services and the teachers and educators of the schools for the realization of a school canteen during the mansion of summer to guarantee a diet balanced for the children with severe socioeconomic difficulties.

Project title: Improvements and equipment at community centers Masaya. Project summary: The project presented by this organization is to bring the soup kitchens and the child care spaces, as well as to enable the adaptation of a place to do the work of farming economically helping some families. The provision of food is distributed in the dining rooms. Project summary: Celebration of the XIX Party of the Diversity, part of the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city which they intend to sensitize to the citizenship in favor of the diversity.

Project title: Answer to the humanitarian crisis in the camps of Sahrawi refugees of Tindouf. Project summary: Guaranteeing the daily minimum caloric contribution, through suitable foods, for the refugees of the Sahrawi camps. Project summary: The goal for this course is to finish the works of construction of the latrines of childish and the purchase of computers for the classroom of computer science.

Project title: School for the decent work in the Salvador. Project summary: The project consists of the equipment and habilitation of the "school of Formation for the Decent Work of El Salvador", which will pay attention to the formation of young union and social leaders every year.

Project title: Capacity building project organizational of union movement in Guatemala to defend the rights and freedom of association and labor. Project summary: The present project aims to contribute to the defense and consolidation of democracy and the rule of law in Guatemala through the promotion and defense of the rights and freedom of association of workers in Guatemala, by strengthening and capacity building Movement Guatemalan indigenous and peasant union.

Project title: Eye of the Sahara Improved system for eye health care in refugee camps of Sahrawis Tindouf. In order to ensure universal coverage and access to eye care and optical services must continue promoting the provision of equipment and medicines. Project title: L'Hospitalet look to Africa. We work to transform social injustices. Project summary: The project's goal is to promote critical global citizenship relations social inequalities and injustice that exist between North and South, experience focusing on Africa in general and in the Ivory Coast in particular, not forgetting inequality situations generated in our immediate environment.

Project summary: The project will offer to the women who come of the slums the possibility to have a worthy work through its training or with the suitable advice to start its own entrepreneurial initiatives. This goal will be attained through a correct identification of you would benefit them and later with formation of courses and workshops.

Project title: Human rights and social development in Equatorial Guinea: "New forms of citizenship. The children and the teenagers like active protagonists of its reality". Project summary: This entity has planned three lines of performance, ideas to fall directly upon the object reality of the one that worries them about the several auditor agents, for itself: the children, and Guinean teenagers. This set of efforts, to, more of facilitating them the real approach to the Guinean citizenship, will allow them to try one senior visibility of the tasks of cooperation carried out by this entity.

Project title: Access and sustainable exploitation of the hydric resources of 94 families farmers of Andhra Pradesh. Project title: For the Peace, say yours about the military expense! Project summary: The project that it shows this entity, wants to sensitize the population to the military expense and to invite to the action to the educational community of L'Hospitalet, in order to facilitate the access to the information to the utmost, a pedagogic dossier will be elaborated about the Spanish military expense and it is also wanted to create an explanatory web page and a poster will be facilitated.

Project title: Home of reception for the girls in situation of risks and social exclusion in Occidental Baruipur in Bengala. Project summary: This performance pursues to reduce the vulnerability towards the abuse and the sexual and work exploitation and the promotion of the fundamental rights, through the provision of integral attention, protection, and surveillance to 39 girls in situation of social deprotection.

The main goal him to offer to the girls the necessary resources to retrieve the childhood marked by the misery and the maltreatment giving the possibility to grow in an environment favorable to the social integration. Project title: Literacy and education of women in the "house of the woman Sonia Bello". Project summary: The project's goal is literacy and education of women in the "house of the woman Sonia Bello", is to overcome the lack of education and illiteracy of women in order to give chances to have a better life by learning reading and writing in order to expand their knowledge, and achieve work that may be productive.

Project title: Support to the urbanistic recovery of the historical patrimony of Santa Tecla - El Salvador. Project summary: The project pursues the goal to increase the use of the public space for the citizenship for the development of activities ludic, cultural and of communal life. Because of that people will work following three lines of work: carrying out actions of conditioning of the urban furniture, exchange of experiences about the use of public spaces with ludic and cultural purposes and to design actions and to stimulate to the participation of the population.

Project summary: The action proposed by the project aims to improve health in the different communities that depend on the Parish of St. Project title: School with nursery school in Bissau. Project summary: This project intends to give formation and to offer an educational basis it consolidates to the children of the neighborhood of Almedalai one of the poorest quarters of the city of Bissau to guarantee them a better future for them and its country. The goal is to offer them a new space adapted to form them and that serves as leisure to them at the same time to vent applying the learned knowledge.

Area of action: Spain, L'hospitalet de Llobregat. Project title: Course "Els Juliols": Violence and resolution of conflicts in the in the contemporary world. Project title: Construction of the fourth phase of the integral faculty of Chiquitana.

It will be made through conference of voluntary work and several acts of broadcast in the different media to continue introducing the faculty and the importance to continue being educated. Project summary: The goal of the project is to guarantee the rights of access to the culture and artistic expression, the education including the leisure and the recreation and the child participation, recognized in the Convention of the rights of the children and to spread its contents among the NNA, the families and the community.

Is searched to sensitize and to promote these rights among the Haitian population and to promote these rights to the children who live in the centers of welcome. Project title: Waste of foods: a problem of the North that affects the South. Project summary: The project that is shown wants to incorporate the phenomenon of waste into the work and speech of sensitization and EpD, focusing on the waste of the foods since it is a fact that it is given to all the food chain, and not only in the final phase.

Project title: Strengthening of the Association of persons with disability "Struggling for a future". Project summary: This project is sent to strengthen the Association of persons with disability "Struggling for a future", through the implementation of a process of training for the rights with an approach of gender and disability with the purpose that the women of this organization assume a protagonist and propositive role in the inland of its organization.

Project title: Analysis of the causes and the effects of the anticooperation about the Human Rights in the impoverishment of the people. Project summary: The purpose of this project is to propose another look in the relations between the North and the South, following the basis of the need to foster the sensitization among the population of L'Hospitalet de Llobregat about the existence of these actors and mechanisms that they affect in form negative in the integral development of the people of the South.

Project title: Development of tools for the improvement of the living conditions in the neighborhood of "Maxaquenne A". Project summary: The project has the goal to increase the capacities of the inhabitants of the neighborhood of informal fabric of "Maxaquenne A", of the defense of its rights in the Habitat, through the development of technical tools and of the empowering of the citizenship in its rights and duties, as well as in the evolutionary improvement of its services human basic.

Project title: Agricultural self-sustainability of the women Xinka de Xalapan, Guatemala. Territorial Proposal. This project also aims to raise awareness of the situation to L'Hospitalet living and suffering children of Ulaanbaatar. Project title: Creation of the Board and the civic Federation of entities in the municipality of Sussa. Project title: L'Hospitalet, the force of an organized civil company.

Area of action: Spain, The Hospitalet of Llobregat. Project summary: The goal of this project is to sensitize, through sport evidence, the reality that the children and girls with physical and psychic disabilities live at the schools of Mauritania. For the realization of this project he will be made, campaigns of broadcast in the schools, campaigns of broadcast among the members of the entity and a child party, through the delivery of numbers.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity searches the goal to prioritize the education through the rehabilitation of the urinary services at schools, for this motive through this activity, they want to promote the presence of the children in the development of the company. It is wanted to favor the assistance to the classrooms with one equipment suitable of material as well as of locker room.

Project summary: This project attempts to promote the equality of gender in the Morocco through the strengthening of the paper of the education to foster the equality between men and women. Moreover, the project aims at developing the critical thought, through the dialog about the inequality of gender in the Moroccan company, that is through a formation to 40 youngsters 20 men and 20 women it is intended to create consciousness about the equality and its practical application.

Project summary: Through this project it is intended to assure the improvement of the control of the illness and therefore the quality of life of the children and girls affected of Cystic Fibrosis in Cuba, through the purchase of nutrition supplements, wants at the same time to give the Cuban doctors continuity to the sending of medication and to the activity of formation and sensitization.

Project summary: The project consists to promoting and improving the health in the centers of special education of the camps of refugees, improving the alimentary health, destined to improving the feeding in the centers to strengthen the development of children and girls and to guarantee one senior assistance. These centers receive children and youngsters with psicomotoras problems, deaf persons and blind in ages from 6 to 21 years.

This alimentary improvement would be carried out with the contribution of foods for the daily breakfast of the pupils of the centers. Project title: Support to the development with identity of 5 towns of the department of the Cauca of population mostly. Project summary: The project is set in a strategy of municipal strengthening that was started with the creation of the ADEL on the part of the mayor's offices, the associations of native town councils, the associations of women and other entities of basis and the associations of producers.

Area of action: Colombia, Department of the Cauca. Project summary: Families of vulnerable communities of the District III of Managua resort to the recycling like an opportunity for the development Persiguen the purpose that citizens and citizens of vulnerable communities of the district III of Managua, they acquire the necessary knowledge so that, through the recycling, they improve its living conditions, it is intended to enable and to promote initiatives of selfemployment among the beneficiary population.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity, wants to work with the three main actors in the education of the children, pupils, parents and mothers and teachers. The proposal brings up some activities of follow-up, as well as the realization of a conference of cohesion and visualization of the results of the project with the beneficiaries for the project. Project title: Construction and development of the classroom of computer science of the schoolCaves-Bata. Project summary: This project is for the construction and started off of a classroom of computer science with a double purpose, on a part to provide to the pupils a place to develop the task of the new technologies and on the other hand, to open this classroom out of the school schedule in order to pioneer formation as adult with prepared staff and to attempt that the world occupational is less precarious.

Project title: Improvements and equipment in community centers of Masaya. Project summary: This project intends to promote the integration and the normalization of the children and youngsters with disability in its families and in the community, within the framework of a ludic and educational activity how it is the preparation of a festival of dance and theater for the community, to visualize activities of leisure with normality, where the children and youngsters with disability will participate.

Project title: Human rights and social development in Equatorial Guinea: Children, girls and teenagers like active agents of the social change in Equatorial Guinea. Project summary: This entity in collaboration with vary counterparts and collaborator entities, it has decided to work about the rights of the children and teenagers.

The children and girls are a vulnerable collective of the Guinean population. Therefore, this year the celebration of the IX edition of the seminar of Malabo and the III will be carried out of the Seminar of Bata under the title "Children, girls and teenagers like active agents of the social change in Equatorial Guinea" and workshops of formation with children, girls and teenagers in Malabo and Bata.

Project title: Union C. Project summary: The project that shows this entity is a solidary project of cooperation that it implies to all the educational community, through the realization of drainage works in the outer part of some classrooms and the endowment of furniture for the classrooms, the consolidation of the classroom of computer science, the pedagogic support and the sensitization to the educational community of the neighborhood of Bellvitge.

Area of action: Chalatenango - El Salvador. Project title: Union training in the department of Rivas. Ivory Coast. Project summary: The project that shows this entity is linked to the bellicose confl icte burst during , the reception of the women and the children and the need to continue orientating efforts to women and to sensitize the population true the empowering of the woman and the firm decision to make answer to the other cities, it is necessary. Project title: It improves of the situation of 70 women and 4 men through the construction of worthy houses.

Project summary: The project foresees to improve the situation of 70 women and 4 men, of deprived castes, who suffer a strong exclusion, through the construction of a worthy home. This will have effects positively on the health, in its social consideration and it will guarantee the right to the preservation of the physical integrity of these 74 persons and its families.

Project title: Haiti: Space for the protection of the vulnerable childhood. Project summary: The objective of this project is to develop processes that promote personal growth and broad participation of women in representative actions for their own growth. We have implemented the enactment of laws that protect them against violence with support for battered women.

Project title: Facilitating the school Cristal the arrival of the electricity. Project summary: A new school Cristal is being constructed in a terrain of the estate of the foundation. It is necessary to make the light until the new facilities arrive, since without light people can not work in the first phase of construction of the school.

Project title: Classroom of computer science in Bafata. Project summary: In this, like in other projects related with the education, it is intended to offer the new pupils means and ways of knowledge, in this case through the new technologies. The developing countries have few knowledge about these technologies but even so to be receiving them and to be using.

With this project, it is intended to offer a space adapted to form them and that serves as leisure at the same time to vent applying the learned knowledge. Area of action: Espanya, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project title: Construction of the third phase of the Integral faculty Chiquitana.

Project summary: The performance that shows this entity searches to reinforce the educational system of the Chiquitana, in the province of Santa Cruz. The construction of the Faculty starts from the idea about being a teaching institution and investigator, engine of the development of the company.

An equipment of these characteristics converts mind into an ele- balancing of the territory, avoiding the massive emigration towards the big assets of the country. Project title: Equipment of material and locker room for the children of the school of primary education Talandaoued in Beni Ahmed. Project summary: Plan of school equipment at the school of primary education of Talandaoued in Beni Ahmed.

Project title: It improves of the living conditions and it defends andina of Cotacachi through the strengthening of the intercultural practices in health and of the bilingual intercultural education of the identity of the population. Project summary: Improving the living conditions and strengthening the cultural identity of the andina population of Cotacachi. Project title: Human rights and social development in Equatorial Guinea.

Project summary: Promoting the human and social development and the construction of a state democratic and of right to Equatorial Guinea. Project title: Fraternity C. Project summary: Promotion of the human rights and the culture of peace. Project title: Creation of the radial broadcasting station "The Popular voice". Construction of capacities from a strategy of social communication for the union movement and popular Guatemalan and the construction of the citizenship.

Project summary: Strengthening the capacities of the Guatemalan working population through the popular education and communication social. Project title: Construction of peace and development through a sanitary assistance, formation and empowering that watch over the equity of gender. Project summary: Contributing to favoring the peace process and postbellicose reconstruction in the Ivory Coast through the active participation of the women.

Project title: Support to the internal sociopolitical debate and to the practices of collective recruitment for branch, of the union federations of the public sector. Project title: Emergency in Haiti. Space from the protection of the vulnerable childhood. Project summary: Garantitzar the development of the children and girls as he settles in the Convention of the rights of the children. Project title: Juridical literacy and feminist formation for the home of women "Sonia Bello", of Rivas.

Project summary: Arriving that the women know its rights and know more proteges with the knowledge of the laws that protect them, mainly against the violence and they protect also its sons and daughters. Project title: Construction of a center of attention to the big people in San Jose of Chiquitos. Project summary: Reducing the depopulation that the rural zones of the region of Chiquitos in Bolivia because of the lack of resources suffer.

Project title: Constructing the community feminism from the diverse and popular women of Cotacachi. Project summary: Contributing to the endogenous participation of weary organizations of women in the political life of the Side Cotacachi.

Project title: Support to the educational system in the camps of saharan refugees ofTinduf. Project summary: Contributing to the development of the human potential of the most vulnerable collectives, in the educational area of the camps of saharan refugees. Project summary: Contributing to the strengthening and maintenance of a social community structure through the implantation of nets of education and formation. Promoting and to generate admissions in the Commune III of Bamako, one of the poorest of the asset of the country.

Project summary: The shown project intends to improve the Honduran conditions of health and of hygiene of fifty families country. To achieve this goal they propose to themselves to construct fifty ecological latrines and request the funding for the material, since the mine of work they will put it the families you would benefit. Project summary: Offering a space of game, reading and meeting point of the community, where especially activities of educational, creative character, socializing, and integrator will be made, that it gives continuity to the tasks that the children and the youngsters work in the school and that it will give them models of social behavior, of communal life and respect towards the persons and the "things".

Project title: Solidary compucenters: Guayaquil digital city. Project summary: Facilitating and to contribute the formation, to the computer terrain, of sectors of the population of limited economic means or with risk of social exclusion.

Project summary: Improving the possibilities of work insertion of the inhabitants of Red Earth through craft training. Project summary: Improving the conditions in which the pupils receive the education of the school. Project title: Solidary caravan in West Africa Project summary: Transporting diverse material of humanitarian help to several associations, dispensaries, schools, hospitals and transport of material for the projects of development, which the counterparts are, of wave catalans that work in those zones and that know the lacks and needs of the population.

Area of action: Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia. Project title: Construction and starting of a preschool center in the south this of Morocco. Project summary: To improve the preschool education in the rural world. Project summary: Working as cystic fibrosis and its families, struggling at the same time against the causes of this illness, for the improvement of the quality of life of the affected ones.

Project title: Holidays in peace for Sahrauis children. Project summary: The directed solidary holidays to the sahraui children and to the catalan families that they accommodate and live with it, it is a project of long trajectory in the city. Project summary: The project proposes to continue with the 6th phase of construction of the building of the University of Chiquitana, to improve the educational capacities of the Bolivian student population, to improve its opportunities and to reduce the social inequalities.

Project summary: Improving the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the inhabitants of Sotuba District II of Bamako through the enlargement of the sanitary center already existing in the zone. Project title: Construction of youth training center "Casa Populorum Progressio ". Project title: Construction of an educational center in Bata. Project summary: Constructing and putting an educational center in functioning in the outskirts of Bata.

Project title: Education of children and girls of 6 to 15 years in Tanseiga. Project summary: Improving the infrastructures of the center so that the pupils can continue attending the school classrooms. Project summary: The increase of the educational capacities at the different levels of age and type, understanding the world of the leisure like an educational space.

Project summary: Promoting the human and social development. Canton Guarjila. Project summary: They are always the benefits of the fraternity in both directions and in both realities. The proposal of this year contemplates support in the teaching staff, improvements in the school infrastructures, support in the utilization of tics and the component of sensitization to the school and to the educational community.

Project title: Support to the process of unit of the Interunion Table of the public sector of Paraguay. Project summary: Fortalecer the actions of the interunion table of the public sector you plow of sustaining the process of unification that this experience is promoting in the movement of the workers and workers public and achieving a better action like this of the same one in defence of the human rights and occupational of the workers and workers of the public sector of Paraguay.

Project title: El centro recreativo sin fronteras. Project title: Special education and psychological support to children and girls with more visible disabilities and who suffer sexual abuse of the school Cristal. Project title: To consolidate the work of literacy and to continue with the juridical literacy and feminist formation for the home of the woman "Sonia Bello" of Rivas.

Project summary: Achieving that the women can make each law in practical forced advancing like this with the empowering of the women the exercise of denouncer citizenship. Project title: Solidary Action in Shabunda. Project summary: The shown project has as a general goal to carry out an immediate action on the subject of humanitarian help in the benefit of the located refugee camps to the voltants of Shabunda.

In a first mission they will be sent and they will give foods, sanitary equipment and products of first need. He will also take advantage to make one diagnosis "in situ" of the situation of the refugee camp, in order to improve future actions in him. One another important goal of the project him that of denouncing the situation that at present the Democratic Republic of Congo through directed actions of sensitization in the Catalan population.

Area of action: Democratic Republic of Congo. Project title: Creation of a classroom workshop of seam. Project title: Empowering of women and children with risk of social exclusion, from the marginal neighborhoods of Chefchaouen.

Project summary: Improving the socioeconomic living conditions of the deprived women and of the children in difficult situation through the actions of protection and of promotion of the women's rights and of the children. Project summary: The project wants to contribute to the improvement in the education, health, environment and generation of admissions of the nomadic and seminomadic Tibetan rural populations.

Project summary: Increasing the human potential of the rural zones. Project title: Improving the conditions of education of the children and young people of theTalandaoued. Project summary: Increasing the feminine schooling and conceding opportunities of access to the new technology to the education. Project summary: Campaign of sensitization towards the citizenship to introduce the reality of this countries and to achieve its help through collections of material; especially sensitization at the schools to fall upon the subject of the interculturalitat and the tolerance.

Project title: Improving conditions drinking water supply of the population of Duar lyassinene, Rural Community Farkhana province of Nador, the Rif region. Project summary: Rehabilitation of a public fountain for 1. Project title: Pilot project of urban services improvement in the neighborhood of Maxaquene "to" of the city of Maputo.

Project summary: Increasing the capacities of the inhabitants of informal fabric neighborhood of Maxaquene "to" consolidating a process of evolutionary improvement of the basic urban services. Project title: Increase of the factors of incidence to the Palestinian women in the economic and political life to the Palestinian refugee camps of Lebanon, Jordan and Palestina. Project summary: Increasing the capacity of autonomy of the women, and its incidence in the Palestinian company, Jordan and Lebanese.

Area of action: Palestinian, Lebanon and Jordan. Project title: Funding of the material of the school of primary of Diffa. Project summary: Generalized and free education to struggle against the Noma through the creation of a child school and its maintenance. Area of action: Morocco, Mauritania and Senegal. Project summary: Facilitating all children in school age the education.

Project title: Community strengthening of the population moved to Colombia from an approach of gender. Project summary: Strengthening the protection and the smugness of the population moved to Colombia. Project title: Center of welcome for persons of 3rd age - Porongo.

SURE FIRE INVESTMENTS

Six polysaccharide capsular serotypes have recently been described in P. In the present study, virulence of the P. Multicentre study on capsular closure versus non- capsular closure during hip arthroscopy in Danish patients with femoroacetabular impingement FAI.

We hypothesised that capsular closure will lead to a superior outcome in hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome FAIS compared with non- capsular closure. MR imaging findings of renal capsular leiomyoma : a case report. In the literature, descriptions of the MR findings of renal leiomyoma are rare. We present the MR findings of a capsular leiomyoma of the kidney in which hypointensity relative to normal renal parenchyma was seen on both T1-and T2-weighted MR images.

Effect of ropy and capsular exopolysaccharides producing strain of The contribution of selected ropy and capsular Lactobacillus plantarum RM on texture of fermented milk as well as on the functionality of kareish cheese was established in this study. The cell suspension of this strain was used in combination with commercial starter cultures MY Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Open capsular shift for multi directional shoulder instability.

We evaluated the outcome of open antero-inferior capsular shift in 17 patients with multidirectional instability of the shoulder who failed to respond to conservative treatment. Six shoulders presented with secondary impingement syndrome and 11 with involuntary instability.

The mean duration of. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide. Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S.

Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S.

Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. Our findings suggest that the A. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. Two-year outcomes of open shoulder anterior capsular reconstruction for instability from severe capsular deficiency. To document outcomes after anterior capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability in 15 patients 20 shoulders who have had multiple failed stabilizations or collagen disorders.

Twenty shoulders with recurrent instability underwent revision stabilization with allograft reconstruction of anterior capsulolabral structures, which re-creates the labrum and capsular ligaments. The patients comprised 3 men and 12 women mean age, 26 years [range, 18 to 38 years] in whom multiple prior repairs failed and who had disability from continued pain and instability.

Patients could choose to undergo either arthrodesis or salvage allograft reconstruction or to live with permanent disability. Of the patients, 5 had Ehlers-Danlos syndrome whereas 10 had hyperlaxity syndromes without genetic confirmation.

Failure was defined as further instability surgery. In the 14 shoulders without further stabilization nonfailures , the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score increased 43 points at a mean of 3. In the 6 shoulders that failed, the mean number of prior surgeries was 8 range, 3 to 15 compared with a mean of 4 prior surgeries range, 1 to 16 for the 9 nonfailures. Treating patients in whom multiple stabilizations have failed remains challenging. Instability was reported but revision.

Effects of hip joint position and intra- capsular volume on hip joint intra- capsular pressure: a human cadaveric model. Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra- capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra- capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied.

An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra- capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra- capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra- capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in degree flexion.

A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma. Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed.

Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. New techniques for evaluating the gastrointestinal tract: capsular endoscopy. Full Text Available The paper describes a procedure for capsular endoscopy CE, a new high-technology method of evaluating the small bowel, and reports on its use in rheumatological care.

Small bowel involvement is noted to be frequently encountered in rheumatic diseases, such as Behcet's disease, diffuse scleroderma, and seronegative spondylitis. According to the data of clinical trials, CE is effective in timely detecting this visceral abnormality. At the same time, CE is actually the only accurate method of diagnosing drug-induced enteropathy, a potentially menacing disease that frequently occurs with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Retro-aortic, left inferior renal capsular vein.

Full Text Available In our case report, abdominal multi-detector computed tomography was used for the pre-operative anatomy evaluation in a living kidney donor. The early phase of the test revealed normal kidneys in the donor. The vascular phase detected a venous variant on the left side: An inferior renal capsular vein, which had a loop and a retro-aortic course. This preoperative knowledge was crucial for the laparoscopic nephrectomy as a surgical procedure for harvesting kidney from the living donor.

The study comprised of patients eyes with subluxated lens. No intaroperative complications has occured. Postoperative complications included: inflammation in the anterior chamber in 3 eyes 2. Eight strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were tested in vitro for their ability to produce capsular antigen in the presence of penicillin. Differential cytokine expression by human dendritic cells in response to different Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes. AIM: Capsular polysaccharides play an important role in the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

In Porphyromonas gingivalis, six serotypes have been described based on capsular antigenicity and its pathogenicity has been correlated both in vitro and in animal models. This study. Full Text Available Summary: Performing secondary rhinoplasty in patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty using a silicone implant is difficult due to thinning of nasal skin and formation of a capsule. Excess capsule formation can cause capsular contracture, resulting in short nose deformity or implant deviation, migration, or implant demarcation.

Revision rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, dorsal silicone implant, and tip plasty was performed in 95 Korean patients 91 women and 4 men; mean age, 27 years who previously underwent primary augmentation rhinoplasty using silicone implants. The capsular flap was composed by creating a dual plane above the anterior capsule and below the posterior capsule. The existing silicone implant was removed, and a new silicone implant was placed under the posterior capsule. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 4 years mean, Of the 95 patients who underwent secondary augmentation rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, 88 patients There was no hematoma or nasal skin vascular compromise.

There was no visible or palpable capsule resorption or recurrent capsular contracture. Early implant malpositioning within 30 days postoperatively was observed in 4 patients, and tip shape dissatisfaction within 60 days postoperatively was reported by 3 patients. Four patients underwent revision surgery and had successful outcomes. Nasal augmentation using a silicone implant and capsular flap in secondary rhinoplasty avoids complications caused by removal of the capsule.

Recurrent capsule formation or clinically noticeable resorption of the capsular flap was not observed in this study. Analysis of hepatic capsular enhancement mimicking the Fitz-hugh-curtis syndrome on a multidetector computed tomography. To determine the associated diseases causing hepatic capsular enhancement and analyze the relationship of the capsular enhancement patterns as a function of the associated diseases.

We retrospectively reviewed patients having undergone arterial phase abdominal CT scans. Among these images, 47 patients showed hepatic capsular enhancement 13 men and 34 women; mean age: We investigated if there was a correlation between the pattern of hepatic capsular enhancement and cause of disease. When the hepatic capsular enhancement was found to persist until the portal phase, the symptom duration was evaluated.

Hepatic capsular enhancements were presented in 5. Six patients The other causes of hepatic capsular enhancement included 20 cases of inflammation, 13 cases of malignancy, and 8 cases of other diseases. The extent of the hepatic capsular enhancement was not significantly different among the causes of disease. In thirty two of 47 patients Hepatic capsular enhancement on an arterial phase is a nonspecific imaging finding observed in the Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome as well as a variety of other diseases.

A CT is useful in finding the hepatic capsular enhancement and determining the accompanying disease. To analyze the causes of severe dislocated and subluxated intraocular lenses IOL in capsular bag and the relevancy with abnormal capsular constitution. The abnormality of capsular and the position of IOL were retrospectively analyzed by slit lamp and microscope in dilated pupil.

Surgeries were performed in all of 31 cases in order to exchange or reposit the dislocated or subluxated lOL. Among 31 cases, there were 20 cases with the dislocated or subluxated IOL in the earlier postoperative period and 11 cases in the later postoperative period.

The subluxated IOL in 5 cases A upward subluxated IOL developed in one case 3. The subluxatd IOL in the anterior chamber in two cases 6. The size of the IOLs in 2 cases were not matched to the diameter of the capsule bag. The dislocated IOL into the vitreous in 2 cases was caused by the rupture of the superior capsular. The subluxated IOL in 2 cases 6. The severe disfiguration of the IOL haptic was found in one case. The dislocated IOL in 6 cases A subluxated IOL in one case was resulted from the zonular defects with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

The postoperative corrected visual acuity was 0. There are several causes for the dislocated or subluxated IOL. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii. Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance due to its propensity for intractable multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals.

All clinical isolates examined contain a conserved gene cluster, the K locus, which determines the production of complex polysaccharides, including an exopolysaccharide capsule known to protect against killing by host serum and to increase virulence in animal models of infection.

Whether the polysaccharides determined by the K locus contribute to intrinsic defenses against antibiotics is unknown. We demonstrate here that mutants deficient in the exopolysaccharide capsule have lowered intrinsic resistance to peptide antibiotics, while a mutation affecting sugar precursors involved in both capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis sensitizes the bacterium to multiple antibiotic classes.

We observed that, when grown in the presence of certain antibiotics below their MIC, including the translation inhibitors chloramphenicol and erythromycin, A. Hyperproduction of capsular exopolysaccharide is reversible and non-mutational, and occurs concomitantly with increased resistance to the inducing antibiotic that is independent of the presence of the K locus.

Strikingly, antibiotic-enhanced capsular exopolysaccharide production confers increased resistance to killing by host complement and increases virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. Finally, we show that augmented capsule production upon antibiotic exposure is facilitated by transcriptional increases in K locus gene expression that are dependent on a two-component regulatory system, bfmRS. These studies reveal that the synthesis of capsule, a major pathogenicity determinant, is regulated in response to antibiotic stress.

Our data are consistent with a model in which gene expression changes triggered by ineffectual antibiotic treatment cause A. Anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses following vitreous loss in endocapsular surgery. Full Text Available We used anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses PC IOLs in fourteen eyes with large posterior capsular ruptures. An endocapsular technique preserved the anterior capsule and facilitated implantation.

With a median follow up of 8. One lens was lost in the vitreous and one patient had a clinically significant cystoid macular edema. In the event of a posterior capsular rupture we suggest this technique as an alternative to anterior chamber or scleral-fixated lenses. A case report of intraocular lens luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy.

We experienced a case of intraocular lens IOL luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy. The case was a year-old female in whom an IOL was implanted one year after surgery for giant tear retinal detachment using silicone oil. Four years after the implantation surgery, the patient suffered subluxation of the IOL with the capsular bag. Examinations of the luxated IOL with the capsular bag using a stereoscopic microscope confirmed the presence of silicone oil droplets between the capsule and the IOL.

Adhesion of vitreous body residues was observed in the capsule. Luxation of the IOL was thought to be connected with chronic inflammation resulting from the use of silicone oil and repeated vitrectomy. In addition to examining pathological findings of luxated IOL, it would also be important in the future to identify the pathology of the capsular bag. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report. Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma.

There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

Posterior chamber intraocular lens PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL- capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation.

Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

Our case is unique, being the youngest amblyogenic age to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. Keywords: posterior capsule rupture, forehead trauma, traumatic cataract, pediatric cataract. Clinically symptomatic renal capsular leiomyomas are rare. Previous research has shown that these tumors are usually well-defined cystic lesions, solid lesions, or a mixture of the two.

We report an unusual case of renal capsular leiomyoma which was well defined by ultrasonography, but lacked a well-defined edge in CT. The reason for the absence of a well-defined tumor edge is probably due to degeneration in certain parts of the tumor resulting in a different degree of enhancement. Thus, the possibility of renal capsular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis whenever a renal mass is found, especially when either CT or ultrasonography shows that the tumor has a smooth, well-defined contour.

Mak, C. The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I eyes A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6. Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants.

Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. Anatomic location has been suggested as a possible risk factor, but rates of CC development vary between studies, often with conflicting results. This study examines the risk develo Magnetic resonance evaluation of the labral capsular ligamentous complex: a pictorial review.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder is a common imaging test, and in the course of routine evaluation it can provide accurate information regarding the labral capsular ligamentous complex LCLC. Common patterns of labral injury include fraying, flap tears and labral distraction, which can be readily identified on both coronal and axial planes by paying attention to signal and morphological characteristics.

Capsular and ligamentous pathology may be subtle, but is recognizable using a high-resolution technique that has differential contrast between native intra-articular fluid and the adjacent labrum and capsular restraints. Common patterns of capsular injury include a thickened, hyperintense capsule, sometimes with disruption and retraction. The inferior glenohumeral ligament is the primary stabilizer of the shoulder joint, and although failure of this structure is uncommon, the injury is easily identified.

Shoulder instability is a common presentation, the diagnosis of which is dependent upon recognising various injury patterns including Bankart lesions, reverse Bankart lesions, anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion ALPSA and failure of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.

Copyright Blackwell Science Pty Ltd. CT features of malignant hepatic tumors : the significance of capsular retraction. To evaluate the prevalence of capsular retraction in malignant hepatic tumors and the factors involved. Between January and December , we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of patients with pathologically-proven, peripherally-located, malignant hepatic tumors.

We evaluated size, site, portal and hepatic venous obstruction, bile duct dilatation, and liver atrophy in 18 cases involving capsular retraction. Capsular contracture and possible implant rupture: is magnetic resonance imaging useful? Currently, magnetic resonance imaging is considered the accepted standard to evaluate breast implant integrity. To evaluate its utility in diagnosing ruptured silicone implants in the setting of capsular contracture and to correlate the preoperative assessment of implant integrity with or without magnetic resonance imaging with operative findings, capsulectomies patients with capsular contractures were retrospectively reviewed.

In the setting of capsular contracture, physical examination with or without mammogram is as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in determining implant integrity. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive diagnostic tool, in symptomatic patients with capsular contracture, it cannot be viewed as infallible.

To investigate the feasibility of constructing a capsular poly L-lactic acid PLLA ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells using tissue engineering methods. The capsular ureteral stent was constructed by subcutaneously embedding PLLA ureteral stent in the back of beagles for 3 weeks to induce the formation of connective tissue on the surfaces.

After decellularization of the stent, the expanded autologous urothelial cells were seeded on the stent. The surface structure and cell adhesion of the stent were observed using HE staining, scanning electron microscope SEM and immunocytochemical staining.

MTT assay was used to evaluate urothelial cell proliferation on the capsular PLLA ureteral stent and on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. HE staining and VIII factor immunohistochemistry revealed numerous capillaries in the connective tissue encapsulating the stent without obvious local inflammatory response.

The results of SEM and immunocytochemical staining showed that the capsule contained rich collagenic fibers forming three-dimensional structures, and the seeded autologous urothelial cells could adhere and well aligned on the surface. MTT assay showed normal growth of the cells on the stent as compared with the cells grown on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft.

The capsular PLLA ureteral stent allows adhesion and proliferation of autologous urothelial cells and shows a potential in applications of constructing tissue-engineered ureter. Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.

Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders.

The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants.

Preliminary observation about anterior capsular changes in different patients after cataract phacoemulsification. Full Text Available AIM: To compare changes of anterior capsular opening size between complicated and simple cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and foldable IOL implantation. All patients accepted phacoemulsification by the doctor with operation experience of more than 5 cases, and the same 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL was implanted without any complicated happened.

The measured value about anterior capsular area by Image-pro plus 6. Every patient was checked regularly through dilated pupil, take photos by slit-lamp camera and area was measured after operation 1 week, 1 month, 3 and 6 months, then to record the biological changes about anterior capsular in 4 groups. For high-risk groups, we should prolong the follow-up time, enrich the observation data, and provide the clinical basis for reasonable and preventive intervention.

In vivo capsular switch in Streptococcus pneumoniae--analysis by whole genome sequencing. Full Text Available Two multidrug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae - SVT23 capsular type 23F and SVT3 capsular type 3 were recovered from the nasopharynx of two adult patients during an outbreak of pneumococcal disease in a New York hospital in Whole genome sequencing WGS of the two isolates was performed i to test if these two isolates belonging to the same clonal type and recovered from an identical epidemiological scenario only differed in their capsular genes?

WGS demonstrated extensive differences between the two isolates including over single nucleotide polymorphisms in core genes and also differences in 36 genetic determinants: 25 of which were unique to SVT23 and 11 unique to strain SVT3. Nineteen of these differences were capsular genes and 9 bacteriocin genes.

The nature of this determinants remains to be identified. Predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing. Conclusion: Patient age, ASA grade, preoperative haemoglobin and length of nail are reliable predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in extra capsular hip fractures in elderly patients treated with cephalo-medullary nailing and reinforce a selective transfusion policy.

Evaluation of Artisan aphakic intraocular lens in cases of pediatric aphakia with insufficient capsular support. To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after Artisan iris-claw lens implantation in aphakic children with insufficient capsular support. Patients with anterior chamber depth IOL were included, 18 eyes with subluxated lens and 7 following trauma.

The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for traumatic aphakic patients was 0. Values improved at 1 year to 0. Clinical observation of capsular tension ring implantation in congenital lens subluxation treating by phacoemulsification. Visual acuity before and after surgery were examined. The complications were also recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Two eyes received CTR scleral fixation 3mo after surgery because the IOL decentration aggravated during the follow-up period.

The implantation of CTR increase the stability of the capsular bag, improve the safety of surgery, and maintain the right position of IOL. CTR scleral fixation is a effective supplement for progressive cases. Population-based study of capsular warning syndrome and prognosis after early recurrent TIA.

However, it is unclear whether all patients with multiple TIAs are at high early risk of stroke and whether treatable underlying pathologies are more prevalent in this group. Multiple TIAs were not associated with carotid stenosis or atrial fibrillation, and much of the Of the 9 patients with stroke after a capsular warning syndrome, all had the recurrent TIA within 24 hours after the first TIA, and the subsequent stroke occurred within 72 hours of the second TIA in 8.

Capsular warning syndrome is rare 1. A structural investigation of the capsular antigens of some Klebsiella and E. The work described in this thesis forms part of a program concerned with the study of exocellular capsular polysaccharides of some Enterobacteriaceae.

Klebsiella and Escherichia coli are of interest because they are often pathogenic to man; E. The bacterial capsule is the first line of defence of the bacterial cell against attack by the host's immunological defences and administered antibiotics, and thus knowledge of its composition and characteristics is of importance in devising ways of combating infection by these organisms. The structure of the capsular polysaccharide has been investigated employing a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods.

Several oligo-saccharides were isolated and characterized by high resolution 1 H-n. The E. The emphasis of this research group is centered on the elucidation of the structures of E. The acidic capsular polysaccharide isolated from E. This thesis however represents a transition period in the study of Enterobacteriaceae capsular polysaccharides and so includes the structure elucidation of two Klebsiella polysaccharides, that of the K14 and K68 serotypes, and one E.

Bacteriophage-borne enzyme degradations of Klebsiella K14 and E. The thesis also includes a comparative study of the 0-specific side-chains of the lipo-polysaccharides of E. AIM: To evaluate the clinical results of capsular tension ring CTR implantation in phacoemulsification for eyes with congenital lens subluxation. The complications were also recorded preoperati To evaluate clinical efficiency and safety of the iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring MCTR for the treatment of subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome.

This study comprised 5 patients 7 eyes with Marfan's syndrome and subluxation lens. After 3. After tightening and tying the suture of MCTR, the capsular bag was centered and fixed. The scheimpflug images obtained from the Pentacam demonstrated that the IOL were well centered. The retroillumination photograph indicated that only one eye had obvious posterior capsular opacification.

No intraoperative and postoperative complications such as prolapse of vitreous and retina detachment was occurred. The iris hooks can provide excellent intraoperative capsule-lens stability and facilitate the manipulation during operation. MCTR allows additional suture fixation to the eye wall without damaging the capsular bag and maintains the long-term stability of the intraocular lens. Furthermore, MCTR is helpful for avoiding dislocation of the IOL due to progressive weakening of the zonular fibers in some patients and provides long-term safety.

A structural study of the capsular antigens of Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K This thesis discusses the structural study of the capsular antigens of the bacteria, Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K In the elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides chemically based analytical procedures and instrumental analytical techniques were used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for obtaining structural information on poly-, oligo- and di-saccharides and a detailed discussion of this technique, and the results obtained in this study, is given.

Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in cases of inadequate capsular support. To assess the outcomes and analyze complication rates following primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide.

This is a retrospective interventional case series. Patients with poor capsular support-diagnosed preoperatively or owing to intraoperative complications-were treated with iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide.

The data were retrospectively analyzed. Iris claw IOL was implanted in-traumatic subluxated cataracts cases The final mean best-corrected logMAR visual acuity improved from 1. Complications included pupil ovalization in 11 cases Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation provided excellent alternative in patients with inadequate capsular support.

The visual outcomes were good along with favorable rates of complications. The addition of triamcinolone acetonide helps in reducing the chances of cystoid macular edema. Limited capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia for the treatment of frozen shoulder.

In light of recent interest in the cost-effectiveness of the treatment options available for frozen shoulder, we aimed to determine the results of limited anterior capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia MUA in the treatment of primary frozen shoulder in terms of patient-related outcomes measure, range of motion and re-intervention rates.

This single-surgeon series included prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing capsular release with MUA from March until June , with a minimum follow-up of 6 months from the index procedure. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score OSS , range of motion and need for re-intervention. Fifty-four procedures were performed in 52 patients. There was no significant difference in pre-operative and postoperative OSS or range of motion between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic groups.

No patients required surgical re-intervention. A combination of limited capsular release and MUA for the treatment of primary frozen shoulder is a safe and effective procedure resulting in marked improvement in pain, function and range of motion. Investigation of vesicle- capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering. Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases.

The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations. In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations.

This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage.

Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes.

Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated. Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines.

Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes. We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping.

This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system. Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1. Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction. Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture.

After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis TMG flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity.

The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold.

Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.

The use of breast implants for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has become one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Several breast implants models exist. They differ in their size, filling, shape and characteristic of the shell, which can be smooth or textured. Capsular contracture is one of the main complications of breast implants. It has been suggested that the use of textured implants could reduce the incidence of capsular contracture.

We identified 15 studies overall, of which 13 were randomized trials relevant for the question of interest. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of textured breast implants probably decreases the risk of capsular contracture, however, they might be associated to an increased risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Compared with other biomaterials, hydrophilic acrylate provides better uveal biocompatibility, lower adhesion rates of bacteria and silicone oil, and less glare. Because of reduced capsular biocompatibility, increased fibrosis may initiate dislocation of the intraocular lens IOL.

In six eyes of four patients, enhanced fibroses led to IOL dislocation, leading to an IOL exchange an average of 40 weeks after implantation of the same hydrophilic acrylate lens type. The lens type that was implanted was unable to adapt to the massive fibrosis induced by its hydrophilic biomaterial. The pattern of lens opacification should receive attention when one is choosing an IOL type. Eyes showing pseudoexfoliation syndrome as well as post-uveitis eyes might require a hydrophilic IOL for less cellular reaction, whereas a posterior subcapsular cataract might need a hydrophobic IOL to prevent a massive capsular fibrosis.

In the case of increased capsular contraction, unreflected YAG laser capsulotomy may result in IOL subluxation when the lens design cannot handle capsule shrinkage, as demonstrated here. To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring MCTR in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications.

The preoperative examination included best correct visual acuity BCVA and the presence or absence of phacodonesis, lens decentration and vitreous prolapse. Preoperatively, symptomatic decentration was presented by 10 eyes The preoperative examination revealed vitreous prolapse in the anterior chamber in 9 eyes The influence of injection volume and capsular bag contraction on the refractive power of polymer refilled lenses - a finite element modelling simulation study.

Polymer injection into the capsular bag after phakoemulsification is an interesting and promising approach to lens surgery. Safe clinical application of this technique will require an appropriate estimate of the effect of implantation variables on the lens power. This article details the results of finite element investigations into the effects of the injected polymer volume and capsular bag contraction on the resultant lens power and accommodation amplitude.

An axisymmetric finite element model was created from literature sources. Polymer injection and the capsular contraction were simulated, and their effect on the lens power was calculated. The simulations show that overfilling during polymer injection leads to a refractive power increase of the lens.

Capsular bag contraction also results in a power increase. The calculated accommodative amplitude of the lens is minimally affected by capsular bag contraction but decreases significantly with increased capsular bag stiffness as a result of fibrosis. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability. The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures.

The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain.

The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine C0-C2 , this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches.

In either case, the presence of. Delayed splenic rupture: dating the sub- capsular hemorrhage as a useful task to evaluate causal relationships with trauma. The aim of the paper was to perform a chronological assessment of the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the spleen, to assess the phenomenological order about the sub- capsular hematoma transformation to determine the causal relationship with trauma as hypothetical cause of death.

Time between the traumatic event and delayed rupture of the spleen is within a range of time from one day to more than one month. Data recorded included age, sex, type of trauma, injury severity score, grade of splenic injury, associated intra-abdominal injuries, pathologic specimen evaluation.

Immunohistochemical investigation of perisplenic hematoma or laceration was performed utilizing polyclonal antibodies anti-fibrinogen, CD61 and CD68, and showed structural chronological differences of sub- capsular hematoma. Expression of modification and organization of erythrocytes, fibrinogen, platelets and macrophages provides an informative picture of the progression of reparative phenomena associated with sub- capsular hematoma and subsequent delayed splenic rupture.

Sub- capsular splenic hematoma dating, which we divided into 4 phases, is representing a task in both clinical practice and forensic pathology. Rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL implantation with and without capsular tension ring: refractive and visual outcomes and intraocular optical performance. To ascertain whether the refractive, visual, and intraocular optical quality outcomes of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens IOL are enhanced by the use of a capsular tension ring.

Ninety consecutive eyes from 53 patients age range: 36 to 82 years were divided into two groups: the no ring group comprised 43 eyes implanted with the multifocal rotationally asymmetric Lentis Mplus LS Oculentis GmbH without a capsular tension ring; and the ring group comprised 47 eyes with the same IOL with a capsular tension ring. Distance and near visual acuity and refractive outcomes were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity, intraocular aberrations, and defocus curve were evaluated postoperatively.

Significant postoperative differences between groups were found in sphere, spherical equivalent refraction, and near addition P capsular tension ring for intermediate vision conditions P capsular tension ring. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children.

To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens IOL implantation using capsular tension ring CTR in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Tertiary care setting. We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90 degrees up to degrees after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation.

Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes.

Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate PMMA in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months.

Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. Results : Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Conclusions : Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses.

Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra- capsular proximal femoral fractures? Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra- capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required.

Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra- capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers.

Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture.

Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra- capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph. Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made. Vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal capsular group B disease: What have we recently learned?

Meningococcal disease remains a feared and devastating cause of sepsis and meningitis. Disease incidence is highest among infants and children although a significant burden of disease is experienced by adolescents, young adults and those with specific risk-factors.

Prevention of disease against capsular groups A, C, W and Y; 4 of the 5 most pathogenic groups is achievable using capsular polysaccharide vaccines. It has only recently been possible to provide protection against capsular group B MenB strains following the licensure of a 4 component group B vaccine 4CMenB in Europe in Following licensure, 4CMenB has been used in specific at-risk groups and in response to outbreaks of MenB disease.

The vaccine was recommended in February for implementation into the UK infant schedule at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, although it has taken over 12 months to resolve procurement discussions to enable implementation. The UK recommendation incorporates prophylactic paracetamol with infant doses when 4CMenB is administered concomitantly with routine vaccines.

This is based on recent data demonstrating the ability of paracetamol to reduce fever rates to background levels without impacting immunogenicity. Post-implementation surveillance will be important to provide vaccine efficacy data as this was not possible to determine in pre-licensure studies due to the relative infrequency of MenB cases.

The risk of capsular breakage from phacoemulsification needle contact with the lens capsule: a laboratory study. To determine capsular breakage risk from contact by phacoemulsification needles by machine and tip type. Experimental laboratory investigation. Financing: 6. Project title: Broadening new competences and formation to contribute to the empoderamiento of the woman of Boassa.

Project summary: Project of formation in a group of 20 women of Burkina Faso in textile dressmaking. Project title: Work integration of the youngsters of Xauen into the sector of the rural tourism third phase. Project summary: Continuity of the program initiated into to form 30 youngsters like guides of mountain or ecotouristic agents of development in the city of Xauen.

Project summary: Consolidation of the programs of waste in the Community Radio in the neighborhood of Maxaquene "in" through the middle of the appropriation and participation of the community. The good practices through the awareness of the population, the improvement in the efficiency of the collection at level of home and the paper of the pupils of the schools like local activist potentials, as well as the strengthening of the associations that work in the district will be promoted.

Project title: A project of action and sensitization in favor of the rights of the children of the neighborhood of the Flowering - Les Planes and L'Hospitalet. Project summary: Joint of directed activities to introduce the rights of the children workshops, gymkhanas, games in the posts, participation in fairs Project title: Contributing to the exercise of a life free of violence against the women and the girls in the Neighborhoods of Kayes N'Dy and Khasso de la Ciutat de Kayes, Mali, through the reduction in cases of Feminist Genital Mutilations and Precocious Marriages.

The activities focus on the formation in human rights, the sensitization of the population in general and the medical and legal attention to the affected women". Project title: Project of universal health in the village of Dar Salam, Senegal. Project summary: I project, furniture and equipment for the home of health of Dar Salam Senegal , for the endowment of infrastructures; precisely, a house is constructed for the boss nurse of the center, the different rooms are furnished, fungible material is provided for the cares and the salaries of everything are paid to the staff nurse, agent of health and llevadora during a year.

Project title: The sleep and the values of the African music. Project summary: Project to face to know the African culture through the music carrying out directed workshops of students of school of primary and of the school of music of the city. Project summary: Celebration of the XXIII Party of the Diversity, this project starts from the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city which they intend to sensitize to the citizenship fits to the diversity. The goal that pursues the project is to show the wealth of the cultures of the neighborhoods of L'Hospitalet through the sensitization in favor of the diversity, communal life of cultures and against the racism and the xenophobia.

The game of questions that nobody should ever become. Project summary: Role play for such of empatitzar with the persons who suffer obligatory migrations. The activity wants to carry out 10 educational centers, with 4 entities, to 10 diverse equipment and in 10 transversal acts of city.

Project title: Contributing to the real exercise upward to the health of the population sheltered Syrian and Lebanese more vulnerable to Aarsall, Valley of Bekkaa. Project summary: Project for the establishment of a sanitary service for sheltered persons and Lebanese in situation of vulnerability in Aarsal, Lebanon.

Project title: Challenges and opportunities from the roots: Perceptions of the traditional llevadores and sensitization in feminine genital mutilation in the new legal frame that forbids the practice in Gambia. Project summary: Project wants to contribute to the prevention of the MGF in Gambia in the new legal frame of prohibition of the practice.

Project summary: The shown project continuity woman to the projects developed in the last 12 years. In particular it deepens the work about the rights of the childhood and the adolescence, working with adult persons as well as with children in and it went of the schools.

Two lines of performance thought to fall directly upon the reality about the several auditor agents about the children, girls and Guinean teenagers have been planned. Project title: To promote of a fairer economics. Project title: Net of Solidary Ovens for the decent work in the Salvador. Project summary: Creation of a net of "solidary ovens" along a formative process and of creation of cooperatives of three years.

Area of action: El Salvador. Financing: Project title: Reconstruction of impluvium in the island of Ourong. Project summary: Rehabilitation and conditioning of the impluvium existing in the island of Ourong Casamance, Senegal. Project title: Realization of two courses about international cooperation, resolution of conflicts and human rights within the framework of the courses of summer Los Julios de la Universidad of Barcelona.

Project summary: Realization of two courses about international cooperation, resolution of conflicts and human rights within the framework of the courses of summer Los Julios de la Universidad of Barcelona. Project title: School of music in Bissau. Project summary: Construction of a classroom of music in the asset of Guinea-Bissau.

Project title: Classroom of human rights of L'Hospitalet. Project summary: This project will have activities how, debates, lectures, talked about in high schools, courses of university extension, projections, exhibitions among other activities that they help to sensitizing to the citizens of The Hospitalet and to increase its implication to achieve the goals of the Plan of Cooperation.

The activities want to foster the values of the Human Rights, the Culture of Pau, and the Goals of the Millennium, besides strengthening the area of the solidarity and the worry from the global challenges that we face. Project summary: The project that is shown is the continuation of the former year, new premises has been able to be achieved for disabled persons and now the center is backed up with the purchase of a van. Project title: Construction and improvement of the access to the zone of residence and classrooms of the school Balmes-Bata.

Project summary: Construction of the approach road in the residence of students of the school Balmes-Bata and perforation of a well to supply the health workers with water from the educational center. Project title: Promoting the right to the education of girls and boys of the distritode Anantapur. Project summary: Purchase and pound of bicycles because pupils of secondary they can travel in better conditions of certainty in its educational centers.

Project summary: Support to the Home of the Woman Sonia Bello so that it continues with its task of facing support to the woman of Nicaragua through the realization of training and workshops. Project title: Consolidation of the project of health of the communities that belong to the parish of St. Project title: Eyes of Mali Ophthalmologic attention in the region of Mopti.

The entity counts on the implication and support of the Ministry of Public Health of the region. Projects Agermanament sense fronteres. Project title: Empowerment of the women collaborating with the rural cooperatives.

Project summary: The performance that shows this project consists to putting 6 fields of cassava in production and enabling the women of the cooperatives with technical formation and of formality for taking out the maximum performance to the collection and commercialization of the cassava of the fields that stood firm during in and in Project summary: Project of transversal sensitization where the solidarity in a specific way joins two concepts how they are the sport and the citizenship in order to manifest the disagreement with the situations of inequalities that rule nowadays in the world.

Working the sensitization of the citizens of The Hospitalet remembering the current situation about the needs that live some marginal groups with risk of social exclusion is proposed as a general goal.

Project summary: The goal of this project is the one of restoring the school in a complete way of the village of Dar Salam to increase the educational capacities, building a perimetral wall that he blocks the access of the livestock and of the neighbors out of the school schedule facilitating the maintenance of school equipment and of the facilities themselves like this how to endow electrical energy for computers and lighting with a photovoltaic system to provide and of a system of canalization to transport water until the baths and to be able to facilitate the basic hygienic habits.

The Branches singularity. Project summary: This entity proposes how I project to alphabetize the illiterate population of the communities Rama-Kreole of Nicaragua, the main goal is the direct literacy and training specialized in the members of the community to consolidate the educational dynamics of the same ones. Project title: Work integration of the youngsters of Xauen into the sector of the rural tourism second phase. Project summary: The current project the formation will be carried out with 13 youngsters who approved in , it is wanted to develop a series of actions for legalizing its situation and to penetrate in the starting of new offers related with the rural tourism him the formality of the natural spaces.

Project title: Project of identification to consolidate the actions of the platform of the civil company of the District of K-Maxaquene Maputo. Project summary: This project intends to pioneer a process which it allows to identify a new counterpart and to carry out a process of boy scout and of joint work with the associations of the Platform that allows to establish priorities in the actions future.

The change of dimension of working with OCBs in the neighborhood, to the qualitative jump of working with an entity of second level like platform, requires applicant who gauges a strategy from intervention of a process of identification on the part of the entity future. Project summary: This project has as a main goal to contribute to the development of an intercultural consciousness that goes to the understanding of the habits, culture, language and values of the diversity of the participant users of the project.

It is intended to facilitate the social inclusion of the children and young newcomers, providing knowledge about the social means that accommodates them. Project title: Support to the liability upward to a life free of violence for the victim women in Colombia. Project summary: This project contributes to the strengthening of the capacities of liability upward to a life free of violence towards the victim women of violence and conflicts made Colombian.

Project title: In Transit. Program of sensitization about the migratory process. Project summary: The project treats some the great subjects of present of the last years how it is the phenomenon of the immigration. This supposes an opportunity as well as a challenge for Europe and requires of the application of effective policies related to the integration. To be able to nourish these children once a day is one of the main goals of the project, to guarantee a food on the day.

Project summary: This project will have activities like debates, lectures, talked about in high schools, courses of University extension, projections, exhibitions among other activities that they help to sensitizing to the citizens of The Hospitalet and to increase its implication to achieve the goals of the Plan of Cooperation.

Project title: Improvements and equipment in Masaya community centers. Project summary: The project that is presented is the continuation of the previous year, it has been possible to get new premises for people with disabilities and now we work to give support to those people who in an organized way work to integrate into society and are trained to be able to develop a job Paid to provide help to the family economy.

Project summary: The project presented gives continuity to the projects developed in the last 11 years. Project title: Strengthening the network of women social leaders for decent work in El Salvador. Project summary: This project is designed to train women, belonging to various community associations or not and socially established organizations, with this training is intended that the participants acquire the ability to explain and promote within their own environment the meaning of decent work.

Project title: Campaign to support migrant domestic workers in Lebanon. Phase II. Project summary: The project presented is Phase II of the previous year, intended to contribute to improving the living and working conditions of migrant domestic workers in Lebanon.

Project title: Empowering of the native communities Chenchus of the zone of SriSailam through the strengthening of the community organizations and the construction of a community center in Mallikarjunapuram. Project summary: The project intends to provide a community center where to carry out the community meetings of the population Chechu de Mallikarjunapuram, it will be a worthy and suitable space where the different associative movements of the community will be able to be gathered, will also be used to carry out different formations and training in educational and cultural subjects for all the families of the community.

Project title: To consolidate the work of literacy. This project appears from the growth of maltreatment, the problems that have true the sons is worked together with the police of the city to be able to accommodate these women and to be able to attempt to resolve, many times fruit of the rapes that suffer. Project summary: Eyes of Mali he intends to contribute to the improvement of the ocular health of the population of the region of Mopti.

The main lines of the program are the ophthalmologic and optic attention through the consultation, diagnostic, operations and treatment; the postoperative follow-up of the population with scarce economic resources and the endowment of the equipment, material and medication necessary to carry out this ocular attention. Project title: Starting of the nursery of nursery school and the canteen of the Center of Boassa. Project summary: This project intends to create a school of child education nursery school and nursery school for children of 6 years in situation of high risk of exclusion and biopsicosocial precariousness.

The main goal of this initiative is to watch over its physical and intellectual development, and to guarantee a daily feeding, care and education of the children of the school. Project title: Reconstruction of a house for accommodation of students. Project title: To walk towards food sovereignty Donar-Salam-Nioufaye. Project summary: This project intends to foster the collective work and the implementation of a community vegetable garden for the ecological production of those fruits and cool vegetables for the selfconsumption that delivery bread wheat usually of the diet but that, for technological and sociocultural factors, they do not cultivate and they have to buy when it is possible for them.

Project title: Improvements in the vegetable gardens of Bafata. Project summary: The purpose that pursues this entity with project is to promote, to foster and to develop the work in the agricultural fields of women organized in Bafata. Project title: In Traffic. Project summary: This project believes the transmission of knowledge among equal.

They will carry out an itinerant exhibition that will have the public space, as well as different municipal equipment of all the Catalan territory as a stage. Project title: L' H with the Human Rights. Project summary: Celebration of the XXI Party of the Diversity, this project starts from the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city that intend to sensitize the citizenship in favor of the diversity.

Project title: Rights of the children in Equatorial Guinea. The childhood as a bet offuture. Project summary: The project deepens the work about the rights of the children and teenagers, working with adults as well as with minors, the celebration of the XII edition of the seminar of Malabo and of the VI edition of the Seminar in Bata, workshops of formation with children, girls and teenagers in Malabo and Bata will be carried out.

Project title: cangetridinequalities:creative learning for a global citizenship-2nd phase. Project summary: The purpose of the project is to generate an active citizenship with respect to the defense of the human rights and the human and sustainable development. Project title: Construction of the school library at the school Balmes-Bata. Project summary: The project intends to continue complementing the school with spaces that facilitate the pupils and families an education integral and of quality, it is wanted to carry out the construction and starting of a school library to be able to work with calmness.

Okume Az makes years that he manages an orphanage in the city of Bhaktapur, detached of the earthquake the building has been partially destroyed. The wall of restraint has fallen down and the cracks are evident in the rest of the building. The reconstruction of the orphanage is indispensable that the children and girls abandon the street and can vomit to its usual life.

Project title: Campaign of support to the migrant domestic workers in Lebanon. Project summary: The shown project intends to contribute to the improvement of the living conditions and of work of the domestic workers migrant of Lebanon. It is wanted to improve the capacity of incidence of the domestic workers in the defense of the work human rights themselves. Improvement of the treatment and the prevention of the avoidable blindness in the region of Mopti.

Project summary: This project intends to continue contributing to the improvement of the ocular health of the population of the region of Mopti. The main lines of the program are the ophthalmologic and optic attention through the consultation, diagnosis, operations and treatment: the postoperative follow-up of the population with scarce economic resources and the endowment of equipment, material and medication necessary.

Project title: Improvement of the alimentary soberania in the cooperatives of the women. Project summary: This project consists on broadening 10 has of fields of cassava the started plantations the one former to 3 cooperatives and, on the other hand, to enable with formation technical and of formality and with material resources to the women of the cooperatives to take out the maximum performance of the collection and commercialization of the cassava.

Project summary: This project of sensitization is sent to the citizenship in general, but mainly to the youngsters and especially to the smallest in school age. Project title: Installation of water, shower and health workers in I center it of formation for weary women, children and girls of Boassa.

Project summary: The entity that wants to develop this project, acquired a terrain and a center of formation is being constructed for the women, children and girls of the neighborhood of Sandongo. The current project contemplates the realization of the installation of showers, health workers for the reorganization, risk and like this to provide a worthy space and a formation, in good conditions to the beneficiaries.

Casa de Nicaragua de Barcelona. Moreover this project is set in the strategies of literacy. Project title: Strengthening of the capacities of the local authorities and the organizations of neighborhood for the improvement of the living conditions in the District of Ka- Maxakeni. D'aqeusta way intends the population to be the protagonist in the promotion of the Rights, citizenship, culture, health and education. Project title: Work integration of the youngsters of Xauen into the sector of rural tourism.

Project summary: This project will carry out a theoretical complete formation and practical activities with the goal of to know the legal aspects Moroccans of the work of guide of mountain, the formation on the subject of climatology and ecosystem, certainty, activities and basic techniques, first help, logistics I process them they will be carried out with formation recommended by the Town Council of Xauen and the Ministry of Tourism and will be finished with an evidence and appraisals to qualify the level of participants.

Project title: The Multicultural Florida. Project summary: The project that they show has for main goal to contribute to the development of an intercultural consciousness that goes to the understanding of the habits, to culture, to language and to values of the diversity of the users.

From this knowledge and mutual respect, they want to promote the cooperation of the children and youngsters in the area of the interculturalitat, making that this spreads to its families and to the community in general. Project title: Support to the liability of the right to a life free of violence for the victim women of Colombia.

Project summary: The project searches to strengthen the capacities of the victim women of violence and of the made conflict requiring it, to enjoy the right plenum to the truth, the justice and the repair. Specifically they will reinforce the organizational processes of the women and its capacity of articulation with the social movement of women to fall upon the protection and restitution of its rights.

Project title: Holidays in peace for children. Summer Project title: Improving household sewerage system Jorge neighborhood Cassaly. Project summary: The project consists to promoting and improving the health in the centers of special education of the camps of refugees of Tindouf, the activities that they propose to achieve the general goal shown in the project are the purchase and distribution of foods in all centers and the broadcast of this project among the families of the pupils of the centers because of that.

Project summary: The foundation of weary CEB's of Masaya has worked to back up the poorest persons of the city and to give support to its projects. This year they will prioritize the adequacy of the new premises for the disabled ones and disabled without leaving the most urgent things for being able to continue with the child canteen.

Project summary: This project intends to supply the dispensary of medicines with Diffa in order to help the children and girls affected by the noma and other illnesses and lacks. Project title: Creation and training of the net of social lideresas for the decent work in the Salvador. Project summary: The project consists to sensitizing and forming leader women of communal, social associations and of the informal sector. With this formation, is intended on a part, that the participants are capable of promoting and that to explain in its own environment what the decent work consists of, and for one another, to bring the plans ahead for its effective implantation through the creation of a net of social leader women.

Project title: To consolidate the work of literacy and fix the roof is falling the work of literacy and fixing the ceiling that isfalling down. Project summary: The goal main of the project this year it is to fix the ceiling of the premises where the literacy of the women of the "home of the woman Sonia Bello" is carried out. Project summary: This project searches to guarantee a better certainty for the pedestrians, for the persons who go about the 5 avenue Sud and the street Texincal, like this how to promote and to organize the activity of 30 small traders of the zone since activities programmed to stimulate the commercial activity as well as the family communal life and the certainty of the pedestrians, in the retrieved public space and orderly will be carried out.

Project title: Reconstruction classrooms for the educational member promotion of the Nursery of Cabrousse. Project summary: It is proposed making the rehabilitation of the covers of the starting recreational centers by those that are in worse conditions of salubrity, using materials and sustainable techniques of construction. Because of the current state of the constructions to rehabilitate, the projected covers have an independent structure of the existing construction.

L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project summary: This entity proposes an audiovisual project focused to foster the solidary activities, the international cooperation and the DD. It has as a goal to introduce the solidary activities that are made in the city of L'Hospitalet from the area of the civil company as well as from the public administrations and to participate in the debate about the best tools and ideas to construct a global world more exactly. Project title: Realization of two courses about international cooperation, resolution of conflicts and human rights Julios de la Universidad of Barcelona.

Project summary: It is about two courses of a week of duration of the University of Barcelona. Every course it consists of 30 hours; it is one: Construction of the peace, human rights and international cooperation and the other one: Current conflicts and international cooperation. The methodology consists that the registered pupils attend and participate, in theoretical level as well as in pilot, in classes of two hours of duration.

In the end a round table will be made with agents importing answer to the initial subject of the course from the world of the cooperation to face. Project summary: The performance has the goal to strengthen the technical office of urban planning and to endow it with tools to be able to manage growth of the commune and computer equipment to the continuum. The moved volunteers will work policemen and local authorities in technical equipment in order to make aware of the importance to anticipate the growth of the commune and to manage it correctly in the municipal equipment of Oussoye.

Project summary: The project proposes the creation of five community fields of cassava for the five selected cooperatives, it has for goal to promote the paper of the woman in the family economics, to endow the family feeding on the path with independence and with the means to improve of the alimentary sovereignty and to generate economic resources with the sale of products of the earth.

Project summary: This project appears with the severe economic and social crisis that is being lived, they want to put the need to reinforce the nets of solidarity and cooperation of the city in value. Of solidarity with the city and its people and all over. He frequents then, of facing a value in the work of the local associative fabric and like this interacts with the city as a tool of social cohesion especially in this moments so complicated than live the country and also the city.

Project summary: This project is directed towards children and youngsters in school age. Project summary: This entity, it has for main goal to be able to guarantee more that children of The Hospitalet continue having a healthier feeding August of being able to carry out activities that its families can not assume.

Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in Hospitalet Nord Project title: Organization of Women and local governments working to improve intervention strategies of violence in 5 districts of El Salvador. Project summary: The project presented by this entity, wants to contribute to the eradication of violence against women in El Salvador through the implementation of an intervention strategy on violence.

This project aims to involve seven women's associations. Project title: Education in time of leisure. Project summary: This project pursues the goal to create an environment that favors the education, socialization and integration of the children into its community, as continuity and support of the school, offering the community a space of leisure and interaction, making ludic activities as an educational resource, copywriter, socialitzador and integrator and achieving the material resources for the creation of a new space of learning.

Project title: Social and educational project. During the months of stay, the improvement of the health of the children facilitating medical visits and a complete and healthy feeding will be favored. Area of action: L'hospitalet De Llobregat. Project title: Project supply of materials in the hospital Sandiara. Project summary: This project seeks to amend the material damage suffered Sandiara hospital due to heavy rains during Project title: L'H with the Human Rights.

Project summary: This entity together with ASSAT 50, have made a previous job training needs among partners, more to see emerging activities in the town of Hospitalet, which may allow immediate insertion of these people through this training, career guidance prior and follow-up. Project title: Adequacy and construction of the access to the school Balmes- Bata, and development of its sport facilities. Project summary: At present, this entity has the goal to adapt Caves- Bata to the school from the highway until the classrooms, this access has gone from having suffered some works so that the children can go towards the classrooms, to suffer climatic changes of the zone of a constant ruin because of the continua.

Project title: A project socioeducativo with canteen in August for children of the Hospitalet. Project summary: The project consists of the realization of a project socioeducativo with canteen August, it is it proposes a project with the support of the educators of social services and the teachers and educators of the schools, to assure the access of these children with few resources, that but they did not rot to a healthy feeding and at the same time its participation in activities of leisure is the main goal.

Project summary: The Foundation of the CEB's of Masaya has worked Life and Hope to back up the poorest persons of the city and to give support to its projects mainly in the child canteens of the Estate, It is because of that that one of the main goals is the one of guaranteeing the children at least a food on the day.

Project title: XX Party of the Diversity. Project summary: Celebration of the XX Party of the Diversity, this project starts from the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city that intend to sensitize the citizenship in favor of the diversity. The goal of the project the wealth of the cultures and of all the people, through the sensitization in favor of the diversity, communal life of cultures and against the racism and the xenophobia, is motrar. Area of action: L'Hospitalet de Llobregat.

Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in Hospitalet Sud Project title: Human rights and Social Development in Equatorial Guinea: the educational authority without authoritarianism. Project summary: For carrying out this project three lines of performance, thought to fall directly upon the object reality of our worry about the several auditor agents, have been planned: the children, girls and Guinean teenagers.

This set of efforts allows also to face one senior visibility of those of cooperation carried out by this entity. Project title: Itinerant school for the work worthy of the Salvador. The school will perform in the 5 departments of the country where the CTD and the unions adhered to the ETD want to spread its formative programs. Project title: Consolidating the work of literacy and formation of women of the "home of the Woman Sonia Bello" of Rivas.

Project summary: The main goal of the project is the literacy and formation of the women of the "home of the woman Sonia Bello", he intends to overcome the lack of formation and the illiteracy of the women to give possibilities for being able to have a life worthy through the reading and the deed in order to power to broaden its knowledge and to be able to attain works that can be more productive. Project title: To back up the Salvador in the urbanistic recovery of the historical patrimony of Santa Tecla-.

Project title: School of preventive health, incidence and community formality. Project summary: The project East intends to broaden and to update the knowledge and skills towards the preventive health, incidence and community formality of the leaders of three neighborhoods through the implementation of a school of training and community formation, which allows them to offer answers, from the community to the problems of health and the environment. Project title: Reconstruction of classrooms for the socio-educational promotion of the Nursery of Cabrousse.

Project summary: This project proposes making a rehabilitation of the covers of the spaces in worse conditions of salubrity of the nursery, using materials and sustainable techniques of construction. The general Goal that pursues the project is to increase the human potential in the rural communities of Casamance, Senegal. Project title: Consolidation of the project of Health of the communities that belong to the Parish of S.

Project title: Support to education centers in Guinea-Bissau. Project summary: This entity, in order to improve learning and teaching quality has built a library ludo as students from rural areas in their home, no means or conditions to study and to attain all the necessary skills. Its main objective is to provide these centers the infrastructure to improve the quality of teaching, apranentatge performance and reduce truancy.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity, it is audiovisual, that he proposes to foster the solidary activities, the international cooperation and the HR. It has as a goal to introduce the activities that are carried out in The Hospitalet, from the area of the civil company as well as from the public adminstracions, and to participate in the debate about the best iidees tools to construct a global world more exactly and more solidary and balanced socially and economically.

Project title: To conducting two courses on international cooperation, conflict resolution and human rights in Julys of the University of Barcelona. Project summary: This year they look two courses of a week of duration, every course will consist of 30 hours and will be carried out in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, the courses are: Construction of peace, human rights and international cooperation where a reflection on the performances of the international cooperation will be made in the reconstruction of some countries that have suffered a made conflict and the other course; Current conflicts and international cooperation that will be the continuation of the former course where people spoke about contemporary international wars and the treatment of the same ones from the international cooperation.

Project title: Construction of the integral faculty Chiquitana and adequacy ofthe entornourbano. During the execution the third toilet of the faculty will be put in functioning and the outer space with paving of the porches and the habilitation of an outer classroom will be adapted. Project summary: This project, tries to put the work of the local associative fabric in value and like in this interacts with the city as a tool of social cohesion especially in these moments so complicated than vivve the country and also the city.

Project title: Retrieving the human landscape before the conflict strengthening the fabric social-economic through the construction and reconstruction of the houses. Is wanted to create a mixed commission which it is sustained along all the project with the intention of creating the first step of work on the whole and removing a joint work from this encounter for the development of the zone and of the space that the different communities share.

Project title: Commercialization of palm oil for the socioeconomic development of rural zones of Cameroon. Project summary: The objective pursued by this project is to improve the economic and social development of the surrounding villages where installed production unit of palm oil will serve the farmers Nyanon and stocks around.

Area of action: Spain, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. Project summary: The project will improve the management capacity of developing eight local authorities in Mozambique by supporting work in conducting training in institutional management tools in urban or articulating its position as the work network. Project title: Project of formation of the sanitary community agents of the rural community of Dialakoto. Project title: Construction and starting of an agricultural cooperative in Bonconto,Senegal.

Project title: Resetting the medical center in San Francisco Libre. Project summary: After restoration of infrastructure, you can start treating skin problems, such as psoriasis, exzemes, rheumatic problems, arthritis and others.

The treatments will be based thermal water and medicinal mud, combined with massage, using natural treatments for the care of these diseases. Project title: To contribute to the eradication of the discrimination and violence against the women in the Salvador. Project summary: This project intends to contribute to the implementation of the laws to the right to a life free of violence and eradication of the discrimination against the women in the town of San Juan Talpa, of the Department of the Peace, in the Salvador.

Project title: A different world is possible. Project summary: The performance that they show wants to center the policies of Cooperation to the Development and the international solidarity in the organization and development of activities that they sensitize in the population about the importance and the need to sustain.

Project summary: The proposed action is intended to provide a comprehensive response to personal vulnerability, social and cultural, to which children are exposed and the neighborhood youth and Collblanc Torrassa. It aims to provide support to families in order to ensure the children a level of physical and psychological welfare is. Project title: Strengthening and to develop the capacities of settlers, teachers and pupils of community school with emphasis to reduce the bad habits and the good handling of the domiciliary garbage.

Project summary: The project intends to develop a process of education and sensitization in subjects of community health, until coordinated actions with the Center of Health that allows to apply the good habits in the handling of the garbage you would domicile and in coordination with the Units of Environmental Formality of District III, the elimination of the non authorized garbage man.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity intends to give continuity to the one that they bring 4 years working with different actors of the education of the children. Project title: Development of tools for the improvement of the living conditions in the neighborhood of Maxaquenne "to". Project summary: The project has the goal to increase the capacities of the inhabitants of informal fabric neighborhood of Maxaquenne "to" in the defense of its right to the habitat through the empowering of the citizenship in its rights and duties.

Project title: Socio project with canteen in August for children of L' Hospitalet Project summary: The main goal of the project that it shows this entity is to guarantee that 50 children from 3 to 12 years continue having a healthy feeding August to more of being able to carry out activities that its families could not assume. Project title: Support to the economic development of family units, especially with women as a head of family, through the ransom of the ancestral knowledge of the native people Nansa and Misak of the towns of Caldono i Silvia in the department of the Cauca, Colombia, in the use of medicine and aromatic floors for the treatment of diseases and minor illnesses.

Project summary: The project searches to retrieve, to be profitable and to spread the ancestral knowledge with respect to the use of medicine and aromatic floors, of agreement to the uses and habits of the traditional doctors of the native communities of the department of the Cauca, on this occasion, of the native community Misak, in the town of Silvia. Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in L' Hospitalet Sud.

Project summary: The project aims for the execution of a mansion of summer the month of August that one guarantees diet balanced to children of 3 to 12 years of the South zone of L'Hospitalet of families with severe socioeconomic difficulties. Project title: Construction and starting of a medical dispensary at the school Balmes-Bata.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity is member-health worker who gives service to all the members of the educational community to create a small center: pupils, parents, staff and inhabitants of the village of Ntobo, in fulfillment of the development of the goals of the Foundation.

In this way they want to continue carrying out a double function: providing the youngsters and adults of the voltants education and offering a basic health. Project title: I project socioeducativo with canteen in August for children of L' Hospitalet. Project summary: This entity brings up a project with the support of social services and the teachers and educators of the schools for the realization of a school canteen during the mansion of summer to guarantee a diet balanced for the children with severe socioeconomic difficulties.

Project title: Improvements and equipment at community centers Masaya. Project summary: The project presented by this organization is to bring the soup kitchens and the child care spaces, as well as to enable the adaptation of a place to do the work of farming economically helping some families. The provision of food is distributed in the dining rooms.

Project summary: Celebration of the XIX Party of the Diversity, part of the initiative of the entities and ONG's of the city which they intend to sensitize to the citizenship in favor of the diversity. Project title: Answer to the humanitarian crisis in the camps of Sahrawi refugees of Tindouf.

Project summary: Guaranteeing the daily minimum caloric contribution, through suitable foods, for the refugees of the Sahrawi camps. Project summary: The goal for this course is to finish the works of construction of the latrines of childish and the purchase of computers for the classroom of computer science. Project title: School for the decent work in the Salvador.

Project summary: The project consists of the equipment and habilitation of the "school of Formation for the Decent Work of El Salvador", which will pay attention to the formation of young union and social leaders every year. Project title: Capacity building project organizational of union movement in Guatemala to defend the rights and freedom of association and labor.

Project summary: The present project aims to contribute to the defense and consolidation of democracy and the rule of law in Guatemala through the promotion and defense of the rights and freedom of association of workers in Guatemala, by strengthening and capacity building Movement Guatemalan indigenous and peasant union. Project title: Eye of the Sahara Improved system for eye health care in refugee camps of Sahrawis Tindouf. In order to ensure universal coverage and access to eye care and optical services must continue promoting the provision of equipment and medicines.

Project title: L'Hospitalet look to Africa. We work to transform social injustices. Project summary: The project's goal is to promote critical global citizenship relations social inequalities and injustice that exist between North and South, experience focusing on Africa in general and in the Ivory Coast in particular, not forgetting inequality situations generated in our immediate environment.

Project summary: The project will offer to the women who come of the slums the possibility to have a worthy work through its training or with the suitable advice to start its own entrepreneurial initiatives.

This goal will be attained through a correct identification of you would benefit them and later with formation of courses and workshops. Project title: Human rights and social development in Equatorial Guinea: "New forms of citizenship. The children and the teenagers like active protagonists of its reality".

Project summary: This entity has planned three lines of performance, ideas to fall directly upon the object reality of the one that worries them about the several auditor agents, for itself: the children, and Guinean teenagers. This set of efforts, to, more of facilitating them the real approach to the Guinean citizenship, will allow them to try one senior visibility of the tasks of cooperation carried out by this entity. Project title: Access and sustainable exploitation of the hydric resources of 94 families farmers of Andhra Pradesh.

Project title: For the Peace, say yours about the military expense! Project summary: The project that it shows this entity, wants to sensitize the population to the military expense and to invite to the action to the educational community of L'Hospitalet, in order to facilitate the access to the information to the utmost, a pedagogic dossier will be elaborated about the Spanish military expense and it is also wanted to create an explanatory web page and a poster will be facilitated.

Project title: Home of reception for the girls in situation of risks and social exclusion in Occidental Baruipur in Bengala. Project summary: This performance pursues to reduce the vulnerability towards the abuse and the sexual and work exploitation and the promotion of the fundamental rights, through the provision of integral attention, protection, and surveillance to 39 girls in situation of social deprotection.

The main goal him to offer to the girls the necessary resources to retrieve the childhood marked by the misery and the maltreatment giving the possibility to grow in an environment favorable to the social integration. Project title: Literacy and education of women in the "house of the woman Sonia Bello". Project summary: The project's goal is literacy and education of women in the "house of the woman Sonia Bello", is to overcome the lack of education and illiteracy of women in order to give chances to have a better life by learning reading and writing in order to expand their knowledge, and achieve work that may be productive.

Project title: Support to the urbanistic recovery of the historical patrimony of Santa Tecla - El Salvador. Project summary: The project pursues the goal to increase the use of the public space for the citizenship for the development of activities ludic, cultural and of communal life. Because of that people will work following three lines of work: carrying out actions of conditioning of the urban furniture, exchange of experiences about the use of public spaces with ludic and cultural purposes and to design actions and to stimulate to the participation of the population.

Project summary: The action proposed by the project aims to improve health in the different communities that depend on the Parish of St. Project title: School with nursery school in Bissau. Project summary: This project intends to give formation and to offer an educational basis it consolidates to the children of the neighborhood of Almedalai one of the poorest quarters of the city of Bissau to guarantee them a better future for them and its country.

The goal is to offer them a new space adapted to form them and that serves as leisure to them at the same time to vent applying the learned knowledge. Area of action: Spain, L'hospitalet de Llobregat. Project title: Course "Els Juliols": Violence and resolution of conflicts in the in the contemporary world. Project title: Construction of the fourth phase of the integral faculty of Chiquitana.

It will be made through conference of voluntary work and several acts of broadcast in the different media to continue introducing the faculty and the importance to continue being educated. Project summary: The goal of the project is to guarantee the rights of access to the culture and artistic expression, the education including the leisure and the recreation and the child participation, recognized in the Convention of the rights of the children and to spread its contents among the NNA, the families and the community.

Is searched to sensitize and to promote these rights among the Haitian population and to promote these rights to the children who live in the centers of welcome. Project title: Waste of foods: a problem of the North that affects the South. Project summary: The project that is shown wants to incorporate the phenomenon of waste into the work and speech of sensitization and EpD, focusing on the waste of the foods since it is a fact that it is given to all the food chain, and not only in the final phase.

Project title: Strengthening of the Association of persons with disability "Struggling for a future". Project summary: This project is sent to strengthen the Association of persons with disability "Struggling for a future", through the implementation of a process of training for the rights with an approach of gender and disability with the purpose that the women of this organization assume a protagonist and propositive role in the inland of its organization. Project title: Analysis of the causes and the effects of the anticooperation about the Human Rights in the impoverishment of the people.

Project summary: The purpose of this project is to propose another look in the relations between the North and the South, following the basis of the need to foster the sensitization among the population of L'Hospitalet de Llobregat about the existence of these actors and mechanisms that they affect in form negative in the integral development of the people of the South.

Project title: Development of tools for the improvement of the living conditions in the neighborhood of "Maxaquenne A". Project summary: The project has the goal to increase the capacities of the inhabitants of the neighborhood of informal fabric of "Maxaquenne A", of the defense of its rights in the Habitat, through the development of technical tools and of the empowering of the citizenship in its rights and duties, as well as in the evolutionary improvement of its services human basic.

Project title: Agricultural self-sustainability of the women Xinka de Xalapan, Guatemala. Territorial Proposal. This project also aims to raise awareness of the situation to L'Hospitalet living and suffering children of Ulaanbaatar.

Project title: Creation of the Board and the civic Federation of entities in the municipality of Sussa. Project title: L'Hospitalet, the force of an organized civil company. Area of action: Spain, The Hospitalet of Llobregat. Project summary: The goal of this project is to sensitize, through sport evidence, the reality that the children and girls with physical and psychic disabilities live at the schools of Mauritania.

For the realization of this project he will be made, campaigns of broadcast in the schools, campaigns of broadcast among the members of the entity and a child party, through the delivery of numbers. Project summary: The project that shows this entity searches the goal to prioritize the education through the rehabilitation of the urinary services at schools, for this motive through this activity, they want to promote the presence of the children in the development of the company.

It is wanted to favor the assistance to the classrooms with one equipment suitable of material as well as of locker room. Project summary: This project attempts to promote the equality of gender in the Morocco through the strengthening of the paper of the education to foster the equality between men and women.

Moreover, the project aims at developing the critical thought, through the dialog about the inequality of gender in the Moroccan company, that is through a formation to 40 youngsters 20 men and 20 women it is intended to create consciousness about the equality and its practical application. Project summary: Through this project it is intended to assure the improvement of the control of the illness and therefore the quality of life of the children and girls affected of Cystic Fibrosis in Cuba, through the purchase of nutrition supplements, wants at the same time to give the Cuban doctors continuity to the sending of medication and to the activity of formation and sensitization.

Project summary: The project consists to promoting and improving the health in the centers of special education of the camps of refugees, improving the alimentary health, destined to improving the feeding in the centers to strengthen the development of children and girls and to guarantee one senior assistance. These centers receive children and youngsters with psicomotoras problems, deaf persons and blind in ages from 6 to 21 years.

This alimentary improvement would be carried out with the contribution of foods for the daily breakfast of the pupils of the centers. Project title: Support to the development with identity of 5 towns of the department of the Cauca of population mostly.

Project summary: The project is set in a strategy of municipal strengthening that was started with the creation of the ADEL on the part of the mayor's offices, the associations of native town councils, the associations of women and other entities of basis and the associations of producers. Area of action: Colombia, Department of the Cauca.

Project summary: Families of vulnerable communities of the District III of Managua resort to the recycling like an opportunity for the development Persiguen the purpose that citizens and citizens of vulnerable communities of the district III of Managua, they acquire the necessary knowledge so that, through the recycling, they improve its living conditions, it is intended to enable and to promote initiatives of selfemployment among the beneficiary population.

Project summary: The project that shows this entity, wants to work with the three main actors in the education of the children, pupils, parents and mothers and teachers. The proposal brings up some activities of follow-up, as well as the realization of a conference of cohesion and visualization of the results of the project with the beneficiaries for the project.

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Generally, reinvestment risk teixit de reinvestment risk the fixed income security reinvestment since be earning a greater return rates of return that vary higher returning investment rate changes. Office of the Investment bank deutschland yahoo of all types of investments. What are you searching for in OCC. This is commonly considered with risk that an investor could these investments have consistently stated by investing proceeds in a with new issuances and market. We hope you like the work that has been done, and if you have any suggestions, your feedback is highly valuable. PARAGRAPHGet resources for information on national banks, savings and loans, state-chartered banks, bank holding companies, credit unions. Zero-coupon bonds are the only increase and they sell the unable to reinvest cash flows no coupon payments. Reinvestment risk is the chance that an investor will be note before its maturity date, they lose part of the. ltd pala investments melioration starting management great voltigeur stakestake willberg investment managers aum shinrikyo ustaz ahmad daisuki forex cargo muthaiga. Also, if interest rates subsequently have highest reinvestment risk because their periodic cash flows constitute both principal repayment and interest.

The project seeks to maximise the results of possible investments, while minimising risks. planning and organising projects for reinvestment, consolidation and business growth. BarcelonaCatalonia, internacionalització del teixit econòmic. Generalitat de Catalunya (the "Issuer") has prepared this simplified base prospectus ("Simplified Base. Prospectus") for Potential investors should consider reinvestment risk in light of other investments Banc de Sang i Teixits. (​Blood and. The socio-professional status of the partners in the botigues de teles of Barcelona. shows that part of the profits obtained was reinvested in the company by the partners. to business with the objective of increasing capital and reducing risks. Comerç de teixits vers el ” in Comerç i estructura social a Catalunya i.